The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III

Introduction

Research question

The research is focused on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III or the WISC-III and seeks to answer the question of how it can be used to evaluate children’s intellectual functioning based on Freedom from Distractibility and Processing Speed. The research will also examine the nature of the WISC-III FD factor to be able to identify which of these factors (Freedom from Distractibility or FD and the Processing Speed) are measurable.

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Attention Material

  1. The scales for evaluating and measuring the intellectual functioning of adults and children.
    1. Dr. David Wechsler built the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence scale for measuring the degree of intelligence.
    2. The Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence scale for measuring intelligence in adults were not adopted for children.
  2. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III or the WISC-III for evaluating intellectual function in children.
    1. Three scales were created and are used to measure the intellectual functioning of adults and children. These scales are Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III or WAIS-III, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III or the WISC-III and Wechsler preschool and primary scale of Intelligence-R or the WPPSI-R. (Those scales are discussed in the work by Eldon Visual-spatial processing and mathematics achievement.
    2. The WISC-III was used to test verbal understanding and perceptual association abilities in children.
    3. The intelligence was taken as a variable of performance.
    4. A key question was if the other two abilities (Freedom from Distractibility or FD and the Processing Speed) can be measured with the help of WISC-III.

Orienting Material

  1. The nature of the WISC-III FD factor should be examined to identify which of the factors can be measured.
  2. The evaluation of the validity of WISC-III for identifying intellectual function with children with different cultural backgrounds, different sex, and ethnic origin.
  3. Possible practical implications of WISC-III should be evaluated.
  4. The usage of WISC_III for measuring intellectual function with children with various disabilities.
  5. Limitations for evaluating possible practical implications of WISC-III.

(Transition: Many studies were provided to examine, evaluate and implement WISC-III under various conditions. The sources analyzed in this paper focus on the FD factor was developed and its reliability. Different factors will be analyzed and tested in this study to approve the usage of WISC-III FD.)

Body

Freedom from Distractibility or FD and the Processing Speed

  1. It is important to define with of the factors can be measured with the help of WISC-III.
  2. Other abilities can be measured with WISC-III. WISC-III brings out the existence of the other two abilities especially the FD factor.

Additional factors should be analyzed to show the use of WISC-III FD

Perceptual Organization, Verbal Comprehension, Quantitative Reasoning, Processing Speed, and the Memory Span that are described in the work by Robert & Dennis, Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, and Issues, will contribute to the closer examination of the use of WISC-III FD.

Practical implementations of WISC-III FD

  1. The validity of WISC-III with children from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and of different sex.
    1. Cultural context can be considered when implementing WISC-II. The studies by Jazayeri, Rotsika et all, and Kush et el. Provide that cultural background and ethnicity does not influence on the results obtained with the help of WISC-III. Thus, these factors can be omitted when defining the intellectual performance.
    2. The study by Koyama, T., Kamio, Y., Inada, N., & Kurita, H proves the importance of sex differences when making certain conclusions concerning WISC-III scores.
  2. Limitations in the study of WISC-III FD.
    1. The research by Egeland, J., Sundberg, H., & Andreassen, T. questions the value of WISC-III for assessing the processing sped. Thus, this question needs further research as it is crucial for evaluating the WISC-III scores.
    2. Children’s test-taking behaviors can influence the results of the scores, however, this hypothesis was not supported. To evaluate the WISC-III scores, it is important to define the impact of the children’s test-taking behaviors on WISC-III scores. This question is discussed in the study by Oakland.
  3. Possible practical usage of WISC-III FD.
    1. The practical implementation of WISC-III is proved by the study by Freberg et all. The full-scale scores of WISC-III can be used for predicting later academic performance with children.
    2.  According to Watkins, the scores can be also used to create educational recommendations for students. This idea is also provided in the study by Floyd, R., Clark, M., & Shadish, W.
    3.  The result of the score can be used in psychology, as it is stated in the study by Saklofske, D., Tulsky, D., Wilkins, C., & Weiss, L.
  4. WISC-III FD in children with various disabilities.
    1. As can be assumed from the study by Mayes, S. & Calhoun, S, and Canivez, G. & Watkins, the scores can be used for testing the intellectual development of children with disabilities which can help create an appropriate educational environment for them.
    2. Robinson, B. & Harrison, P. provide that the results of the scores can also be used to enhance the educational environment for children with disabilities.
    3. Children with various developmental disorders demonstrate different WISC-III scores. Thus, the scores can be used to identify children with developmental problems. This question is discussed in the study by Zander & Dahlgren.

