New Media Technologies and Barriers in Teaching

Introduction to the Study

Introduction

The problem is that it is not quite known why some teachers are reluctant to use new media technologies in teaching. Although teachers value technology use in teaching, some teachers do not adopt or fail to use new media technologies in daily teaching (Johnson, Levine, & Smith, 2009). It was important to study the factors that limit or influence teachers’ intent to adopt and use new media technologies for classroom instruction.

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This problem is worth studying because new media technologies help teachers and students meet modern learning curricula needs and is vital part of the Common Core State Standards (Martin, Diaz, Sancristobal, Gill, Castro, & Peire, 2011; Nikirk, 2012). The emergence and deployment of different web-based technologies in education cannot be underemphasized. New technologies support learning and provide a platform for teachers to impart knowledge to students using a combination of visual, auditory, and tactile opportunities to create, modify, and share knowledge (Mei-Ju, 2012).

This study addresses the problem by using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to understand teacher perceptions with the aim to help teachers better integrate new media technologies in daily teaching (Ajzen, 1988). In light of the body of research on TPB, which stipulates that behavioral intentions are based on one’s attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, this study interviewed 3 administrators and 22 teachers along these dimensions and analyzed their perceptions. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence teachers’ intent to use new technologies in teaching.

Twenty five educators participated in focus group discussion and personal interview and shared their views that why some teachers are hesitant to integrate new technologies in teaching. This study gives voice to their ideas and practices about integrating new technologies in teaching.

The first part of Chapter 1 discusses the background, the purpose of the study, and the theoretical and practical significance of the research topic. The chapter further describes the statement of the problem and identifies the research questions. After presenting the importance of the study, the limitations and delimitations of the study, the chapter provides a discussion of how the study advances scientific knowledge, and the rationale for the methodology. This chapter ends with a brief summary.

Background of the Study

Coining the term Web 2.0, O’Reilly (2005) described the change in the technology world that brought users the web as a platform on which to create and share knowledge. Anderson (2007) and Johnson, Levine, and Smith (2009) identified new media technologies as tools that enhance teaching and learning. Work now depends on technology, research and communication, more than ever before. Organizations are more dependent on knowledgeable and skilled staff.

This represents a great shift from the slow-paced Newtonian world to the fast-paced, Quantum-based informational world (Wheatley, 1992; McDaniel, 2004). Ehlers and Carneiro (2008) discovered that the development of web-based technologies inspired and facilitated educational practices more than the diffusion of static knowledge from teachers to students, which turns students into passive learners.

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Livingston (2011) argued that the investment of technology in US schools has yet to show benefits in educational practices and some educators consider technology integration as a supplement to instruction (Ertmer, Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Sadik, Sendurur, & Sendurur, 2012).

For similar reasons forty five US states have adopted Common Core State Standards (CCSS) which focus on the most relevant skills necessary for the modern workforce. CCSSs is as an attempt to standardize skills for students across the US, which will enable students to compete in a globalized economy (Loertscher, 2013). As students are exposed to curricula infused with the CCSS, the expectation is they will become proficient in technology skills that include the ability to manage knowledge and key informational resources (Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2012, p.3).

Addressing the task of preparing students for a digitally-driven future and in order to educate modern learners effectively, educators must plan curricula creatively with new media technologies in daily teaching. Lai and Chen (2011) reported that rapid changes in technology make it very difficult for school districts and education systems to respond quickly to new technological demands in teaching. Although new media provides advantages in teaching, the technology is not widely used in high schools (Jonathan & Josep, 2009; Johnson, Levine, & Smith, 2009).

Lack of technical skills and knowledge among teachers and time required to develop them is found a barrier to effective integration of technology in schools (Hew & Brush, 2007; Mishra & Koehler, 2006). The adoption and integration of technology into curricula depends on educators’ preferences and emphasis placed on the importance of developing creativity and innovation within the curricula (Ferrari, Cachia, & Punie, 2011; Ferrari, Cachia, & Punie, 2009). For this reason this study has used Ajzen’s (1988) theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a framework to study how some factors influenced some educators’ views, and behavior and therefore adoption of new technologies in daily teaching.

Problem Statement

The problem is that it is not known how teachers’ attitudes, perceptions, and motivations have influenced the adoption and use of new media technologies in daily teaching. Though new media technologies offer educational benefits, some teachers do not adopt new media technology in daily teaching. It is not known how the perceptions, views, and attitudes of teachers have influenced adoption and integration of new media in teaching in four high schools in a school district in central valley, California.

This lack of adoption could be due to educators’ lack of technical skills, insufficient professional training or motivation in adoption and use of new media technologies to support classroom instruction (Brinkerhoff, 2006; Neyland, 2011). Although computer access is necessary, it is often not sufficient for establishing technology integration in the classrooms (Ross & Lowther, 2003; Smeets, 2005).

The literature indicates that the effected population are students, therefore, it is important that teachers keep up with the ever-changing technology by adopting and integrating new technologies and preparing the iGeneration for an information-driven globalized market. By failing to adopt and integrate new media technologies, educators may not be able to close the gap between school education, and the real world (Moeller & Reitzes, 2011).

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This could affect the modern work force and businesses. Modern students need exposure to and experience with online reading, research, collaboration, communication, and organization within a society that is quickly turning away from print to web-based technology (Anstey & Bull, 2006). Failure to effectively use new media technologies could possibly leave students inadequately prepared for college education and future jobs for the digital world.

Some researchers have found that technology integration is influenced by peer, administration, and community support (Hernandez-Ramos, 2005). Hence, slow adoption of new media technologies in schools may be due to the limited teacher familiarity with these technologies in classrooms (Lowther, Inan, Strahl, & Ross, 2008; Schuck, Aubusson, & Kearney, 2010). This problem is worth studying because new media technologies aid the Common Core State Standards based curriculum.

The emergence and deployment of different web-based technologies provide a platform for teachers to impart knowledge to students (Mei-Ju, 2012). New media technologies support learning and offer a combination of various opportunities for students to create, and share knowledge by using new technology tools (Franklin & Van Harmelen, 2007).

Although teachers believe that new media technologies are the right apparatus for modern teaching, their resistance to adoption seems to stem from cases involving actual and perceived factors. Little was known about new media technology adoption in high schools following the implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Because of the existing gaps in the literature, the factors that may be barriers to integration of new technologies were not fully known. This study has explored teacher perceptions about adopting new technologies and highlights gaps that may have influenced use of new technologies in teaching.

This study has used the ‘Theory of Planned Behavior’ to understand teacher perceptions with the aim to help educators integrate new media technologies in teaching. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence teachers’ intent to use new technologies in teaching. Twenty five educators participated in focus group discussion and personal interview with the researcher. They shared their ideas and views regarding possibly why some teachers are hesitant to use new technologies in teaching. This study has analyzed teacher perceptions and given voice to their ideas and practices that influence adoption, integration and use of new media technologies in high school teaching.

Purpose of the Study

The problem is that it is not known how teachers’ attitude, perceptions, and motivation have influenced the adoption and use of new media technologies in daily teaching, although they value technology. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative case study was to study, understand and analyze teacher views about uneven adoption and integration of new media technologies into new curricula in four high schools in a school district in central valley, California. The population of the study consisted of twenty two high school teachers and three administrators who may or may not have used new media technologies in daily classroom instruction. The sample consisted of teachers who volunteered to participate in the study at the four target high schools.

The phenomenon under study was teacher perceptions of the factors that influenced their intent and decision to use new technologies in their daily instruction. The results of the study were expected to reveal which factors may be limiting or influencing teachers from integrating and using new media technologies in CCSSs based curricula. The researcher was motivated to study the existing gaps in the literature also highlighted in Lai and Chen (2011), as well as Crook and Harrison’s (2008) study, indicating that the extant research provided insufficient evidence on factors limiting the adoption of new media tools in high school teaching. This study is designed to close the gap by providing information about what teachers think about integrating new media technologies in classroom teaching.

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This qualitative study addresses the aforementioned problem by using the ‘Theory of Planned Behavior’ to understand teacher perceptions that has limited or influenced some from possibly adopting and integrating new technologies in their daily teaching. Twenty five educators participated in focus group discussion and interview with the researcher. Participating teachers’ from four high schools shared their views, ideas and experiences that focused on slow or limited integration new technologies in classroom teaching. This study gives voice to the ideas and practices of the participating high school teachers. This study is designed to close the gap by providing information about teachers’ perception about role and use of new media technologies in teaching.

In light of the works mentioned above, the researcher collected data to identify what perceptions educators had that led to the adoption and integration of new media technologies and the intent to use them in teaching. In light of the body of research on TPB, the research findings outcome is the ability to understand teacher needs and motivate more teachers to implement new media technologies and therefore help schools meet common core standards.

Research Questions

The problem is that it is not known how teachers’ attitudes, perceptions, ideas and motivations have influenced or limited the adoption and use of new media technologies in daily teaching. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and a modern technology approach can significantly change education; new media technology has great potential to help students learn (Common Core State Standards, 2012). Teachers’ value technology, but the problem is that teachers’ attitude and perceptions about integrating new media technologies in teaching is failing some from doing so.

Ajzen’s (1988) theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a theory which links beliefs and behavior of individuals. The theory of planned behavior extends the theory of reasoned action (TRA). TPB includes a variable of perceived behavioral control. The theory of reasoned action explains that, if people evaluate the suggested behavior as positive, and if they think important others want them to perform the behavior, they may be inspired to do so (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975).

For instance, some teachers’ attitudes towards adopting new media technologies in teaching can be viewed as simple behavioral patterns. Although these patterns play a part in decision making, the ultimate factors for successful new technology adoption in high school teaching are not yet defined (Ajzen, 1988; Hew & Brush, 2007). For this reason, three research questions were designed to find answer to the overarching question that what factors motivate or hold teachers from adopting new media technologies in high school teaching and to understand teachers’ perspectives regarding the effective uses of new technologies in teaching.

  • R1. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how are they integrated into daily instruction?

Research Question 1 (R1) was designed to allow teachers to discuss, share and suggest possible solutions and examples of their perception about new media technologies and how they integrate these technologies in daily teaching. It is also important to know if teachers have technology skills and ideas how they can effectively integrate new media technologies in daily teaching. Findings may yield information to address the core problem that teacher’s attitudes and perceptions are unknown. Teachers’ perceptions, ideas and views would assist identify how new technologies can be integrated into daily instruction more effectively.

  • R2. How do teachers report the way in which training opportunities and administrative support influence the adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?

Research Question 2 (R2) was designed to allow teachers to suggest ideas concerning the means for teachers and administrators to discuss, share and suggest possible solutions and examples of the training opportunities and administrative support that may have been influencing the adoption and integration of new media technologies in modern teaching. The sharing of teachers’ experiences, views and ideas focuses how collaboration and communication among each other and with the administrators help them make new media technology integration more effective. Findings may support administrators and high school teachers identify what training and support most teachers need to be able to integrate and use new media technologies in daily instructions more effectively.

  • R3. How do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core State Standards?

Research question 3 (R3) was designed to allow teachers to suggest and recommend ideas concerning new media technologies and their connection to CCSS. The data collected during interviews and focus group discussions were expected to provide ideas about teachers’ experiences and ideas that CCSS involves more technology component in modern teaching and teachers need to develop new teaching skills that encourage guide teachers to adopt, integrate and use new media and CCSS into the teaching process. The collected data may also motivate teachers to align the current curriculum with CCSS, which is a shift from teacher-centered learning to more real-life and student-centered learning.

The three research questions help to explore the overarching question, which is to determine what factors motivate or limit teachers when are adopting new technologies and to bring out an understanding of the teacher’s use of new media technologies. This would tell the researchers and educators of the elements in the Common Core State Standards that are supportive of the modern teaching and educational goals in high schools. Answers to the research questions provide specific dimensions of the phenomenon of teacher attitudes to new media technological tools. The study also highlights the role of new media technologies in CCSS based learning.

The study narrows down to a case of four high schools that provide the environment for teachers to work with various new media technologies. The research questions bring out the theoretical foundations available in the theory of planned behavior. The questions ensure that the study does not only rely on the information gathered from teacher interviews, but also the research and discussion data collected during focus group discussion.

The research questions expand the scope of the study and elaborate on the problem statement, which was to find out perceptions of teachers regarding new media technologies by providing a focus on the high school learning environment. Hence, the research questions were appropriately framed to narrow the gap in knowledge about factors that limit or influence adoption of new media technologies in teaching.

