Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is an issue that affects Monica’s relationships and academic achievements. Dunsmore, Booker, and Ollendick (2013) state that the disease is characterized by behavior problems at school or at home, which was displayed in the case. Before suggesting any pharmacological intervention, it is necessary to assess additional information to ensure that the patient does not have other conditions. For instance, Fraire and Ollendick (2013) state that anxiety and ODD often occur together in adolescents. In both cases, individuals experience difficulty with emotional regulation. It is crucial to evaluate Monica’s state properly and offer an intervention tailored towards the symptoms.

It is evident that the patient’s relationship with her mother has to be improved for better treatment outcomes. According to Dunsmore et al. (2013), “maternal emotion coaching was associated with children’s emotion regulation, which in turn was related to higher mother-reported adaptive skills, higher child-reported internalizing symptoms, and lower child-reported adjustment” (p. 444).

Therefore, it is essential to ensure that Monica’s family, in particular, her mother, participate in the intervention. Winther, Carlsson, and Vance (2013) offer a school-based intervention directed at minimizing the effect of ODD. They concluded that such intervention proves to be sufficient and significantly reduces the number of displayed ODD symptoms. Thus, the primary intervention method would include both family therapy and school-based therapy to ensure that Monica learns the necessary cooperation and communication skills and feels external support.

The information that would help further analyze Monica’s state is her previous illnesses history, family mental health issues, and family environment. In addition, as was previously mentioned, more information regarding her current state and possible comorbid conditions is required. According to Gorman et al. (2015), ODD may pose a threat as some adolescents present aggressive behaviors. In such a case, a medication therapy should be introduced to combat the symptoms.

The response offers a proper assessment of possible interventions through an individual therapy aimed at behavior improvement skills. Additionally, the involvement of family members is crucial in cases of ODD. The suggestion to have parent-management training is supported by research from Dunsmore et al. (2013). The authors state that maternal emotional coaching has an impact on a child’s development.

It is especially crucial for children and adolescents as at the age they are developing and may experience uncertainty. The suggestion to ensure that Monica does not have ADD is valid, as the condition often coexists with other mental health problems. Thus, full mental health examination would present additional information regarding the case. Its results would provide an insight into Monica’s state and would help detect any other issues. Additionally, considering the specific aspects of this family, other treatment options may be required as Monica’s mother is busy because of her work and other children.

The response identifies the primary aspect of the problem, which is miscommunication between mother and daughter. Parental training is advised as an intervention, which is a valid option as was proven by research. The steps that should be taken during the therapy and the effects that parenting style has on a child are explained, which provides a better understanding of the chosen intervention.

Additionally, the response identifies essential factors that may have influenced the development of the condition, which is crucial for proper treatment. However, information regarding previous mental health problems would be necessary in this case as well. Gorman et al. (2015) state that pharmacotherapy as an option should be considered as aggression in children and adolescents can pose a potential danger. The response does not mention assessing the level of severity of the case, which is essential as it may indicate a need for medication to control Monica’s state.

References

Dunsmore, J. C., Booker, J. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2013). Parental emotion coaching and child emotion regulation as protective factors for children with oppositional defiant disorder. Social Development, 22(3), 444-466. Web.

Fraire, M. G., & Ollendick, T. H. (2013). Anxiety and oppositional defiant disorder: A transdiagnostic conceptualization. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(2), 229-240. Web.

Gorman, D. A., Gardner, D. M., Murphy, A. L., Feldman, M., Bélanger, S. A., Steele, M. M., … Pringsheim, T. (2015). Canadian guidelines on pharmacotherapy for disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, or conduct disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 60(2), 62-76. Web.

Winther, J., Carlsson, A., & Vance, A. (2013). A pilot study of a school‐based prevention and early intervention program to reduce oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 8(2), 181-189. Web.