Cognitive Stimulation on Impaired Memory Patients

Literature review

The overall maintenance of health depends on the effective management of pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. As a result, health practitioners and clinicians prescribe health intervention treatment to improve the quality of life. Thus, the need for effective health management facilitates the efficiency and productivity of health caregivers. As a result, health caregivers rely on experience, professionalism, and evidence-based practices to improve life. Health intervention practice mitigates the effects of health risks to improve the patient’s physical, mental, and behavior patterns. As a result, health practitioners manage medical situations using an effective health intervention plan. However, effective approaches depend on causal mapping for interventions. Thus, clinicians rely on the health impact pyramid to improve life.

The health impact pyramid includes social, economic factors, changing the contest, long-term interventions, clinician interventions, counseling, and education. Thus, health intervention approaches could be pharmacological and non-pharmacological. The pharmacological approach, as defined by experts, is various health practices that combine medical substances to correct, stimulate, and change the consequences of ill health. However, non-pharmacological approaches are processes that avoid medical substances. As a result, the non-pharmacological approach focuses on the socio-ecological model to improve the quality of life.

Cognitive stimulation is a health intervention that combines non-medical activities to improve memory loss, social interaction, and communication skills for people with dementia. However, cognitive stimulation therapy is a health intervention plan administered in patients with passive or total memory impairment. A variety of brain disorder that causes partial or total memory loss is called dementia. The forms of dementia include vascular dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, mixed dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Huntington’s disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, normal pressure hydrocephalus, and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

As a result, brain disorders affect cognitive reasoning that controls communication and social integration. Thus, non-pharmacological approaches to dementia have been reviewed in many works of literature to test its effectiveness and impact. Clinicians suggested that these approaches improve social integration and communication. To test the impact of cognitive stimulation, we will review five works of literature that focus on the research topic. The research topic addresses the impact of cognitive stimulation in patients with partial total memory impairment. As a result, we will review articles that focused on the influence of cognitive stimulation therapy on dementia.

In Fernandez-Prado Sandra, Conlon Susan, Mayan-Santos Jose Manuel, and Gandoy-Crego Manuel’s (2012) article reviewing the impact of cognitive stimulation therapy in the elderly, it revealed that the aging process stimulated mental changes. However, most patients believed that the effect of mental deterioration is associated with a pathological condition. Fernandez-Prado et al. (2012) suggested that a mental and behavioral change in the elderly is inherent. These assumptions were consistent with several pieces of literature on the influences of cognitive stimulation therapy (Lockwood et al., 2001; Rodrıguez & Sanchez, 2004; Buiza et al., 2005).

The concern of the elderly, as suggested in the article, correlated with the review of Pertersen et al. (1997). However, Fernandez-Prado et al. (2012) linked cognitive changes with the aging process, as revealed in previous pieces of literature. As a result, the researchers revealed that aging influenced memory decline and cognitive functions. By implication, the elderly required different pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches to improve cognitive performance. Thus, the influence of cognitive therapy as its associated changes in the quality of life was tested. The program was administered to participants with memory impairment. Consequently, the authors used similar approaches in previous works of literature to test the stimulation program. Buiza et al. (2005) test the impact of cognitive stimulation in 96 patients with memory impairment.

However, Fernandez-Prado et al. (2012) test 104 subjects using two evaluation programs and the ANOVA analysis. The research findings revealed the impact of cognitive stimulation sessions for the elderly. Consequently, the research finding was consistent with previous pieces of literature. However, Fernandez-Prado et al. (2012) suggested that the effectiveness of the stimulation program requires time. Similar concerns were reported in the works of literature on the cognitive stimulation program. In contrast with previous pieces of literature on cognitive stimulation, the capabilities of the stimulation program depend on the management process. As a result, health information must be documented to test the significance of the program.

Cognitive stimulation programs can be identified and tested with different predictors. As a result, Binetti et al. (2013) studied the predictors or indicators of an effective cognitive stimulation program. Non-pharmacological response to dementia and partial memory impairment can be treated with cognitive stimulation therapy. However, the impact of the therapy session can be evaluated with different predictors. Thus, clinicians can test the efficacy of each therapy session based on patient response and cognitive performance. However, Lobo et al. (2000) suggested that the aging process affects the cognitive functions of the elderly.

The suggestion correlated with the research question proposed by Binetti et al. (2013). Consequently, the effectiveness of cognitive stimulation therapy has been tested in different research studies. Jean et al. (2010) revealed that the quality of life depends on individual response and cognitive functions. As a result, 15 cognitive training approaches were tested in patients with partial memory impairment.

The significance of the study facilitated research on cognitive response indicators. Thus, an effective treatment intervention plan must be administered based on the response indicators of each program. Binetti et al. (2013) identified different predictors using 145 subjects with mild dementia. Caregivers facilitate treatment intervention programs in patients with memory impairment. Previous works of the literature revealed that stress levels and depression affect the effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention plan. As a result, researchers must recognize the importance of caregivers, relatives, and spouses in the implementation process.