Advancing Scientific Knowledge

The perceptions, motivation, and attitudes of teachers were unknown in adopting and integrating new media in teaching in four target high schools in a school district in central valley, California. Although, teachers value technology, in some cases, they were failing to adopt new media technologies in classroom teaching (Brinkerhoff, 2006; Neyland, 2011). This study gives voice to the views and experiences of educators about the adoption and integration of new media technologies in teaching.

Infused within the CCSS is the expectation for learners to be proficient in 21st century technologies. According to the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School (2010), the teaching curriculum is geared toward using technology so that students can strategically and capably use new technologies in learning.

An and Reigeluth (2011) reported lack of technology, lack of time, and assessment as leading barriers to creating technology enhanced classrooms. Adoption and use of new technologies has been slow possibly influenced by some factors such as budget constraints, lack of time, necessary knowledge & skills, lack of administrative support, lack of personal interest, lack of professional development & training and IT limitations (Buabeng, 2012). Therefore, there is a gap between the offered and used technologies in most schools and teachers’ perceptions about adoption and use of new technologies.

This research was designed to study teachers’ perception and experiences about adopting new media technologies in daily teaching. For this study, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used as a framework to study how teachers’ perceptions, experiences and ideas limited or influenced adoption and integration of new media technologies in their daily teaching. The premise of TPB is that planned behaviors are determined by a person’s intentions, which are, in their turn, often influenced by the person’s attitude toward a particular behavior, behavioral pattern, the person’s perception of control over their behavior and subjective norms (Ajzen, 1975; Martin, Usdan, Nelson, Umstattd, LaPlante, Perko, & Shaffer, 2010; Stone, Jawahar, & Kisamore, 2010).

The TPB was used to study teacher perceptions of technology to determining what factors may have limited or influenced them from adopting and using new technologies in teaching. Inan and Lowther (2010) suggested that teachers should adopt new media technology tools to improve the modern teaching process.

However, many teachers in the target school district were slow to adopt the new media technologies in their classes. Thus, as guided by Ajzen’s (1975) theory, 25 educators were interviewed to study their perceptions and determine their attitudes toward a particular behavior, the adoption of new media technologies. Additionally, the information regarding technology adoption in terms of district policies and administrative support were explored. Finally, the teachers’ opinions regarding their ability to meaningfully integrate technology in class, was investigated. Participants shared their ideas, views and experiences during interview with the researcher and focus group discussions with other educators.

This qualitative case study has applied Ajzen’s (1975) theory of planned behavior to promote a better understanding of the role of teachers’ perceptions in shaping their ideas and views that influenced them to use or limited them from integrating new media technologies in teaching. Following teacher’s perceptions, interaction and experiences with new media technology and then relating them to expect the behavior of individuals when interacting with new finding adds to the existing literature. The information also assists to review the potential uses of the TPB by studying interview data, field notes, focus group discussions and answers to the research questions that reveal participants’ behavioral control and links it back to their perceived behavioral control.

Teachers are receiving professional development and trainings related to new curriculum to change behavior through the Common Core State Standards, and school investment in new media technologies. However, teachers are subject to intrinsic reasons and other contextual circumstances. For this reason teachers’ eventual behavior outcome, for intended behavior towards adopting new media technologies in teaching helps to explain the causes of collected and reported data.

The study design and its research questions bring out teachers’ behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs that should shape behavioral intention, according to the TPB (Armitage & Christian, 2004). Interview data, field notes, focus group discussions and answers to the research questions also reveal perceived behavioral control expressed by the participants (Ajzen, 2005).

The results of this study therefore add to the literature base in the field of identifying teachers’ perceptions that may be limiting or encouraging them from adopting new media technologies in teaching and learning. This research adds a qualitative study to the body of research conducted on the TPB. The findings provide insight into the attitudes held by teachers, and can be used in future research. Moreover, the study focuses the importance of new technologies in teaching because CCSS curriculum is geared towards integration new technology in teaching and learning. The findings of this study may be used by other high school teachers as they adopt and integrate new media technologies in teaching. Therefore, this study adds to the existing literature.

Significance of the Study

Teaching standards and technologies have transformed and evolved over the years. In California schools, CCSS based teaching curriculum is geared toward using new technologies so that teachers and students can purposefully and competently use these technologies in teaching and learning. It is important to note that the findings of the study will play a role in helping educators understand, implement and develop the adoption and integration of new media technologies into newly adopted technology based Common Core State Standard curriculum.

Other schools in other cities and states may be able to use the finding of this study and narrow the existing gap between the available technologies in most learning institutes in 45 states that have recently adopted Common Core State Standards and need to change teachers’ influenced or individual perception about adoption and use of new technologies in teaching. The findings of this study may be used by other teachers as they adopt and integrate new media technologies in their Common Core-based curricula.

Therefore, this study adds and contributes to the existing literature in several ways. For example, this qualitative case study applied Ajzen’s (1975) theory of planned behavior to study and better understand the role of experiences in shaping the teacher’s perceptions, views and ideas concerning the decision to adopt new media technologies.

Rationale for Methodology

Yin (2003) stated that a qualitative methodology facilitates an in-depth analysis of phenomena within its real-life context using a variety of data sources. Yin also explained that qualitative methodology allows the researcher to explore individual or organizations, simple and complex interventions and relationships or programs. This ensures that the issue is not explored through one lens, but rather a variety of lenses which allows for multiple facets of the phenomenon to be revealed and understood. Likewise, in this study the researcher analyzed educators perceptions, ideas and views collected during interviews, focus group discussion and field notes taken during research process. A hallmark of this case study research is the use of multiple data sources, a strategy which also enhances data credibility (Patton, 1990; Yin, 2003).

The Rationale for Methodology section of Chapter 1 clearly justifies the methodology used for conducting this study. It argues how the methodological framework is the best approach to answer the three research questions, the overarching question and address the problem statement. Finally, it contains citations from textbooks, online resources and articles about research methodology and articles similar to this study. Qualitative case study methodology assists tools for researchers to study phenomena within their contexts.

As per Kvale’s (1996) definition a qualitative research interview is an “attempt to understand the world from the subjects’ point of view, to unfold the meaning of peoples’ experiences” (p.5). Likewise, the researcher interviewed 3 administrators and 22 teachers from four high schools in an attempt to better understand, share and learn from their perceptions, ideas and experiences the factors that limited or motivated them to adopt, integrate and use new media technologies in daily classroom teaching.

The qualitative case study methodology is well suited for this study about modern-day phenomena about adoption and use of new media technologies in teaching. Case study methodology in this study provides a richer and deeper description of the topic under study. For qualitative designs, this section states the research question(s) the study answers and describes the phenomenon to be studied. This section also includes data gathered during face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions arranged with the participants and field notes take during research. Finally, this section includes a discussion of the three research questions, well relating them to the problem statement.

Nature of the Research Design for the Study

For the purposes of this qualitative case study, the researcher interviewed twenty five educators in order to investigate the common barriers or influence to the adoption of new media tools in teaching. Johnson (1995) explained that qualitative methodologies are powerful tools for enhancing the widespread understanding of teaching and Marshall and Rossman (1995) explained the purpose of qualitative research is to explore, explain, describe, and predict.

This qualitative research involves non-numerical study and interpretation of interviews, focus group guide, and field notes for the purpose of discovering the underlying meaning and pattern of relationships. Strauss and Corbin (1990) claimed that qualitative methods can be used to gain new perspectives about the issues that might be considered well-trodden and/or to gain more in-depth information about the issues in question. Yin (2003) stated that a qualitative methodology facilitates an in-depth analysis of phenomena within its real-life context.

Qualitative research was also used for this case study because it implies a “direct concern with experience as it is ‘lived’ or ‘felt’ or’ undergone’” (Sherman & Webb, 1988, p. 7). For the purposes of this study, the researcher acted as the “human instrument” and recorded interview data (Lincoln & Guba, 1985, p.193; Bogdan & Biklen, 1998) to acquire and analyze teacher perceptions, experiences and ideas about adopting new technologies. The findings of this qualitative case study highlight the importance of the perceived difficulty of the behavior of teachers to use new technologies in teaching.

Stake (1995) noted that case studies bring out details from the viewpoint of the participants by using multiple sources of data and are designed to explore factors that may help in defining a clear set of outcomes. Yin (2003) suggested that a variety of evidence and data with different scopes are the most significant attributes of qualitative case studies. For this reason three forms of data, including individual interviews, focus group discussion, and field notes, were used in this study to provide a richer inclusive description of the topic under discussion (Yin, 1984).

Likewise, a case study, which is a form of qualitative, descriptive research about a person, individuals, or a small group of participants was used for this study. A case study was also used for this research because case study method is applicable to real-life situations, such as developing new practical insight based on observation and experiment; hence, in this case study, this design was applied in the exploration of the research questions (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007). Yin (2003) posited that case study is suitable research methodology when the focus of the study is a “how” or “why” question, when contextual conditions are highly relevant to the studied phenomenon.

Case studies are bound by time and activity (Stake, 1995). Stake (1994) claimed that a case study should avail a detailed explanation of the study topic. This case study was conducted during the spring of the 2013 to 2014 academic year. The researcher attempted to study teacher perceptions and give a voice to their views and experiences concerning the problem in question. The sample was comprised of 22 high school teachers and 3 administrators from a school district in Central Valley, California.

Data collection for this study consisted of personal interviews, focus groups discussion and field notes recorded by the researcher. A case study report was written after an extensive process of data collection through personal interviews and focus group discussion (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982). The records and transcription of the interviews that were used in the analysis and interpretation of this study comprise the presentation of the interviews with the participants. The results of this case study relate directly to educators’ experiences and perception in order to understand the current educators’ adoption practices to integrated new media technologies in CCSS curricula and use in classroom teaching. This study will expand the growing body of knowledge about teachers’ intent to adopt new media technologies in learning.

Definition of Terms

The following discussion explains key terms (i.e., Web 2.0, digital natives, digital immigrants, wikis, blogs, TPB, purposeful sampling, and new media technologies). The discussion will also help readers to understand these terms in the context of this study. The web and democratization of information, new media, and technology are key in transforming the world from a primarily vertical “command and control” universe to a horizontal “connect and collaborate” one (Friedman, 2005, pp. 233-234).

The following definitions will help readers to understand these terms in the context of this study.

Active learning

Millennial students are active learners who want to learn through interaction, collaboration and active participation (Bower, Hedberg, & Kuswara, 2010; Roehling et al., 2011).

Blogs

(Weblog) a type of website usually maintained by an individual with regular written messages and event descriptions, including images or videos. Blogs can also be a collaborative endeavor among instructors and students. Wagner (2003) has encouraged the use of blogs in education by publishing learning logs.

Common Core State Standards

A step toward the establishment of a common curriculum between states (Loertscher (2013). The standards represent an attempt to standardize transferable skills across curricula and across the nation, which enable students to be competitive in the globalized economy.

Digital immigrants

Individuals who process information slowly, work on one thing at a time, and do not appreciate less serious approaches to learning.

Digital natives

Individuals who “think and process information fundamentally differently” (Prensky, 2010. p. 1) compared to digital immigrants. They process information quickly, enjoy multi-tasking, and like gaming.

Smarter-Balanced Assessment

The Smarter Balanced Assessments (2013) is a system of valid, reliable, and fair next-generation assessments of computer adaptive testing technology aligned with CCSS in English language arts/literacy (ELA/literacy) and mathematics for grades 3-8 and 11 (CCSS, 2014).

Student engagement

Behaviors indicative of their interest and investment in learning activities (Lee, 2010).

Subjective norms

The beliefs of individuals regarding what other key people in their lives think about the given type of behavior.

Theory of planned behavior (TPB)

Ajzen’s (1991) theory uses attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control to predict intention and assumes that behavior is the result of a conscious decision to act in a certain way. This theory is widely applicable to a variety of behaviors in different contexts, including such diverse areas as technology adoption (Ajzen, 2011).

Some commonly used new media technology terms have been discussed below:

Podcasts

Users use podcasting – digital audio and video file or recording – to distribute music and speech over the Internet for playback on mobile devices or personal computers (Solomon & Schrum, 2007). Most podcasts are free.

Social networks

A social structure of nodes, generally individuals or organizations that have one or more specific types of interdependency. Facebook, with more than 500 million active users (Facebook, 2012), and MySpace are the two largest social networks.

