Special Education Disability Categories

Abstract

The present study aimed to analyze how special education impacts development in children born with different categories of disability. Generally, the different categories of disabilities have been described in details within the Individuals with Disabilities Education Acts. These categories include developmental disabilities, blindness, deafness, emotional disturbances, and inability to speak among others. In this respect, Special education is a fundamental aspect in life of children and students at large with any forms of disability.

Knowledge obtained from the special education programs allows the children and students with the disabilities to interact with other learners and gain the social skills important in human life. However, different disabled children benefit from various forms of special education depending on their abilities to learn. The literature review demonstrated the different categories of disabilities as researched by different researchers.

Introduction

Special education to persons with different categories of disability has been emphasized in the recent years as compared to the past period where this issue was somehow ignored (Barbey et al., 2012). A great emphasis has been on the provision of the best physical care, especially to a student with severe learning difficulties, students with almost complete sensory impairments, and children with severe physical disabilities. Essentially, special education disability categories have been encouraged in the recent years since it is the key to building the future of the disabled persons (Barbey et al., 2012).

In this study, the researchers hypothesized that special education disability categories have been emphasized today than in the past few years due to its benefits to affected individuals, parents and the society at large. For instance, special education grants the affected children with independence and group participation. Consequently, all governments should assist in continuation and development of this education. The special education allows the participating children to determine their needs and capabilities by using the knowledge they have acquired during the training program. Those who have benefitted from the special education are able to secure a better life in the future. For example, some people with severe speech problems are able to learn art work while those confined to wheelchairs are potential lawyers and so on.

Literature Review

The research by Dean aimed to examine the need to distinguish disability categories in the disabled children from blindness, deafness, emotional disturbance to brain injuries and evaluate the kind of special education that each category of disability should receive (Dean, 2012). In this respect, most schools offering special education receive a disproportionate amount of funding as compared to the regular ones. Consequently, this increases the learner’s and parents’ knowledge, understanding, and experience when handling special education practices with an aim of ensuring continuity of special education disability categories.

Similarly, disability limits opportunities of the individual to take part in communitys life due to social or physical barriers. Consequently, special education comes in to rectify this problem to a certain acceptable levels. In this respect, Dean (2009) recommended that there is a need to distinguish disability in affected children so that the right education is offered to them. He hypothesized that special education is certainly the best medicine to various disabilities that children are born with or obtain during their life. The following paragraphs present some of the literature reviews that demonstrate and support this hypothesis.

A study conducted by Danneker and Bottge (2009) addressed many issues concerning special education and its necessity to those affected by various disabilities. In this research, one of the addressed issues is increment of the problem solving skills in persons with developmental disabilities. The research work obtained by these researchers explained to the parents why it was important for them to let the disabled children undertake special education. In this regard, all the efforts of promoting education to all children would bring development in the nation when everyone can contribute to build it using the experience they get in school. The conclusions retrieved from this study demonstrated the hypothesis accordingly.

Kauffman and Hallahan (2011) performed a study on the importance of motivating communication in children who are affected by severe autism, brain malfunctioning among the infants, and cerebral palsy that is also a form of disability. In their research, they described the importance of conducting special education in the form of therapy to help such disabled children. This requires support from the government and parents to help disabled children achieve the set goals. In this respect, the presence of inclusive education that provides knowledge in life without discrimination would secure a great life ahead of the affected persons.

Siegel, Lawrence, and Janet (2011) carried out research which aimed at examining the degree of emotional disturbance that qualifies to be categorized as a disability. In this regard, the researchers evaluated the forms of behavior witnessed in children and can be qualified as extreme emotional disturbance or disability. These included failure to build interpersonal relationships with other children, inability to learn which is not explained by health or intellectual factors, the general mood of depression or unhappiness among others.

In this study, the researchers insisted that children who possess the above characteristics qualify to obtain special education according to the categories of their disabilities. However, this is only applicable in cases that emotional disturbances persist for a set period of time. Seemingly, the researchers intended that the results of this study would help parents recognize disabilities in children at an early age and enroll them in special schools to receive special education depending on the category of their disability.

Trolley and Haas (2009) carried out research on the value of educating counselors dealing with blindness or visual impairments in children who in that case require special education. In their research, the two researchers encouraged the development of programs that would educate these counselors to be able to counsel children visual impairment disability.

Seemingly, it is the effort of these counselors that would facilitate the transition of these blind children from lower schools to college level through the acceptance of special education which involves the use of Braille in their studies. In this respect, such counselors need to be equipped with all the necessary experience for them to create an effect in the lives of visual impaired children. These researchers explained that it was not in vain to have well educated and knowledgeable educators in the communities when development of the blind children relied on this.

Indeed, fostering success through group work conducted by the counselors would promote social life in the affected students. Consequently, it is only by making professional counselors that the dream of offering special education to those blind persons would be realized. Such realization in turn enhances development and continuation of Special Education Disability Categories in a significant manner.