Binetti et al. (2013) revealed that stress levels, depression, and awareness levels are indicators of a comprehensive stimulation plan. Reviews in previous pieces of literature rejected the claim that the patient’s bio-data, family history, and health status are indicators of an effective program. As a result, the response of the cognitive stimulation program in clinical responders depends on the level of awareness. The initial baseline indicators in the research conducted by Binetti et al. (2013) include age, sex, education, ages at onset, family history, dementia, MCI, other medical condition, behavioral medications, ChEls, CDR, MMSE, ADAS-cog, NPI global score, NPI distress, and CBI. These response indicators were the initial variables used in the research study. However, the indicators did not improve the response of stimulation programs for patients with dementia and partial memory loss.

Thus, the patient’s insight and awareness reveal the effectiveness of the stimulation therapy for patients with dementia. Binetti et al. (2013) revealed that the limitation of the research study must be eliminated to improve the effectiveness of cognitive stimulation therapy. Consequently, previous pieces of literature reported that therapy duration, sample size, stimulation approaches, and observation time-limited the research study.

Cognitive stimulation training must be supervised and tested with evidence-based clinical trials. The implementation procedure will influence the efficacy of the stimulation therapy in patients with dementia or partial memory impairment. Khan Zunera, Corbett Anne, and Ballard Clive (2014) suggested that clinical trials and evidence-based research improved the efficacy of comprehensive stimulation therapy. By implication, nurses, caregivers, and health practitioners must conduct clinical trials on different cognitive stimulation programs to ensure adequate treatment intervention for memory loss.

Evidence from previous pieces of the literature suggested that the choice of a non-pharmacological approach depends on its review, recommendations, and clinical trials. As a result, clinicians can administer an effective plan based on the aging process of patents, response indicators, and cognitive functions. In Khan et al. (2014) summary article reviewing cognitive stimulation therapy for patients with dementia, the research findings revealed that reduced the cost of unnecessary therapy sessions. As a result, nurses recommended an effective treatment plan based on experience and recommendations for previous clinical trials. Previous pieces of literature on cognitive stimulation therapy revealed that health practitioners administer CST as a health intervention plan. By implication, a non-pharmacological approach to dementia is an option for medical institutions. As a result, the implementation and management of CST improve the quality of life. The approach has been supported by a patient orientation exercise to enhance their cognitive stimulation.

As a result, the researchers tested cognitive stimulation therapy in clinical trials. The article revealed that reality orientation developed in 1950 tackled confusion, and the patient’s disorientation. However, clinicians raised concerns about its significance in social care services. They argued that its impact was minimal compared with pharmacological interventions. As a result, treatment interventions did not improve the patient’s quality of life. The previous analysis revealed that cognitive stimulation improved the patient’s quality of life. The researchers tested the significance of cognitive stimulation therapy using randomized controlled trials.

The research findings revealed that two hundred participants responded to the assessment (Khan et al., 2014).

Khan et al. (2014) revealed that stimulation activities improved the significance of clinical trials. The study findings complemented the views of other researches on the influences of cognitive stimulation therapy (Lockwood et al., 2001; Rodrıguez & Sanchez, 2004; Buiza et al., 2005). Activities used in the simulation program include number games, word games, faces, orientation, creative tasks, childhood, food, and physical games. Stimulation activities enhance cognitive functions and performance. Aguiree, Hoare, Strater, Spector, Woods, Hoe, and Orrell (2013) identified the beneficiaries of cognitive stimulation therapy. The research study correlated with the works of Binetti et al. (2013).

Previous pieces of the literature suggested that the beneficiaries of the cognitive stimulation program. The research findings revealed that cognitive stimulation programs improve the wellness of patients with dementia. Consequently, the treatment intervention plan can be isolated from pharmacological approaches. Binetti et al. (2013) revealed that grouped responders benefited from the stimulation program. However, Spector et al. (2003) described the therapy session used in the simulation program. The fourteen-day therapy sessions comprised 45-minute sessions for seven weeks. Each training session incorporated activities that improved cognitive functions in patients with mild dementia. However, Khan et al. (2014) argued that the training sessions require facilitators and caregivers to improve cognitive performance. Thus, cognitive therapy training and implementation require an effective clinical trial to improve performance and the quality of life.

Nurses and health caregivers utilize the recommendations of different clinical trials and works of literature to improve treatment intervention programs. Thus, the validity of the research study must be in accordance with ethical conduct and practice. As a result, evidence-based studies are reviewed to evaluate the strength and weaknesses of the research finding. Consequently, health practitioners must conduct regular checks on non-pharmacological approaches to eliminate the redundant practice. According to Jackie Tuppen (2012), government policy facilitates early diagnosis and nursing interventions for patients with dementia. Thus, early diagnosis and medication influence the quality of life for people with dementia.