Web 2.0

Web technology that enables the user to create and publish content on the Internet (O’Reilly, 2005, p. 1).

Wikis

A wiki is an online tool that permits readers to work together to write, edits and change the contents of a web page at any time (Solomon & Schrum, 2007). Lankshear and Knobel (2007) described wikis as “collaborative writing that influences collective intelligence for knowledge production in the public domain” (p. 17).

YouTube

YouTube is a video sharing website on which users upload, share, and view videos. More than 100,000 new videos are uploaded every day, and the site receives about 200 million video views daily (YouTube, 2013).

Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations

Any given research study exhibits underlying assumptions, limitations, and delimitations. Leedy and Ormrod (2010) suggested that these are critical components of a proposal.

Assumptions

Assumptions serve as the basic foundation of any proposed research (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). The following assumptions applied to this study.

  • It was assumed that the participants provided accurate information and that new media technology was used in the selected population.
  • It was assumed that teachers participating in the interviews and focus groups had a basic familiarity with the personal computer and the use of the Internet and web technologies.
  • It was assumed that high school teachers who volunteered to participate in this case study had some experience using new media technologies in their teaching.
  • It was assumed that all participating teachers had some idea of how to incorporate new media technologies in designing new curriculum based on the new CCSS (2012).
  • Although teachers volunteered to participate in this study, it was assumed that some teachers may have felt obliged to participate.

Limitations

This research was conducted in four high schools in a school district in central valley, California. The results of similar studies may vary in other high schools, middle schools, and elementary schools, because there is possibility of error or difficulty in interpreting the results of this study, depending on the school culture, method, and strategies used in the teaching and availability of new technologies, if the administrators encourage teachers to adopt new media and if the state is adopting.

Another important limitation is that the research may not be able to answer educators’ ongoing debate regarding whether the adoption of new media tools in high schools promotes learning (Al-Ansari, 2006). The research has no information regarding the number of educators who have adopted and integrated new media technologies in teaching. Therefore, the number of users may limit the scope of this study. The selected literature describes only the new media tools chosen to be adopted and integrated into high school curricula (Jones & Cuthrell, 2011).

TPB does not account for unconscious motives; therefore, some researchers may consider the lack of generalizability of the findings a limitation (Knabe, 2012). In a TPB study, personality, emotions, and demographic variables do not factor in and, therefore, they can be accounted for in the theory if they influence the basic beliefs that determine the attitude toward the action. As an interviewer and a data collecting instrument, this researcher has kept the identity of the educators undisclosed.

The given choice was predetermined by the fact that, in cases in which teachers are involved in focus groups, some teachers may be reluctant to express negative opinions for fear of the reaction from other teachers. A negative connotation in the findings may affect the validity of the research results.

Delimitations

This study was conducted on the topic of adoption and integration of new media tools in high schools. For the given study, observations and interviews of high school teachers were delimited to only four high schools in a school district in Central Valley, California. Limiting the demographic sample helped the researcher to use four different methods, namely informal and formal open-ended face-to-face interviews and observations to collect data for this study.

Different methods of data collection contribute to the goal of obtaining accurate results at the end of the study. Interviewing three administrators and 22 high school teachers was useful to collect different ideas and experiences expressed by the participants. This study analyzed the collected data and determines the hurdles in adoption of new media tools in four high schools. The answers to the research questions have helped to identify the factors that may influence the process of adoption and use of new media technologies in teaching.

However, there may be some limitations when generalizing findings. The participants may represent different high schools and departments in the school district. The data collected from the interviews, focus group discussions, and field notes taken during the research most likely reflect only the beliefs of the high school teachers in one school district. Therefore, the findings may not be generalizable to elementary and middle schools or to all states, especially those that have not adopted the Common Core State Standards.

Summary and Organization of the Remainder of the Study

Chapter 1 established the foundation and states the focus of the study. The introduction section describes the problem under investigation and its background, its relevance to the field, the findings, and the conceptual basis for what this study has investigated. The purpose of the study and its theoretical and practical significance define and support the focus of the study.

Chapter 1 explored the nature of this study and provides a brief summary of literature and research related to the problem that was investigated. The key term section defined new and important fundamental contextual terms relevant to the study, which will assist readers in better comprehending the study. Some of the defined terms are used in modern teaching, books, studies, and new media technology websites. Chapter 2 includes an overview of the literature about new media technologies.

Chapter 2 presents the theoretical foundation for this study followed by an introduction to the literature review, which support the purpose of the study and aid in finding answers to three research questions and the overarching question. The theoretical framework of the study justifies and explains the accepted problem the researcher has addressed. The literature review covers the theoretical sufficiency of TPB, and the research related to technology adoption and high school teaching was reviewed. Chapter 2 also summarizes the conclusions from the literature review.

Chapter 3 covers the methodology section describing how each specific objective was achieved. Chapter 3 also presents a clear rationale for methodology, restate the problem statement, and provide the research questions from Chapter 1. This chapter also describes the populations and the procedures for their selection, description of the tools, methods used to collect data, and the process of variables identification. The aforementioned process is followed by the description of data processing and analyzing procedures, the description of standardized procedures, and specific tools that were used to study each research objective. Chapter 3 also explains the advantages and disadvantages of the methodology that has been selected for the study.

A general review of the case study methodology, data collection, and analysis method and processes that has been used in this study has been provided next. Chapter 3 gives a logical and detailed description of the sampling methods and generalizability of this study and address the reliability and validity of the study. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 have helped develop a theoretical framework, with the help of which the elements of the problem have been studied.

Chapter 4 includes the population, sampling, and sources of data for the study and concludes with a discussion on the trustworthiness, transferability, and dependability of new media technologies in teaching. Chapter 5 includes the findings of the current study and their relationships to prior studies about factors influencing integration and use of new media technologies in high school teaching.

Chapter 5 describes the implications of the findings from Chapter 4 in accordance with the constructs of this study. The appendix includes the data collected during interviews, field note taking and during focus group discussion. Although a significant amount of research on the role of information technologies in enhancement of education already exists, the study addressed the current gaps by locating the factors that may be influencing adoption of new media technologies in California high schools.

Literature Review

Introduction

Educators spend time collaborating about, developing, and refining their philosophies of effective, modern teaching. Teachers, hence, need to explore ways to communicate and collaborate with their counterparts from local and global communities that also envision and focus on creative integration and application of technology to improve student learning (Yusuf, 2005). Current technology promises innovative ways to educate students.

Many researchers have identified and emphasized the potential of Web 2.0 and other new media technology tools to make learning more effective. However, the existing literature does not provide a clear understanding of how teachers in California high schools have adopted and integrated Web 2.0 and other new media technologies that can also prepare them in adopting CCSS and improve student learning. This study was designed to address this this gap in the available literature and research.

Chapter 2 covers related topics and research findings that support the topic under study. Academic peer-reviewed articles, scholarly empirical studies collected from Grand Canyon library sources, other electronic databases; and magazines have been used in the literature review with the intent to convey the current practices of new media integration. The focus of the literature review was to summarize and synthesize the arguments and ideas of the researchers since 2005.

This span of time incorporates most of the new media technology tools that are highly embraced and provide the foundation for a contributory study in the field of adoption and use of new media technologies in high school teaching. This chapter begins with the background to the study which outlines the evolution of Web 1.0 to Web 3.0 and the subsequent need for teachers to respond to changing technologies with meaningful integration of these tools into classroom instruction. This is followed by a discussion of the theoretical framework for the study which was drawn from Ajzen’s (1998) TPB and its relation with the adoption and use of new media tools.

The review of the literature is organized by several topics which start off with a description of new media technologies. This is followed by a section that discusses teachers and how they use new media technologies. Student-centered learning and its connection to collaboration and use of new media technologies is included with a discussion of how new media technologies enhance student learning, and instructional uses for new media technologies. Common Core State Standards and commonly used new media technologies are discussed next followed by a discussion of barriers and motivation to the adoption and implementation of new technologies in high school teaching. The review concludes with a discussion of methodologies used in prior studies on the topic and a summary.

Background to the Problem

Web 1.0 was defined as a one-way content delivery source from which users and learners could retrieve knowledge, but could not add to it. According to O’Reilly (2005), Web 1.0 was statically a surfing, browsing-based concept of the World Wide Web, and its advanced version is new media, which centers on learning by creating, collaborating, sharing ideas, and developing knowledge. Coining the term Web 2.0, O’Reilly (2005) described the change in the technology world that brought users the web as a platform on which to create and share knowledge.

Web 2.0 has been regarded as multi-way social web where the users can learn, share, and construct knowledge, whereas Web 3.0 is the latest advanced location-aware and moment-relevant Internet (Lucier, 2009). In today’s world, the Internet and instant communication are essential to daily life. Knowledge is evolving at a fast rate; there are many changes that have taken place so quickly that individuals have insufficient time to comprehend fully what technologies they should adopt and how each can affect their learning, job and daily lives.

The development of new media technology based learning aims to computerize teaching, by structuring information, testing learners’ knowledge, and providing immediate feedback to learners. New media tools support learning as a resourceful activity and offer a combination of visual, auditory, and tactile learning styles that enable learners to use a variety of technology ways to create, modify, and share information (Franklin & Van Harmelen, 2007). Additionally, teachers can improve students’ pedagogical growth by using new media technology tools in the classroom (Pop, 2010; Abdous, Facer, & Yen, 2012; Gimeno, Seiz, de Siqueira & Martínez, 2010; Girgin, 2011).

Hutchison and Reinking (2011) reported that, despite intensive research and exemplary practices, digital technologies have not been efficiently and effectively adopted and integrated into the curriculum by all teachers. Hence, a gap exists regarding certain factors that may be holding some teachers from adopting new media tools in teaching. Some researchers have shown that new media technologies can be utilized as effective educational tools, since these technologies enable a variety of collaboration and interaction (Lee, Cerreto, & Lee, 2010; Kayri & Çakır, 2010).

Although the importance of Web 2.0 tools and other new media tools in education have been emphasized in some studies, this big new shift involves limited literature focusing on teachers’ perceptions about adopting and using new media tools related to the adoption of CCSS (Riddile, 2012). Rennie and Morrison (2013) suggested that new media technologies must be implemented carefully into teaching to limit disruption and improve confidence in students.

Furthermore, in order to fully comply with the implementation of CCSS (CCSS, 2012), it is important that administrators encourage teachers to involve students in student-centered learning. Based on the focus on the change from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning within CCSS is a crucial component in the modern teaching process. Students are now expected to learn real-world problem-solving skills and rigor (Porter, McMaken, Hwang, & Yang, 2011). And since adoption the Common Core State Standards recognize that to thrive in the newly wired world, students need to master new ways of reading and writing in the new curriculum CCSS, 2012).

Vijayakumar (2011) indicated that while new media technologies positively impact students’ educational experiences, most prior studies on the topic had limitations such as gathering only students’ or teachers’ perspectives and not how new media technologies as collaborative, interactive, and communicative tools in education would affect the adoption of CCSS for teachers. The existing literature does not provide a clear understanding of how teachers can adopt and integrate new media technologies based on Common Core Standards and improve student learning, specifically in the target school district where data collection occurred for this study. There is an apparent gap between the number of new media technologies available and offered in some schools and teachers’ adoption and use of these new media technologies in their teaching.

In some school districts administrators and teachers have engaged teachers in professional and technology trainings to help them support students achieve college and career readiness. Thus, conducting a study in four high schools helped the researcher find answers about the limited or slow adoption and extent of the applicability of new media technologies in some high schools. This study explored and analyzed educators’ views, ideas, and experiences to address and narrow this gap. The findings of this study were expected to reveal the recent opinions and limitations high school teachers had by analyzing the use and importance of new media technologies in modern education.

Theoretical Foundations

Many researchers have explored the benefit of new media technology tools in teaching and learning. Baia (2009) found that teachers who perceived technology as having a positive impact towards integrating it in teaching were motivated to integrate new tools in their curriculum. Zayim, Yildrin, and Saka (2006) explained that new media tools motivate teachers to effectively and efficiently integrate technology in the curriculum and motivate students to learn. It is important that teachers keep pace with the new technology tools and adaptations (Brzycki & Dudt, 2005).