In the research done by Barnartt (2010), most obstacles faced by deaf students in their day to day studies were unveiled. In this respect, the researcher explained that deafness is one of the disabilities that need special education to be able to integrate with other children in the hearing world. This special education involves teaching the deaf students how to use sign language to communicate. Indeed, this calls for further education for normal persons in the family to be able to communicate properly with the deaf children. Consequently, it was intended that the conclusions of this study would help the families with children affected by deafness to gain the necessary skills to enable them communicate with these children. This would help the deaf children to discover and use their talents.

The research by Schiek (2011) was intended to evaluate the need of the provision of education to all children without any form of discrimination. In this study, the researcher insisted that all categories of disabled children were entitled to receive education in order to gain knowledge need in life. In this regard, provision of special education was the key to fulfilling this law. Therefore, having inclusive education would allow the disabled children to experience a better life like those taking the regular education.

Essentially, the disabled children could integrate with their peers who are non-disabled after being able to accept their situation no matter the category of disability. Basically, the researcher targeted that the findings of this research would significantly assist the state and different organizations enforce the law of non- discrimination in the education sector. Similarly, it would encourage the government provides more funds for putting up more special education schools or institutions to accommodate all those with any categories of disabilities. In so doing, continuation of special education disability categories would be encouraged in a great way.

A study conducted by Travers (2011) described the hardship undergone by most students with disabilities of intellect, orthopedic impairment and visual impairment among others in regard to the mathematics subject. In his study, he explained that most children especially those with mental disabilities had hard times comprehending and calculating with the numbers.

However, he encouraged that the special education was a necessity to all the children with different categories of disability. In this light, he insisted that basic training was the most important to such kids which in the end unlocked their mind gradually to know what they wanted. Essentially, those children with disabilities but enjoyed learning and reciting the numbers could be encouraged to learn more and assisted to comprehend in every way. Basically, the results obtained from Travers (2011) demonstrated and even supported the hypothesis.

Withers (2012) carried out research work on disability and political affairs. In this research, it was argued that the various categories of disabilities including such examples as deafness and autism are great barriers to the leadership capacities on the people. He even pointed out that the disabled persons have received all sought of oppressions in the past years due to their inability to take up opportunities like normal people. In this respect, he encourages special education to be offered to all those that need it. Similarly, the research shows that disabled persons can hold different positions in government if only they get the right education in their life. Indeed, persons in wheelchairs have been spotted as big lawyers or even great lectures at the university level.

Consequently, their disabilities have not hindered the ability in them to give the necessary services just like the normal people do. Others are involved in artwork and have done it repeatedly even better than the normal persons can. In this light, Withers (2012) encouraged the governments in different countries to give better funding in organizations dealing with special programs for the disabled persons to discover their talents and abilities. He explained that this act of funding such schools should not be seen as a waste of limited resources though the results are seen gradually. The results from his research supported the hypothesis accordingly.

Finally, the research performed by Creamer (2009) described how disability was associated with religious believes in the past centuries. The research pointed out some of the negative beliefs that tried to demonize different categories of disabilities. In this respect, he explained that such believes tried to marginalize people with disabilities which lead to a lot of oppressions and deaths.

However, he encourages the families with special needs children to allow them attend special schools. In these organizations, they are taught how to take care of themselves. In this regard, such children stop becoming great burdens to the society since they are able to do things on their own. In addition, he encouraged the religious groups explaining to their followers that all people are equal in front of God, which implied that disabled people should be taken care off instead of being oppressed against Gods wish.

Conclusion

The researches came into a conclusion that special education disability categories need to be continued for the benefit of all the disabled children. In this light, disabled children in different disability categories receive different special education depending on their abilities. For instance, the deaf use sign language to communicate; those with mobility problems use wheelchairs and so on. Consequently, special education disability categories should be encouraged for development of all children affected by various categories of disability.

References

Barbey, A., Colom, R., Solomon, J., Krueger, F., Forbes, C., Grafman J. (2012). An integrative architecture for general intelligence and executive function revealed by lesion mapping. Brain, 135(4), 1154-1164.

Creamer, D. B. (2009). Disability and Christian theology embodied limits and constructive possibilities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Danneker, J. E., & Bottge, B. A. (2009). Benefits of and barriers to elementary student-led individualized education programs. Remedial and Special Education, 30(4), 225-233.

Dean, C. (2009). Distinguishing disability parents, privilege, and special education. Chicago:The University of Chicago Press.

Kauffman, J. M., & Hallahan, D. P. (2011). Handbook of special education. New York: Routledge.

Schiek, D. (2011). European Union non-discrimination law and intersectionality investigating the triangle of racial, gender and disability discrimination. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Pub.

Shumlin, P. (2013). Special Education Rules. Vermont Agency of Education, 3, 1-225.

Travers, J. (2011). Teachers’ organisational practices and their perceptions of the benefits of support by withdrawal for mathematics in Irish primary schools. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 26(4), 461-477.

Trolley, B., & Haas, H. (2009). The school counselor’s guide to special education. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press.

Withers, A. J. (2012). Disability politics and theory. Halifax, N.S.: Fernwood Pub.