The term “Cogs clubs or groups” refers to caregivers that support the elderly. However, the clinicians use the term to qualify non-professionals that assist people with dementia. The Cogs club facilitates different cognitive stimulation sessions. Physical activities such as sounds, music, and word games are administered in the stimulation program to enhance patient’s awareness and cognitive functions. As a result, the Cogs club directly influences the management and implementation of evidence-based recommendations. Spector et al. combined a different element of non-pharmacological and psychosocial stimulation programs to improve the cognitive functions of patients with mild dementia. Thus, caregivers administer the recommendation of different clinical studies to improve health.

However, government policies affect the implementation and management of health intervention programs. In Tuppen’s (2012) summary article reviewing the effects of government policy on non-pharmacological therapy, it was found that government policies created awareness and enhance productivity. The author revealed that caregivers were advised to conduct an early diagnosis to ascertain the progress of dementia. Consequently, government policy supported clinical trials on cognitive stimulation to improve the research findings. Government policy provided regulation time for caregivers to eliminate inefficacy and redundancy. As a result, the quality of health care intervention programs improved, as reported in previous works of literature (Khan et al. 2014).

Conclusion

Cognitive stimulation therapy is effective in mitigating the effects of dementia. Non-pharmacological groups supervise the CST session under the standard practice to improve the quality of life. The therapy session depends on the progress of the illness, clinical trials, and evidence-based research. Facilitators recommend the CST program for mild and chronic dementia based on experience, health intervention plan, and nursing practice. A comprehensive treatment plan must be administered based on the predictors of cognitive stimulation therapy.

Self-assessment

The review of works of literature focused on the impact of cognitive stimulation therapy for patients with dementia and mild memory impairment. Several authors evaluated the effectiveness, impact, predictors, and beneficiaries of the stimulation therapy. The research findings were consistent with the recommendations for improved health. The research findings in the reviewed pieces of the literature revealed the impact of cognitive stimulation programs for patients with memory impairment. Consequently, the literature databases suggest that health practitioners are concerned with the challenges of the elderly.

However, the limitations of the study suggest that government policies must align with nursing practice and research programs. By implication, the challenges of conducting clinical trials and evidence-based research will be eliminated. Consequently, the duration of the therapy session must be reviewed to accommodate post-therapy challenges. The research findings revealed that the duration of each therapy session influenced the cognitive functions and performance of the participants. As a result, long-term sessions enhance social integration and cognitive performance. Consequently, the level of insight influenced the patient’s recovery process. However, the absence of follow-up observation affected the effectiveness of the stimulation program. Thus, future studies must incorporate follow-up sessions to support the therapy program.

References

Aguiree, E., Hoare, Z., Strater, A., Spector, A., Woods, B., Hoe, J., & Orrell, M. (2013). Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) for people with dementia—who benefits most? Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 28(1), 284–290. Web.

Binetti, G., Moretti, D., Scalvini, C., Giovanni, G., Verzeletti, C., Mazzini, F., Valent, S., Ghidoni, R., & Benussi, L. (2013). Predictors of comprehensive stimulation program efficacy in patients with cognitive impairment: Clinical practice recommendations. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 28(1), 26–33. Web.

Buiza, A., Etxebarria, I., & Yanguas, J. (2005). Cognitive serious deterioration. Madrid, Spain: Portal Mayores. Web.

Fernandez-Prado, S., Conlon, S., Mayan-Santos, M., & Gandoy-Crego, M. (2012). The influence of a cognitive stimulation program on the quality of life perception among the elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54(1), 181–184. Web.

Jean, L., Bergeron, E., Thivierge, S., & Simard, M. (2010). Cognitive intervention programs for individuals with mild cognitive impairment: Systematic review of the literature. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, 18(4), 281–296. Web.

Khan, Z., Corbett, A., & Ballard, C. (2014). Cognitive stimulation therapy: Training, maintenance and implementation in clinical trials. Pragmatic and Observational Research, 5(1), 15-19. Web.

Lobo, A., Launer, J., & Fratiglioni, L. (2000). Prevalence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe: A collaborative study of population-based cohorts. Neurology, 54(5), S4-9. Web.

Lockwood, K., Alexopoulos, S., Kakumo, T., & Jan, G. (2001). Subtypes of deterioration cognitive in depressed adults of advanced age. Am. J. Geriatr. Psiquiatr, 2(1), 117–224. Web.

Petersen, C., Smith, E., Waring, C., Ivnik, J., Kokmen, E., & Tangalos,C. (1997). Aging, memory and mild cognitive impairment. Int. Psychogeriatr, 56(1), 303–308. Web.

Rodriguez, M. & Sanchez, L. (2004). Cognitive reservation and dementia. Anal. Psicol., 20(1), 175–186. Web.

Spector, A., Thorgrimsen, L., Woods, B. (2003). Efficacy of an evidence-based cognitive stimulation therapy programme for people with dementia: Randomized controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry, 183(1), 248–254. Web.

Tuppen, J. (2012). The benefits of groups that provide cognitive stimulation for people with dementia. Nurs Older People, 24(10), 20-4. Web.