While some researchers posed benefits of technology integration, Lock (2012) noted that the adoption of new media is not pervasive in all high schools. Although teachers and administrators value technology, new media technologies have not been fully deployed in the learning environment (Anderson, 2007; Johnson, Levine, & Smith, 2009). Some researchers have found barriers such as a lack of technology, time, funding, administrative support, professional development, and technical support that may be limiting the effective adoption and integration of technology in modern teaching (Baltaci, Goktalay, & Huguet, 2008; Keengwe, Onchwari, & Wachira, 2008).

Recently adopted CCSS, most current and future jobs, college education expect students to know skills in various areas of technology at different grade levels, therefore, teachers and administrators should be proficient as well. There seems to be a gap between the adoption and integration of new media technologies in teaching (Oncu, Delialioglu & Brown, 2008; Keengwe, Onchwari & Wachira, 2008). Ajzen’s (1985) theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used as a theoretical base for this study, as the researcher sought to explore teachers’ perception about adoption, integration and use of new media technologies in teaching. TPB is based on the assumption that humans are rational beings that make systematic judgments (Knabe, 2012).

The Theory of Planned Behavior

Since the present study uses the theory of planned behavior as the theoretical framework, it is crucial to review the literature on this approach. This will allow to acknowledge the ways the theory can be applied in the particular setting. The theory is also used to develop the instruments used to address the research questions. The review of the existing literature will reveal efficient ways of TBP application.

According to the TPB, planned behaviors are determined by behavioral intentions, which are often influenced by a person’s attitude toward a behavior, the subjective norms covering the execution of the behavior, and the person’s perception of his or her control over the behavior. For the purposes of this study, administrators in the objective school district may view the integration of new media technologies into daily instruction to be important. Thus, teachers may probably be motivated to initiate actions of new media technology integration in teaching.

Ajzen’s model has received much empirical research support since it was introduced in the literature (Ajzen, 2011; Knabe, 2012; Sideridis, Kasissidis, & Padeliadu, 1998). Researchers have used the TPB as the foundation for their studies, including the studies conducted in the fields of education, business, and healthcare. One of the major strengths of the theory of planned behavior is that it is widely applicable to a variety of behaviors in different contexts, including diverse areas such as health communications, environmental concerns, and, more recently, technology adoption (Ajzen, 2011). The relation of Ajzen’s (1987) TPB to this study is evident as the research questions address the teacher perceptions towards the adoption of new media technologies in educational settings.

Prior qualitative studies demonstrated the application of the TPB to technological innovations (Lee, Cerreto, & Lee, 2010). Irani and O’Malley (1998) used the TPB to study cognitive innovativeness as a predictor of student attitudes and intent in an online learning environment. Results of the study indicated that students who scored high in cognitive innovativeness had more positive attitudes towards online learning than the students who scored low in cognitive innovativeness. Student attitude was most predictive of intentions for high internal cognitive innovators, while for high external cognitive innovators, attitude and norms were more analytical.

Synthesis of historical application of TPB

Knabe (2012) applied TPB to examine public relations faculty’s intention to teach online. Given the exponential growth of online learning in higher education, Knabe found applying the theory as appropriate and insightful. The results of this study revealed the Subjective Norms construct as the most influential factor in predicting intent, suggesting continued research and emphasis in this area. Knabes’ study also supports the TPB body of literature, and institutional leadership trying to make technological advances.

Nikirk (2012) recommended that teachers take advantage of the iGeneration’s love for technology and incorporate it into classroom instruction. However, not all high school graduates have the necessary skills to compete successfully in the modern tech-oriented, global market (Griffin & Kaleba, 2006). In some schools the level of technology integration in class curricula remains low because a significant percentage of teachers are not using technology-integrated instructional strategies in class (ESA/Deewr report, 2010; Walraven, Brand-Gruwel & Boshuizen, 2009).

Although all US schools have access to technology, all teachers have not altered old teaching practices (Wells, Lewis & Green, 2006). Therefore, schools should upgrade their teaching practices to meet the modern learning needs of students, because without the upgrades teachers may not be adequately preparing students for the modern world. The decision to integrate new technologies in teaching is influenced by various factors and attitudes towards technology (Lim & Chai, 2008; Neyland, 2011). Among these the subjective norm is another factor about teachers’ opinions that should be explored (Ajjan & Hartshorne, 2008).

Carswell and Venkatesh (2002) researched learners in a distance education environment, using TPB to study student reactions to web-based distance education. This study presented a first step toward building guidelines for the design of effective technology-mediated asynchronous learning environments. Carswell and Venkatesh also successfully designed learning environments and the success of courses offered online.

Renzi and Klobas (2008) used the TPB in a study to investigate the factors related to university teachers’ adoption of teaching models based on online social interaction in undergraduate teaching. The researchers did not find significant relationships between the demographic variables of age, gender, and past experience teaching public relations and intentions to teach a public relations course online.

Renzi and Klobas found differences in the attitude and subjective norms due to the perceived control and intentions of both the teachers and the students. Morris and Venkatesh (2000) used the TPB to study workers’ decisions about technology use and their attitudes toward the adoption of technology, and Hsu, Yen, Chiu, and Chang (2006) applied an extended version of the theory to examine online shopping behavior while in an educational setting.

Lee, Cerreto, and Lee (2010) used a qualitative grounded theory approach using discourse analysis to investigate preservice teacher’s views about using technology as an instructional tool in the classroom. Lee, Cerreto, and Lee (2010) used the theory of planned behavior to examine teachers’ intentions to use computers to create and deliver lessons. The findings show that technology adoption in education was based more on teachers’ attitude than the subjective norm. These findings have strong implications for teaching and learning, teacher training programs, and future research about affect and emotion in decision-making about technology as an instructional tool.

For this case study the TPB provided a lens based on which the researcher collected various data, using participants’ answers to interview questions, focus group discussion questions, and field notes. The researcher used collected data to study, understand, analyze, and interpret teachers’ views, ideas, and experiences that suggest factors leading to the uneven use of new media technologies in high school teaching.

Applying the theory of planned behavior in this study helped the researcher study educators’ perceptions, experiences and views about factors and/or intent variables that as predicted affect their ideas about integrating and adopting new media in high school teaching. The study gives voice to the views, experiences and ideas of teachers about adoption, integration and use of new media technologies in teaching.

Review of Literature

Description of new media technologies

One of the research questions of this study focuses on the new media technologies as seen by the participants. The educators share their views on the media, which shows the level of their awareness of new technological advances. It is also important to understand how educators describe the media technology to unveil the overall attitude towards technological advancements and their use in education.

O’Reilly (2005) stated that new media technologies include web-based platforms through which interactive open-source software (OSS) programs, such as blogs (weblogs) (Perrone, 2004); wikis (Wikipedia, 2007); podcasts (Maag, 2006; Yensen, 2005); YouTube (Skiba, 2007); Google Docs, Spreadsheets, and Presentations; and social networking (Google, 2008; Michael, 2007) are available to users in addition to interaction, collaboration, and problem-solving skills.

More than 75% of all the references used in this study are scholarly sources within the past five years. New media technologies have evolved over time to include the Internet, television, and other tools used in modern teaching. The State of the News Media (2010) asserted that Internet users now use at least one kind of social media, including Twitter, blogging and networking sites, to communicate and collaborate with each other. According to Buffington (2008), popular new media technologies used today include blogs, wikis, podcasts, photos, and video sharing sites such as Flickr and YouTube.

Teachers and new media technologies

Since one of the research questions dwells upon teachers’ use of technology, it is essential to review the existing literature on the matter. To better understand why educators use or avoid exploitation of technology in the particular community, it is necessary to explore the ways teachers use the new media technologies nationwide. This also allows to identify the gaps in educators’ knowledge and background that can be used to train teachers on the use of technology.

According to Odom (2010), one purpose of new media is to strengthen educators’ ability to teach modern students. McLuhan (1989) explained that the changes in technology transform social ideas, which in turn, form users’ views, experiences, attitudes, and behavior towards the adoption and use of new technologies. Similarly, several new media technology developments have shaped modern teaching. Therefore, with the constant advancement of technology, use of new technology in education, adoption of new CCSSs based curriculum and the popularity of digital technology give teachers the added responsibility of motivating students to use new media technologies and become technology literate.

Akyeampong (2011) suggested that educators consider how to integrate new technologies that some users apply on a daily basis in their teaching practices to improve and support meaningful learning. Churchill (2009) suggested that teachers can use new media technologies to motivate students to create and add to existing knowledge and share and collaborate with other students and teachers.

Similarly Schuck, Aubusson, and Kearney (2010) formed a learning community of higher educators to determine how best to use mobile technologies in their own learning and teaching. They interviewed experts on mobile learning, testing, and mobile pedagogies. The findings indicated that progress towards an enriched engagement with mobile learning may be promoted by the establishment of a community of learners. Furthermore, the study provides a perspective that supports the adoption, integration, and application of new technologies in teaching.

As evidenced in the application of CCSS (National Governors’ Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School, 2010) and classroom experience, some teachers see the need to allow students to create and share knowledge in experiential ways based on key concepts that have evolved based on prior learning (Gordon, 2009). Educators must challenge themselves and transform teaching into more engaging modern means. Supporting this thought, Kayri and Cakır (2010) indicated that educators should adopt new technologies as educational tools with the purpose of collaborating, connecting, and sharing ideas with the learners and with other teachers.

Schulta-Zander, Pfeifer, and Voss (2008) and Subramaniam (2007) stressed that teacher training, leadership, professional and technical support, and teacher attitude towards technology are strong predictors of intention to use technologies in teaching. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundations Technology and Effective Teaching Report (2012) estimated that most teachers use technology in their classroom, although some are still wary of it. Adoption and integration of technologies is challenging and changing the way educators teach (Bauleke & Herrmann, 2010). Along similar lines, Roland (2009) created the Art Education 2.0 Manifesto and highlighted the adoption and use of new media in teaching.

With his study, Ronald sought to motivate educators to adopt and integrate new media technologies into their curricula. Lamb and Johnson (2010) suggest that it is essential for teachers to learn modern teaching concepts, strategies, and technology tools in order to teach and communicate with students. New media technologies continue to emerge every day. Teachers who use new media technologies play an important role in teaching students how to use and make innovative uses of various new media technology tools (Parker & Chao, 2007).

Some students have pre-existing knowledge or have natural skills that help them adapt to the constantly change of new media tools, but more students need teacher assistance and special interventions to learn to use modern technology tools proficiently (Kim, Hong, Bonk, & Lim, 2009).

Prensky (2010), on the other hand, indicated that teachers should encourage students to explore new media tools and should not necessarily teach but facilitate how to use these tools. Buffington (2008), Overby (2009), and Richardson (2010) also supported the assertion that new media tools influence teaching. Deaney, Ruthven and Brindley (2006) indicated that from time to time professional and technical training are essential for educators to keep current with the changes in new technologies in teaching. Geijsel and Meijers (2005) suggested that some teachers find the integration of technology in teaching is insufficient for preparing students for current learning and construction of knowledge because the teachers believe that direct instruction plays a more important role in teaching and learning.

Therefore, teachers’ perception, attitudes and approach toward using new technological tools in teaching has a catalyst effect on students and teachers who are inspired to adopt and plan to integrate and use new media technologies in teaching (Norris & Soloway, 2011). More often than not, technically trained and organized teachers have positive attitudes and high levels of acceptance of new media technologies in teaching (Baltaci-Goktalay & Ozdilek, 2010).

Student-centered learning

The use of technologies is associated with student-centered learning, and educators should implement the transition from the teacher-oriented to student-oriented approach. It is essential to review the scope of knowledge on the implementation of the student-oriented learning, which can help obtain the background information necessary to answer the research questions concerning the use of technology. The review can also be instrumental in identifying barriers to the use of innovative methods in teaching.

Innovative tools and modern learning needs are changing the way students and teachers interact with each other. Roland (2005), Yueh-Min, Yang, and Chin-Chung (2009) suggest that incorporating new media technologies in teaching encourage the construction of knowledge, which refers to the idea that learners create and construct knowledge by observing, asking questions, making inquiries, and/or using scientific strategies.

In student-centered learning, teachers are project designers who coordinate, moderate, and mentor students, while students inquire, infer, understand, investigate, and take responsibility for their own learning progress and collaborate with their peers. Brooks and Brooks (2001) suggested that this view of learning motivates students to ask questions, and use their new skills to create more knowledge and share with other learners.