Conclusion

Summary

The practical implication of WISC-III FD scores can be used for evaluating children’s intellectual functioning and can help create appropriate educational interventions for them, as well as can make a great contribution to the development of children psychology and education of children with disabilities.

References

Andrew, D. (2010). The Handbook of Pediatric Neuropsychology. New York: Springer.

Canivez, G. & Watkins, M. (2001). Long-term stability of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Third Edition among students with disabilities. School Psychology Review, 30(3): 438 – 454.

Egeland, J., Sundberg, H., & Andreassen, T. (July 2006). Odd Nordic Psychology, 58 (2): 136-149.

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Eldon, C. (2008). Visual-spatial processing and mathematics achievement. Hoboken. Wiley.

Floyd, R., Clark, M., & Shadish, W. (August 2008).The exchangeability of IQs: Implications for professional psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39(4): 414-423.

Freberg, M., Vandiver, B., Watkins, M., & Ganivez, G. (May 2008). Significant factor score variability and the validity of the WISC-III full scale IQ in predicting later academic achievement. Applied Neuropsychology, 15(2): 131-139.

Jazayeri, A. (Winter 2003). Reliability and validity of Wechsler intelligence scale for children – third edition (WISC-III) in Iran. Journal of Medical Education, 2 (2): 75-79.

Koyama, T., Kamio, Y., Inada, N., & Kurita, H. (January 2009). Sex differences in WISC-III profiles of children with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders. Journal Of Autism And Developmental Disorders, 39(1): 135-141.

Kush, J., Watkins, M., Ward, T., Ward, S., & Canivez, G. (2001). Construct validity of the WISC-III for white and black students from the WISC-III standardization sample and for black students referred or psychological evaluation. School Psychology Review, 30(1): 70-89.

Mayes, S. & Calhoun, S. (December 2004). Similarities and differences in Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Third Edition (WISC-III) profiles: Support for subtest analysis in clinical referrals. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 18(4): 559-572.

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Oakland, T., Broom, J., & Glutting, J. (September-October 2000). Use of freedom from distractibility and processing speed to assess children’s test-taking Behaviors. Journal of School Psychology, 38 (5): 469-475.

Robert, M., & Dennis, P. (2009). Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, and Issues. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Robinson, B. & Harrison, P. (Spring 2005). WISC-III core profiles for students referred or found eligible for special education and gifted programs. School Psychology Quarterly, 20(1): 51-65.

Rotsika, V., Vlassopoulos, M., legaki, L., & Rogakou, E. (2009). The WISC-III profile in Greek children with learning disabilities: Different language, similar difficulties. International Journal of Testing, 9(3): 271-282.

Saklofske, D., Tulsky, D., Wilkins, C., & Weiss, L. (July 2003). Canadian WISC-III directional base rates of score discrepancies by ability level. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 35(3): 210-218.

Sweetland, J., Reina, J., & Tatti, A. (Winter 2006). WISC-III verbal/performance discrepancies among a sample of gifted children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 50(1): 7-10.

Watkins, M. (June 2004). Temporal stability of WISC-III subtest composite: Strengths and weaknesses. Psychological assessment, 16(2): 133-138.

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Zander, E., Dahlgren, S. (June 2010). WISC-III index score profiles of 520 Swedish children with pervasive developmental disorders. Psychological Assessment, 22 (2): 213-222.

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