Digital natives at any time of the day are busy multitasking, engaging in parallel thinking, texting, listening to music, checking emails and Facebook updates, checking lectures, reading, or completing homework assignments that may be posted online (Zheng, 2012; Sanchez, Salinas, Contreras & Meyer, 2010; Taylor & Keeter, 2010). Some students also follow their peers on Twitter and Instagram and access picture updates on Flickr (Butterfield & Fake, 2005).

Therefore, it is important that teachers focus on students’ pre-existing conceptions and knowledge, learning skills, language limitations, and learning disabilities, if any, and involve them in group activities and student-centered activities by integrating interactive technology-based learning. Thus, to create an effective learning environment and to comply with the CCSS, teachers must plan and practice new media technology-integrated curriculum and encourage and involve students in classroom learning (Conley, 2011).

CCSS will be adopted in 45 states during the time period of 2015-2017. Sensing a gap in theories to support the adoption and use of web technology in education, some researchers have explored and examined theories to learn the effects of new media technologies on users, education, community, and other professions. The interactivity of new media technologies offers the option to create, add, modify, and share created content with other users.

New media and student learning

Educators understand that students are active users of media technologies, but there are still barriers to their use of these advances in the classroom. Moreover, many teachers who also use technology are reluctant to make an extensive use of similar tools in their teaching. To identify possible barriers and address the research questions of this study, it can be beneficial to review recent trends in (or the nature of) the students’ use of new media.

Millennial students want to create and communicate knowledge, and new media tools are designed to provide student-centered learning so that students can meet these learning needs (Stanford, Crowe, & Flice, 2010). Modern students operate at what Prensky (2005, p.3) described as “twitch speed;” they expect instant responses and feedback from their teachers and friends. Students spend hours each day online, on their mobile devices, on computer games, or on social networking sites, but they do not necessarily know how to use these technological tools properly in an educational or professional manner (Lippman & Keith, 2009). Therefore, it is important that teachers incorporate new media in teaching and teach students how to construct additional knowledge, in a proficient and safe manner.

In another research Linn and Eylon (2011) noted that technology inspires students and promote knowledge integration and sharing with others, thereby extending and enriching their learning. Brooks and Brooks (2001) highlighted the fact that student-centered learning helps students to create knowledge. Likewise, new media technologies provide tools and support students to be knowledge creators. New media technologies allow readers to add their ideas, thoughts, and experiences and therefore share their knowledge in the discussion and topic under study. Therefore, an evolving social fabric is created under the influence of excellent networking (Ali, Reynolds, Ali, & Salhieh, 2011). These tools provide learners the platform for collaboration in a social environment in which they can exchange knowledge.

New media technologies are innovative and easy to use; they motivate students to learn and share knowledge. Students need teachers who use these technologies in teaching to prepare students for the future. While some students use and understand certain aspects of technology, many still need guidance in the use of new media technologies for the purpose of learning. In this context Murphy and Lebans (2008) found that teachers play a complex role in using new media to shape students’ learning experiences. They adopt new technologies for teaching and set high expectations and achievement goals for their students. Buffington (2008) found that most new media applications and updates are easily available, and most students can use new media technologies because these technologies are cost-effective and user-friendly.

Rennie and Morrison (2013) and Vijayakumar (2011) explained that new media tools can help all students, including English learners and students with some learning disabilities. New technologies improve learning skills, narrow the learning gap and can act as powerful mediators among teachers, students, and other users (Rovai, 2002 & Conley, 2011). Although some teachers have adopted technology tools in teaching, new media technology tools are still new in some schools.

Teachers may use and motivate students to use new media tools and strategies to improve social and cognitive skills and increase self-directed learning skills for better personal potential (Ginn, 2010 & Riddile, 2012). Similarly, Richardson (2006) claimed that students could use blogs to make use of language and acquire creative and collaborative skills. Likewise, the Educause Learning Initiative (2006) suggests that teachers could create a learning community in their classes and let students create and share knowledge using various new media technology tools.

As a result, students could learn to write and respond analytically. Conway (2006) claimed that some teachers use YouTube as a virtual library to support class quizzes, project presentations, and lectures. Teachers and students can share wikis for discussion, collaboration, brainstorming, and developing research projects in what is known as learning communities (Okada, Connolly, & Scott, 2012). Some educators have embraced Vygotsky’s (1978) statement, “What the child is able to do in collaboration today, he will be able to independently tomorrow” (p. 220).

For instance, Weible (2011) designed a video podcast to explore how these online tools support student content learning and guides the construction of knowledge by groups and individuals. Anderson (2007) and Roland (2005) claimed that new media technologies support constructivist-teaching practices. Richardson (2006) and Anderson (2007) also suggest that the use of web technologies enhances learning.

In the modern world, students want to create, learn, and share knowledge with other students and teachers. They can do so if new media technologies are made available at schools and if teachers adopt and use the new media technologies in teaching. It is time that teachers gravitate towards more technologically savvy way of teaching the millennial students. With the task of preparing students for a digitally driven future, it is important that educators think and plan creatively.

According to Ehlers & Carneiro (2008), the development of new media and, most importantly, the emerging learning theories, are inspiring and facilitating educational practices more effectively than the diffusion of static knowledge from teachers to students. The findings are consistent with other researchers’ results regarding the pedagogical benefits and potential of new media technologies in teaching (Alexander, 2006; Brown & Adler, 2008; Hartshorne, Ajjan & Ferdig, 2010; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007; Richardson, 2007).

Technology and the English language are two innovative aspects of the modern world that bring about societal and political changes (Tsui & Tollefson, 2007). Teachers talk about providing teaching to all the student, so it is all the more important that they adopt and use new media technology tools that offer support for English language learners and students with special learning needs, comprehension and linguistically accommodating instructions in all content areas with a focus on listening, speaking, reading, and writing (Gersten, Chard, Jayanthi, Baker, Morphy, & Flojo, 2009).

Willett (2007) evaluated informal and digital cultures to explore how different learning theories affect low-income students’ ability to acquire new media skills. Willett examined the impact of constructivism, constructionism, and situated learning on student learning skills. Willett concluded that students need to acquire diverse learning theories and some software skills in order to use new media tools. Furthermore, Wang (2008) evaluated the theoretical influence of a generic model of integrating new media technologies into teaching.

Therefore, special education and English language teachers must explore, adopt and use new media technologies in teaching to create a learning environment that fosters authentic opportunities for all students to apply and practice English language skills. Kayler and Weller (2007) and D’Souza (2007) suggested that new media supports collaboration and communication among users. Today, more teachers value the importance of technology in teaching. However, Lei (2009) found that not all teachers engage in technology use in teaching.

Barriers to the implementation of new media technologies

It is clear that the new media technologies are extensively used (by students as well as educators) in their daily lives, but these advances are still rather rarely used in classrooms. This study aims at identifying the reasons why this trend exists. To obtain the necessary background information on the matter and shape the interview and discussion questions, it is important to review barriers to the use of technological advances in the classroom settings.

Roland (2009) indicated that the web has evolved from a collection of static web sites containing information to a more interactive, social, and sharing culture, which allows interaction between the content creators and the readers. In order to embrace these changes, some teachers need help in integrating, planning, and using new media technologies in teaching and designing lessons with technology (Heiten, 2013).

Some researchers have recognized the difficulties in bringing technologies into schools and how district and school administrators can adopt new policies and motivate teachers to adopt new media and improve teaching (Buffington, 2008; Prensky, 2005; Richardson, 2006). Buffington (2008), Richardson (2010), and others advocated for the use of new media technologies in the classroom, but not all high school teachers have adopted new media technologies in their teaching.

Yang and Chen (2007), Bran (2009), and Kufi and Ozgur (2009) also found that the use of new media technologies is limited in schools, due to either a lack of adequate classroom technology or professional development and teacher motivation. This evidence suggests that teachers cannot prepare students for the modern world if they do not adopt and upgrade modern teaching practices and technologies.

Although most teachers value technology, they do not all use new media tools to support teaching due to either a lack of relevant knowledge or low self-efficacy (Lawless & Pellegrino, 2007). The literature demonstrates a gap in this area, and for this reason the researcher interviewed educators to study their views regarding what factors enable or prevent them from adopting new media technologies in teaching.

For this reason this study was designed to respond to this discrepancy and the researcher interviewed high school teachers to determine what factors influence or facilitate teachers’ adoption of new media technologies. Over time, education has adapted and used the changes arising from the latest web technologies, and this has led to certain changes in teaching and learning practices. With recent adoption of CCSS and the ever-increasing emphasis on technology integration in US education, many teachers have adopted and integrated new media technology in teaching (CCSS, 2012; U.S. Department of Education, 2010).

Although several studies have examined the accessibility of, practicality of, and need for new media technologies in education, the acceptance and use of new media still has not reached all schools (Jonathan & Joseph, 2009). It is important to encourage teachers to adopt web literacy, doing so seamlessly is complex.

It is true that some teachers find it difficult to blend direct instruction time with the new media technologies because they need more time and training to integrate and adopt new ideas and strategies to integrate them into CCSS based curriculum. McMahon (1997) suggested that technologies create new learning situations; thus, teachers can use them to create opportunities that inspire students to become motivated to acquire new information and knowledge. However, some studies indicate that limited experience and confidence in technology can hold teachers back from using modern technologies.

Brown and Adler (2008) explained that the availability of a large variety of new media tools could confuse students and discourage them from using any tools. Therefore, teachers should start with simple tools that can contribute to a collaborative learning environment.

It seems rather true that the quality of the educational system, whether in reading or using technology, cannot be higher than the quality of its teaching body or teachers (Pedro, 2012). Driven by the decision to understand and improve the quality of teaching, Moser (2007) suggested that a successful program to support educational technology should be backed with good support for teachers and staff. Moser asserted that a good support system influences teachers to apply technologies in teaching. Moser also concluded that a successful program to support educational technology should include a collaborative effort of the teachers and other supporting groups such as administrators and other stakeholders.

Keengwe, Onchwari, and Onchwari (2009) conducted a study about adopting, transforming, and applying educational technologies to promote student-centered learning. Several major barriers have been identified by teachers in the study. These include lack of available computers and related materials such as software, lack of funding resources, technical problems with existing computers, teacher resistance to use of computers in instruction, lack of administrative leadership and vision for new media technology integration.

Overall, the authors noted that the real challenges were dependent on the attitudes, commitment and motivation of each individual teacher. The researchers emphasized the proper integration of meaningful technology into curricula and concluded that student-centered learning environments need technology integration to make learning meaningful for all students.

Instructional uses of new media technologies

This study aims at identifying the role the administrative effort plays in the successful implementation of new media technologies. Hence, the background information on the matter is necessary. The primary attention is paid to the role of instruction and motivation in the process of the new technologies adoption. It is also important to understand the way administrators see their role in the process and their attitudes towards the utilization of technology.

Research indicates that educators must learn how to integrate new media technologies into their curriculum. Thorne (2003) and Lantolf and Thorne (2006) used a cultural-historical framework to understand how Internet-based tools inspired communication, encouraged peer learning and sharing of knowledge and ideas.

Dixon and Siragusa (2009) applied constructivist-learning theory and found that the use of the language laboratory on an iPod Touch enhanced second language teaching and learning. Scarino and Liddicoat (2009) and Dixon and Siragusa (2009) discussed how emails, texting, Skype, and audio and video conferencing have revolutionized education, communication and collaboration, and social and economic development. They also suggested that users enjoy using communication tools, which allow them to collaborate via online social networks, instant texting, blogging, and electronic messages.

New media technologies support new ways for creating new practices for learning and increasing student motivation, participation, and reflection skills that make them self-directed learners. Rennie and Morrison (2013) and Vijayakumar (2011) also found that new technologies improve the writing skills of all students. Coombes (2009) and Cobb (2010) suggest that technology is helpful in learning languages, while Weible (2011) examined how new media technologies developed academic discussions in science classes.

For example, some online students feel the lack of face-to-face interaction, but they can communicate, collaborate, share information and ideas, work on projects, exchange notes, and ask questions via Skype and joinme.com. The selected literature leads to the research that certain factors in participants’ views may affect or inspire them to adopt and use new media technologies in teaching.

Richardson (2010) found that blogs are widely adopted tools because they are easy to create, and Overby (2009) found that blogs have the potential to enhance student learning and writing and facilitate teaching. Millennial students have a positive attitude toward interacting with the web environment in learning, but Kufi and Ozgur (2009) and Girgin (2011) found that some students favor face-to-face teaching when learning English. De Laat (2006) studied various research findings, which indicated that collaboration among students working on learning projects requires the development of a wide range of learning skills. Xie, Ke, and Sharma (2008) studied the interaction effects of peer feedback and blogging on undergraduates’ thinking skills and learning styles.

These researchers used an empirical design for this one-semester-long study and found that, when the students updated their blogs every week, their reflective thinking levels showed a significant increase. All of the students used wikis as a knowledge management tool.

Similarly, Barth (2007) also found that wikis support self-reflection processes. However, the existing literature does not discuss teachers’ experiences or explain what factors may be affecting the adoption of new media technologies in high schools in central valley, California. The study provides insight into the adoption process participating teachers use related to Web 2.0 and other new media technologies in teaching to develop students’ cognitive growth (Green & Hannon, 2007). New media technologies continue to emerge every day.

Bran (2009) suggests that learners can benefit from using new media technologies in learning and creating knowledge by collaborating and connecting with people all around the world, with no time or age limits. Yang and Chen (2007) suggest that a new media-based language-learning program could enhance students’ knowledge of computers and improve their English language abilities. Language is empowerment, and English language is one of the key elements needed everywhere in the professional and social realms. As technological advances have enabled users to access communication with just a click or a call and since populations have become more diverse, use of a common language – English – is required in this digital world.

There is a great deal of evidence that some teachers do not use technology when they teach, with the exceptions of the overhead projector, email exchanges, and PowerPoint presentations (Tezci 2009; Goktas, Yıldırım, & Yıldırım, 2008). These examples are valuable, but there seems to be a gap in the present literature and for this reason, this research studied educators’ views and have found some factors that may be limiting or motivating teachers’ decision about adopting and using new media technologies in high school teaching (IJEDICT, 2012).

Eyyam, Menevis, and Dogruer (2011) used Kolb’s (1985) four types of learning styles in a descriptive study and found that most teachers do not experiment with new tools, but they use wikis and PowerPoint presentations in class and social networks in addition to instant messaging. To help students pursue career paths in other fields such as law, engineering, designing, teaching, and art, teachers must explore new media tools and involve students, encouraging them to imagine, ask questions, explore, experiment, write, construct, plan, read, create, draw, share, communicate, collaborate, present, and evolve (Information Resources Management Association, 2010).

The literature demonstrates a gap in this area, and to narrow this gap, the researcher interviewed and studied educators’ perceptions, views, ideas and experiences to determine what factors may be influencing or limiting the adoption and use of new media technologies in high school teaching. Tüzün, Yılmaz-Soylu, Karakuş, İnal, and Kızılkaya (2009) conducted a mixed method study about theoretical gaming. They interviewed educators with open-ended questions and assessed gains in student achievement and affect following interaction with the inquiry-based educational game.

New media tools with common core standards

This study is about New Media Technologies and not focus on CCSS but how they contribute to CCSS. It is essential to pay attention to this topic as it is linked to one of the research questions. It is beneficial to review the existing standards on the use of technology to understand whether educators are encouraged or forced to use innovative technologies in their teaching.

To date, 45 US states are adopting the CCSS (CCSS, 2012). These standards have been designed to prepare students to use their existing knowledge to create new knowledge. The standards were also designed to ensure that students are college and career ready in preparation for active citizenship in a globalized society by using new media technologies and collaborating and communicating with teachers and students (CCSS, 2010). Therefore, teachers should be versed in the use of new media technologies and the CCSS.

Methodologies and designs from prior studies

This research is based on the analysis of qualitative data, and it is important to make sure that this approach is the most efficient. The review of the existing literature on the topic is essential for the development of the most appropriate methodology. The review of qualitative and quantitative studies allows to reveal the benefits of the approaches and their limitations as well as the goals they help achieve.

The literature reveals that some researchers, administrators, and teachers have different views and experiences about the adoption, integration, use, and impact of new media technologies on teaching and student learning. Some empirical studies, both qualitative and quantitative, discussed here have used different theories such as the Diffusion of Innovation theory (Rogers, 1962), the Technology Acceptance Model (Park, 2009), the Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975), and the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1987). The models also highlight the importance of the characteristics of the technology and the organizational context and technology users.

Some of the discussed studies were conducted in universities, colleges, elementary schools, or middle schools; therefore, the results in high school classrooms could vary. A number of studies consulted for this research used qualitative research design approaches with surveys and interviews as the preferred instruments of data collection. For instance the study by Salleh and Lexman (2013) used ready-made questions, the ICT in Education (ICTE) questionnaire that also incorporated elements of the theory of planned behavior.

The analysis of surveys allowed researchers to identify the trends existing in the field rather than opinions of particular individuals. However, interviews and discussions were primary methods of data collection as many researchers were interested in the stakeholders’ ideas on the matter (Brinkerhoff, 2006; Karasavvidis, 2010). Overall, it relies on a survey as its design. The study by Kenna and Russess opted to rely on a survey of teachers to narrate the historical effect of CCSS on social studies (2014).

It is possible to note that quantitative studies are quite frequent in the scope of the literature as researchers are interested in particular ways technology affects students and their performance (Badilla-Quintana, Cortada-Pujol &Riera-Romaní, 2012; Ajjan, H., & Hartshorne, 2008). Thus, students did tests and displayed their skills in using technology, which was often linked to their academic performance.

Researchers traced the routes of standard based educational reform (SBER) and have published a number of studies between 1950 and 2010. Recently, Kenna and Russess used the best match of the studies to influence their approach to answering their research question, which was to find out historical influences of Common Core State Standards on Social Studies. They researched information through common government policies and state acts like America 2000 education strategy, No Child Left behind Act and Goals 2000: Educate America Act. By following the descriptions of the acts and regulation, the researchers were able to develop a convincing report for their research (Kenna & Russell, 2014).

Pierce and Stacey (2013) studied 10 students aged 15 to 16 years old from a school that was in a middle class area. The students were selected based on their potential to benefit most from the development of new math teaching practices. Pierce and Stacey collected data for two years and during this time, they worked with seven teachers. The researchers also used data from four of the seven teachers for a subset report, and all the four teachers taught the students in the two years of study.

In the study, the teachers took part in a professional learning program that covered lesson study. The researchers ran the program together with math leaders. During the first year, the researchers did data collection using surveys and formal interviews, with many informal interviews also helping to inform observational reports. During the study, teachers also observed their peers. The teachers then formed a focused group with the researcher to analyze lesson features.

After that, teachers would go to teach their classes following the same lesson approach, while other teachers and researchers observed. The process was repeated several times. As the study progressed, the researchers tracked intentions, attitudes, and perceptions that had the highest probability of influencing the teacher to use technology. Researchers ended up creating a pedagogical map that was based on the results of a survey. The map gave a picture of each teacher’s perceptions of teaching in the math specific technology program introduced by the researchers (Pierce & Stacey, 2013).

Baker (2011) provides an opinion and interpretation of activities conducted using new media technologies and teachers. The author reports on the reaction of students, and provides a description and intention of various teaching activities. By mentioning tools under the subjects of visual literacy, advertising, digital storytelling, movies and language of film and teaching the language of film, the author brings out a range of tools and their interaction with the teacher’s job of teaching. While the research report by (Moore & Kearsley, 2012) found how instructors have embraced technology in their teaching and how their students have been able to learn.

Advocates support technology use in teaching but there is concern about the increasing gap between the current use of technologies for teaching and learning in schools and the daily experiences that students have with technologies outside of school (OECD, 2012). Gillen and Barton (2010) say that digital literacies are dynamic because technology is developing so fast. They offer a definition of digital literacies as “the constantly changing practices through which people make traceable meanings using digital technologies” (p.9).

In this study the researcher has summarized interviews and focus group discussions with the participants to highlight five important themes about their attitude towards technology use. This study design allows to identify particular ideas and opinions of educators working in a particular community. The participants will be in their natural environment (their schools and classes), which will help them relax and provide complete, precise and sincere answers. This instrumentation also enables the researcher to identify recurrent themes that can be used for later inquiries.

Five common themes were found regarding similarities between and among educators’ experiences about adopting and using new media technologies in CCSS curriculum based teaching. The first theme revealed that teachers did not believe enough time was available for them to plan and practice using new media technologies. About the second theme, the results indicated that educators shared similar beliefs about available professional development opportunities to learn about CCSS and integrating new media technologies in new curricula. The third theme revealed teachers’ attitudes, regardless of years of experience, were overall positive toward new media technologies.

A fourth theme identified was that many participants had a fear that integration of new media technologies in CCSS curriculum may not be very successful. Some teachers said that they were scared of technology breaking and some that specific barriers existed that kept them from being able to utilize these technologies as much as they would like. The fifth theme was that all participants shared the similar personality trait of being life-long learners.

Although time constraints, professional development and other factors contributed to participants’ prospects to learn and practice new media technologies in teaching, all participants cited a desire to learn to enhance their professional practice.

The themes also bring out the motivation for adopting technology as a teaching aid. Through individual reports, the study is able to show the inspiration that the instructors have for taking technology tools and introducing them to their students. The researchers also narrated in third person the vision of the instructors, which helps to inform potential study areas for future research on the same subject. In the study of teaching with technology, Everett (2015) also relies on personal experiences as a teacher to explain the attitudes and motivations of embracing technology as a teaching tool. At the same time, the report quotes other teachers who have achieved positive results with technology. It quotes their reasons, which help to justify integration of new media technology in the teaching.

Kale and Goh (2014) used a survey for their study targeting public school teachers in West Virginia. School administrators and 160 teachers participated in online surveys for this study. The motivations of the survey were to examine attitudes and experiences that the teacher had in using Web 2.0 technologies with their teaching style. The study provides a teacher’s employment history in West Virginia following secondary data from literature and official reports.

Thirteen schools participated in the study, with the focus being on teachers from the public high schools. In contrast, the main focus of this qualitative research was to study and analyze teachers’ perceptions, ideas and views why some factors hold or motivate high school teachers to adopt, integrate, and use new media technologies in high school teaching. Participating administrators also offered perspectives on teacher and school’s readiness for the study.

Existing literature and the topic of the research

The review of the existing literature has enabled the researcher to identify major aspects of the problem that, in their turn, allow to shape the research and choose the most efficient methodology to address the research questions. Thus, the data on the theory of planned behavior provide the necessary framework used to evaluate the participants’ behavior and their attitudes. The approach also helps understand the nature of barriers to the employment of the technology as educators often fail to believe in the benefits of the new media technology.

The review of the sources on the matter was instrumental in identifying the ways new technology is seen in the modern education. The literature analysis shows that young adult and adult teachers are aware of the major advances and can use the technology in their day-to-date activities (Buffington, 2008). At that, seasoned educators are less knowledgeable and prepared to implement new media technologies (Bauleke & Herrmann, 2010). These findings are consistent with the results of this research.

Student-centered learning appeared to be an important aspect of the present research. It is apparent that some educators still employ a teacher-centered approach although the student-centered learning is becoming a preferable method nationwide. Importantly, student-centered learning is closely connected with the use of the new media technology as high school students extensively use media in their lives (Conley, 2008). The recent research (as well as the present study) shows that students benefit from the incorporation of technology into their classroom environment.

The literature review also helped identify some of the barriers to the implementation of new media technologies. Although some technical issues occur, the educators’ reluctance to implement the new media is central to the slow adoption of technology (Keengwe et al., 2009). This study revealed the same barriers with particular insights into educators’ beliefs on the matter, which makes it a significant contribution to the existing literature.

The focus on the instructional influence on the use of technology in classrooms enabled the researcher to form a deeper understanding of the way administrators can affect the process. This study involved interviews with instructors, and the existing trends helped develop the questions to elicit the administrators’ ideas on the matter. Finally, the review of the methodologies employed to analyze the use of new media technologies was instrumental in shaping the research and choosing the most efficient methodology.

Summary

In summary, where the adoption and use of new media technologies in teaching has revolutionized modern learning the way students prefer to learn and some teachers need professional training in new software and new learning. Therein lay the gap identified in the background of this case study that many teachers are not adopting and integrating new media technologies in daily teaching based on new CCSSs. A significant shift in the new CCSSs versus the previous California State Standards is the goal of college and career readiness for all students (Rotman, 2012). Therefore, in order to achieve expected goals, it is imperative that all administrators encourage, teachers to adopt and use new media technologies in teaching.

For this reason, to explore and analyze participating high school teachers’ perceptions, experiences and ideas, a qualitative case study design was used. The theory of Planned Behavior was also used to focus on participants shared ideas (Ajzen, 1987). The participants discussed their experiences during interview and focus group discussion that why or why not all teachers adopt and use new media technologies in their teaching (Appendix A and B).

They also discussed their needs like support, technology tools, equipment, professional development and time provided and what they need to help millennials learn the CCSS curriculum with new media technologies. Interviews, focus group discussions and field notes were useful in collecting and studying in depth different forms of ideas and views about this qualitative case study – triangulation method.

Instrumentation

In this qualitative case study, the researcher used personal interviews, focus group discussion and field notes as instruments to collect data. The first stage of instrument development for this study was the creation of a questionnaire that utilized interview questions and focus group discussion questions. Research questions, primary interview questions, field notes and focus group questions guided the discussions with the educators to understand their perceptions, ideas and experiences. The interview questions and the focus group questions were based on the three research questions (Appendix A and B).

The literature reveals that some researchers, administrators, and teachers have different views and experiences about the adoption, integration, use, and impact of new media technologies on teaching and student learning. CCSSs are new standards and 46 states are all in different phases of adopting these standards. CCSS based studies may be conducted 2-3 years after these standards have been adopted and implemented in teaching.

Some empirical studies, both qualitative and quantitative, discussed here have used different theories such as the Diffusion of Innovation theory (Roger, 1962) the Technology Acceptance Model (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000), the Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1987). The models also highlight the importance of the characteristics of the technology and the organizational context and technology users. Whereas, for this qualitative study, an explanatory study method was used to explore and analyze five themes and three forms of data that gave a richer inclusive description of the phenomenon under study.

Multiple sources of data also support the validity of this study by providing evidence to support reported findings. Case studies are bound by time and activity so research data for this study was collected and analyzed by taking field notes, interviewing educators and by recording their focus group discussions. Interview responses and group discussions indicate current trend of technology adoption and use in teaching. Some researchers propose various factors and intent variables that as predicted affect the adoption and use of technology in teaching.

Discuss and synthesize the various methodologies and designs that have been used in prior empirical research related to the study. Must use authoritative sources to justify the proposed design.
Provide discussion and justification for the instrumentation selected for the study. This section must argue the appropriateness of the dissertation’s instruments, measures, and/or approaches used to collect data.
Structures literature review in a logical order, includes actual data and accurate synthesis of results from reviewed studies as related to the learners own topic, not just a summary of the findings.
Includes in each major section (theme or topic) within the Review of Literature an introductory paragraph that explains why the particular theme or topic was explored relative to the overall topic.
  1. compares and contrasts alternative perspectives on the topic and
  2. provides a synthesis of the themes relative to the research topic discussed that emerged from the literature,
  3. identifies how themes are relevant to the proposed dissertation topic.

TPB is suitable in predicting teacher intentions

The theory of Planned Behavior was used as a theoretical method to explore teachers’ experiences about adopting and using new media technologies in newly adopted CCSS curriculum. This study has used Ajzen’s (1998) TPB as a framework. TPB has been a major framework informing the field of technology adoption. It is important to know that technology has the potential of transforming the way teachers and students learn and construct knowledge.

The main focus of this qualitative research was to study and analyze teachers’ perceptions, ideas and views why some factors hold or motivate high school teachers to adopt, integrate, and use new media technologies in their teaching. This research has studied data collected during interviews, focus group discussion and field notes to find answers to the three research questions and an overarching question to determine factors that influence or facilitate teachers’ perception to adopt new media technologies in CCSS based teaching (Appendix A and B).

Apart from the theoretical framework, it is important to identify other instruments used. Thus, when interviewing the participants, the researcher focused on the research questions mentioned above. The interviews consisted of open-ended questions that could be placed into three categories complying with the research questions. The first set of questions focused on participants’ ideas on media technologies and their integration into regular instructions.

The second set of questions was concerned with the influence of training and administrative support on the deployment of media technologies. Finally, there were questions that addressed the participants’ views on the way media technologies are linked to the CCSS. Importantly, the researcher did not stick to the questions developed prior to the interviews but could ask for clarifications if necessary. This approach allowed to elicit more comprehensive data on the matter.

The discussion in the focus groups was also guided by the research questions. Besides, the people who were in the focus groups were chosen on the basis of their answers during the interviews. Importantly, five people who tend to employ media technology and five people who often utilize new media technologies took part in the discussion. This was the deliberate choice since the opposing views and attitudes of the participants contributed to the effective sharing of ideas and knowledge. During the discussions, the researcher encouraged the participants to discuss topics and issues that occurred during the interviews.

Instrumentation is defined by the tools used to gather data. For example during interview what guided interviews? Do the same for focus group sessions. What was used, i.e., instrumentation, as a guide for the discussions?

Revise this section so it only contains discussion and justification for the instrumentation selected for the study. Along with a statement about the appropriateness of selected instruments and approach.

Summary

Chapter 2 focused on the TPB as related to the study and presents a review of the current research on the significance of the topic under study. The literature review also discusses teachers’ attitudes, roles, and effectiveness as leaders to encourage and support the adoption and use of new media technologies in modern teaching (Green & Hannon, 2007). The relevant literature review in research preparation provides the functions and limitations of new media technologies and practical approaches to why educators may and should adopt and integrate new media tools in their curriculum (Akyeampong, 2011). The literature review also highlights the vital role new media plays in developing modern curriculum based on CCSS (2012).

The literature review addresses how new media technologies support the new Common Core State Standards, thereby enhancing teaching and student learning and improving student motivation and engagement in class (Abdous, Facer & Yen, 2012; Laborda, Magal-Royo, de Siqueira Rocha, & Álvarez, 2010). In addition, the literature review highlights the significance of the needed move from the longstanding teaching style to the innovative 21st century technology-based learning approach and evolving shift from teacher-centered to student-centered CCSS learning.

However, not enough findings support the fact that new media technology adoption over the years leads to better outcomes in teaching (Bolick, 2008). CCSSs have recently been adopted and not much research is available that how and why teachers should integrate new media technologies in their teaching. Based on the discussed gaps that found in the literature review for this study in terms of the value of the research, three research questions and an overarching question emerged from the review of literature.

Therefore, this study addresses the challenge of limited adoption of new media technologies in some Central Valley high schools. The study and analysis of collected field notes, interviews and focus group discussion data helped in finding answers to three research questions and an overarching question. Participants’ answers helped the researcher to explore, predicted and intent factors that encourage or influence teachers’ from adopting new media technologies in teaching.

TPB suitable framework

This study has used Ajzen’s (1998) TPB as a framework. TPB has been a major framework informing the field of technology adoption. It is important to know that technology has the potential of transforming the way teachers and students learn and construct knowledge. Renzi and Klobas (2008) allowed for a better understanding of the TPB by integrating it into different settings; instead of the traditional learning or business environment, the theory is implemented within the high school settings. Rogers (2003) described that interaction, communication, and collaboration plays a vital role in the diffusion of technology.

Rogers’ (2003) diffusion theory offers insight into the importance of social processes in technology adoption in teaching. The findings of this study add to the insight of the current research that, by using Ajzen’s TPB, the researcher determined teachers’ perspectives, thus suggesting factors that limit or influence them to adopt and use new media technologies in CCSS-based teaching curricula. Neyland (2011) described peer support as a prerequisite for the successful adoption of technology, but little published material is available that discusses the cohesive nature of teacher team work in the area of technology adoption.

The literature review unveiled the existing gaps in the current research. Thus, the role of administrators is not in the focus of researchers. It is unclear whether administrators’ encouragement or instruction may contribute to the adoption of the new media technology. Furthermore, although some barriers to the implementation of technology have been discussed, it is not clear why teachers who work more than ten years are reluctant to adopt the technologies. There is also insufficient information on the connection between the core standards and the use of new media technologies. This research aims at filling the gaps through identification of educators’ perceptions concerning new media technologies with a focus in high school learning environment.

In this qualitative case study, the participants communicated the significance of new media technologies and motivated each other to adopt, integrate and use new media technologies. All California high schools are adopting CCSS-based curriculum, and therefore it is imperative that teachers integrate new media technologies in their curriculum. The findings of this study highlight how Ajzens’ theory allows better understanding of teachers’ perceptions, views and experiences in planning and using new media technologies in CCSS-based teaching.

TPB and the study findings

This qualitative case study used TPB to study and analyze data of 25 participants from a school district. The data was collected by taking field notes, conducting personal interviews and focus group discussion. This study findings add to the present findings that CCSS and new media technologies encourage collaboration and communication among teachers, with administration and with students. CCSS encourage users to collaborate and communicate the ideas, strategies, and new media technologies they use in learning. The findings also encourage administration to offer professional development related to new teaching standards, new curriculum and new media technologies in teaching.

The review of the literature helped identify the samples for the present research. Although some studies focused on teachers’ attitudes, little is known about the perceptions of educators in Californian high schools. The researcher also paid specific attention to the participants’ age. It has been acknowledged that older teachers try to avoid using the technology, but their ideas on the matter are not properly voiced.

Thus, Chapter 2 includes a detailed review of the existing literature on the matter. The review enabled the researcher to identify major topics and recurrent themes that informed the present research. These themes include the employment of the theory of planned behavior, student-centered learning approach, the links between these approaches and the use of technology as well as core standards. The way educators see technology and use it in their teaching is another recurrent topic. The analysis of this background information allows to develop the appropriate methodology to address the research questions.

Chapter 3 applied the theoretical framework and related constructs (discussed in Chapter 2: Review of Literature) to the development of this study. The focus groups and approach to data analysis have been discussed in Chapter 3. The following chapter also presents research methodology that frames this qualitative case study and guides the research, the instrument used, a description of the research method and design, and the data collection and analysis procedures.

Synthesizes the information from all of the prior sections in the Literature Review using it to define the key strategic points for the research.
Summarizes the gaps and needs in the background and introduction describing how it informs the problem statement.
Identifies the theory(ies) or model(s) describing how they inform the research questions.
Justifies the design, variables or phenomena, data collection instruments or sources, and population to be studied.
Builds a case (argument) for the study in terms of the value of the research and how the research questions emerged from the review of literature
Summarizes key points in Chapter 2 and transitions into Chapter 3.

Methodology

Introduction

Teachers can improve student engagement and learning by using new media technology tools in the classroom. New media technologies support learning and offer a combination of visual, auditory, and tactile learning styles that enable learners to use a variety of technology tools to create, modify, and share knowledge (Franklin & Van Harmelen, 2007). However, some researchers also denote that many technical and nontechnical challenges are eminent when it comes to the deployment of new technology in institutes and organizations (Kronos, 2013; Nagel, 2013; Juniper Networks, 2014).

There is a need to conduct research related to the adoption and integration of new media technologies in high school teaching. It is important that the research explores the factors or challenges that teachers feel affect or inspire their understanding to adopt and use new media technologies in daily classroom teaching.

The primary purpose of this study was to explore factors that influenced teacher adoption, integration, and use of new media technologies into their curriculum based on the Common Core Standards (CCSS). This chapter describes the methods that were used in collecting data and the techniques that were used in the synthesis and analysis of data to derive critical findings and recommendations. This is a guiding chapter, as it provides steps on how to approach the research problem that has been discussed in both Chapters 1 and 2. The problem of this study indicated that, it was not known which ideas, experiences, and approach either limited or influenced teachers to adopt, integrate, and use new media technologies in teaching in high schools in a school district in central valley, California.

The chapter begins with a restatement of the research problem. This is followed by the presentation of the research methodology, under which the research design and data collection techniques, tools, and methods to be deployed in the research are explored. Justifications for the chosen techniques, tools, and methods are also included. Data analysis procedures are also discussed in this chapter.

Statement of the Problem

The problem is that it is not quite known why some teachers are reluctant to adopt and use new media technologies in teaching. Although teachers value technology use in teaching, some teachers do not adopt or fail to use new media technologies in daily teaching. Many teachers choose not to adopt or are taking time to adopt and use new media technologies in teaching (Halimatou & Yang, 2014). Although new media technologies offer educational benefits, it was not known what factors affect or inspire teachers’ adoption and integration of new media technologies into their curriculum based on the CCSS in four high schools located in a school district located in Central Valley, California.

Educators’ understanding and preferences

Most teachers recognize that they need more training and preparation to integrate technology into their curricula in effective and meaningful ways (Sang, Valcke, Van Braak, & Tondeur, 2010). Based on the findings of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), the use of new media technologies among educators and students showed enhancement in the development of problem solving and improvement of decision-making skills (Jones & Cuthrell, 2011).

Adoption and integration of new media technologies into the curricula has largely been dependent on educators’ preferences. According to Minnich (2010), director of standards and assessments for the Council of Chief State School Officers, many states were considering how to adopt the CCSS and educate students in new media technology skills to succeed in college and careers starting in the 2014-15 school year (Donnelly, McGarr, & O’Reilly, 2011).

A gap in existing literature and participants’ perceptions

Schuck, Aubusson, and Kearney (2010) believed that uneven and slow adoption of new media technologies in schools is due to limited teacher familiarity and skills with these tools and partly due to the supposed risks of using these technologies in the classroom. Educators are agents of change, therefore teachers should adopt and use new technologies in teaching (Gladwell, 2002). The use of new media technologies in schools is considered to be a process in itself, where the standards that allow new media adoption are set first (Jones & Cuthrell, 2011). Hence, failure to effectively use new media technologies could lead students to be inadequately prepared for college and for the globalized world. There is little known about the adoption, integration and use of new media technologies in high schools that are adopting CCSS by the 2014 -17.

Therefore, a gap in the literature exists, and this case study was conducted to explore and understand educators’ perceptions, ideas and experiences to narrow the existing gap. This study has explored teacher perceptions that have limited or motivated them to adopt, integrate and use new media technologies in daily teaching. This study has discussed some challenges faced by educators who may or may not adopt, integrate and practice new media technologies in classroom teaching. As a high school teacher, the researcher sought to gather information that will help contribute to, or solve, the discussed problem in teaching and therefore narrow this gap in the literature.

Research Questions

This study examined the factors that may have been influencing teachers’ adoption and effective integration and use of new media technologies in their teaching. The primary sources were the participating high school teachers and administrators from the target school district. The participants were personally interviewed by the researcher, and they also participated in focus group discussion to answer the research question.

In order to do so, the following research questions have been answered through the data that has been collected and processed as indicated in the introduction to this chapter. The researcher used focus group discussion notes, field notes, and interviews with high school teachers and three administrators to gather data from four high schools located in one school district in central valley, California.

Three research questions guide data collection

  • R1. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how are they integrated into daily instruction?
  • R2. How do teachers report the way in which training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?
  • R3. How do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core State Standards?

Technology is a major contributing factor in students’ level of career readiness.

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and a modern technology approach can significantly change education; new media technology has great potential to help students learn (Common Core State Standards, 2012). For this reason, the three research questions and one overarching question was used to enable teachers to share their perspectives regarding the importance and effective uses of new media tools. Findings of this case study support how participating administrators and high school teachers’ ideas and experiences can motivate them and other teachers to adopt and integrate new media technologies in daily instruction. The collected data may also motivate teachers to align their curriculum with CCSS, which is a shift from teacher-centered learning to more real-life and student-centered learning.

Ajzen’s (1988) TPB links teachers’ beliefs and behavior

Ajzen proposed this concept to improve on the predictive power of the theory of reasoned action by including perceived behavioral control. The theory of reasoned action explains that, if people evaluate the suggested behavior as positive, and if they think others want them to perform the behavior, they may be inspired to do so (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). For instance, some teachers’ attitudes towards adopting and using or not using new media technologies in teaching can be viewed as simple behavioral patterns.

Although these patterns play a part in decision making, no certain factors for successful new media technology adoption in high school teaching are yet defined (Ajzen, 1988; Hew & Brush, 2007). The factors of teachers’ attitude, subjective norms, behavior and behavioral intention towards new media technology adoption are not fully studied in the high school environment (Hew & Brush, 2007). In other words the factors in the TPB are appropriate and sufficient to describe phenomenon of this study.

Three research questions were appropriately framed

  • R1. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how are they integrated into daily instruction?

Research Question 1 (R1) was designed to allow teachers to discuss, share and suggest their perceptions, views and ideas about new media technologies and how they integrate new technologies in teaching. Teacher perceptions and view would explore and support ideas that influence or limit them to adoption, integrate and use of new media technologies in daily teaching. Perceptions, views, ideas and needs of this group of teachers can advance the TPB and the actions of the teacher. If teachers share their experiences with other teachers, then their planned behaviors may include adoption, integration and use of new media technologies in classroom teaching and therefore influence others to integrate new media technologies in daily teaching as well.

  • R2. How do teachers report the way in which training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?

Research Question 2 (R2) was designed to allow teachers to suggest ideas concerning the means for teachers and administrators to offer and undergo technology and professional training opportunities and administrative support that would give them confidence and influence them to adopt new media technologies in their daily teaching. Trainings would keep educators at par with the latest technologies available and suitable for their teaching. Administrators and training would help teachers to better understand the needs, possibilities and exchange ideas and perceptions about new tools and how they could help students and teachers in classroom learning. Discovery of the training and knowledge needs of this group of teachers can advance the TPB and the actions of the teacher. If teachers are trained appropriately, then their planned behaviors may include adoption, integration and use of new media technologies in daily teaching.

  • R3. How do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core State Standards?

Research question 3 (R3) was designed to allow teachers to suggest and recommend ideas concerning new media technologies and their connection to CCSS. The collected data were also expected to provide ideas regarding the means for administrators to guide teachers to adopt, integrate and use new media and CCSS curricula into the teaching process. Collaboration, communication and trainings about technology tools and CCSS will help teachers understand the relation and importance of both. Good understanding about the need, use and results of the relation between CCSS and new media technologies would able teachers plan and share their ideas with other teachers. Hence, the three research questions were appropriately framed in order to determine what factors may have limited or influenced the adoption and integration of new media technology tools in teaching in the target high schools.

Case study was an appropriate design for this qualitative study

Stake (1995) noted that case studies bring out details from the viewpoint of the participants by using multiple sources of data and are designed to explore factors that may help in defining a clear set of outcomes. For this reason, semi-structured interviews, a focus group discussion and field notes were used to collect data to achieve detailed understanding of the educators’ views and experiences about adopting and using new media tools in high school teaching. Yin (2003) posited that case studies are appropriate research methodology when the focus of the study is a “how” or “why” question, when contextual conditions are highly relevant to the studied phenomenon, and when the boundaries between the phenomenon and context are not clear.

Yin (2003) also suggested that a variety of evidence and data with different scopes are the most significant attributes of qualitative case studies. Three forms of data, including face-to-face individual interviews, focus group discussion, and field notes, were used in this study to provide a richer inclusive description of the topic under consideration (Yin, 1984). The researcher attempted to listen to the participants and give a voice to their views and experiences concerning the problem in question.

Stake (1994) claimed that a case study should avail a detailed explanation of the study topic. The case study design is favorable for studying the questions in this research, since it focuses on a limited number of respondents in a limited environment; in this case, the sampled four high schools in California. In this study, it was easy to understand the confines of the environment under the selected schools and how such case environments shape the adoption and integration of new media technologies in curricula. Therefore, a case study was an appropriate design for this qualitative study.

It is also important to understand the sources of information gathered for this research. Clearly, the analysis of primary data will be central to the case study. The participants’ accounts will help identify specific opinions and beliefs that motivate or discourage educators to employ media technologies. As far as the primary data are concerned, it is crucial to address teachers and administrators as their voices have been unheard so far (Lai & Chen, 2011; Crook & Harrison, 2008). Primary data were used as the basis for answering all the three research questions.

Apart from that, secondary data analysis is also an essential part of this research. Johnston (2014) notes that the utilization of secondary data allows the researcher to obtain the generalized information on the topic. Such data also help identify areas of primary concern. It is possible to note that the analysis of secondary can be regarded as certain guidance for the researcher. Finally, the Internet was one of the major sources when collecting secondary data. The researcher accessed open sources as well as databases and online libraries. All these methods helped to obtain background information that was later used to answer the research questions. Notably, the data on the link between the use of technology and CCSS were rather scarce.

Describes the nature and sources of necessary data to answer the research questions (primary versus secondary data, specific people, institutional archives, Internet open sources, etc.).
Describe the instrument(s) or data source(s) to collect the data to answer each research question.

Research Methodology

The research methodology is qualitative in nature. Yin (2003) stated that a qualitative methodology allows an in-depth analysis of phenomena within its real-life context. Qualitative research implies a “direct concern with experience as it is ‘lived’ or ‘felt’ or’ undergone’” (Sherman & Webb, 1988, p. 7). A qualitative method was selected as the best approach to answer the research questions. Answers to the research questions also found answer to the overarching question.

Qualitative methodology

Qualitative methods present expectations, relative assumptions and verbally based representations of data. Marshall and Rossman (1995) explained that the purpose of qualitative research is to explore, explain, describe, and predict. In this study qualitative methods, such as field notes, face-to-face, open-ended, semi-structured personal interviews and a focus group discussion approach to data collection provided participants with a deeper understanding of the significance and effects of new media technologies in modern teaching.

Kvale (1996) defined qualitative research interviews as “attempts to understand the world from the subjects’ point of view, to unfold the meaning of peoples’ experiences” (p.1). Qualitative methods do not involve measurement or statistics. According to Sherman and Webb (1988) qualitative research is “discovery” research. In this study the 25 participants who were interviewed, spoke for themselves and shared their ideas, perceptions and experiences about adopting, integrating and using or shying away from integrating and using new media technologies in teaching.

It is noteworthy that quantitative research method would be inefficient when addressing the present research questions. Choy (2014) states that one of the primary strengths of the quantitative approach is that it allows to develop comparisons between groups and evaluate particular indices, for instance, the performance of students or teachers. However, the focus of this research is not the performance, but beliefs that motivate people and shape their behavior. Quantitative method is often used to generalize, and vast populations are examined. This makes it impossible to identify beliefs of people pertaining to a particular community. These limitations made the quantitative research method impossible in the present case.

TPB in a qualitative case study

Although research on the TPB is largely quantitative, this case study was qualitative because the researcher interviewed teachers, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed their interviews and focus group discussion, and took field notes to study their perceptions and identify the factors that influenced teachers’ views about adopting new media technology in teaching (Ajzen, 2005). Mynarska (2008) found that few studies have used qualitative research methods with the TPB. Nonetheless, this theoretical framework fits the present study as the theory unveils peculiarities of people’s behavior and factors affecting it. In this case, teachers’ beliefs concerning technology and its use in the classroom settings affect their behavior, the adoption of the new media technologies. Multiple sources of data also support the validity of this study by providing evidence to support the reported findings.

Qualitative methodology in an exploratory research

Qualitative methodology in this exploratory research permits the researcher to use open-ended questions during interviews. The researcher designed open-ended interview and focus group discussion questions to help the participants to answer in their own words and also to gather meaningful, and explanatory responses from all participants. The researcher clarified questions when it was required, hence increased the possibility of the collection of useful responses (Patton, 1990). The qualitative methodology gave the researcher the flexibility to question and encourage participants to elaborate on their focus group discussion and interview answers.

Based on Merriam’s (1998) findings, a qualitative data analysis involves construction of meaningful logic of the data by consolidating, reducing, and interpreting teachers’ views and experiences in this case study about the adoption, application, and integration of new media technologies in modern teaching. It is important to note that “Qualitative inquiry, because the researcher is the instrument of data collection, requires that the investigator carefully reflect on, deal with, and report potential sources of bias and error” (Patton, 2002, p. 51).

The subjective information has been collected through qualitative research by personally interviewing, taking field notes and analyzing the data. There are chances that, due to the subjective nature of the qualitative inquiry process, issues of credibility may arise, which have been answered in the reports about the research findings. Qualitative methods allow the researcher the flexibility to elicit participant responses. The researcher can elaborate on the answers by asking why or how. A Sony voice recorder was used to record the interviews and focus group discussion, and a notebook and a laptop was used to take field notes.

A table lists all of the new media technology tools used by teachers based on their trainings, ideas and experiences, where applicable. The table also projects the roles played by educators and the new media technologies used to enhance teaching. The interview and focus group data collected and transcribed into text, describes and compares participants’ perceptions, ideas and experiences about the effect of adoption, integration and use of new media technology tools in their designing and teaching curriculum. The results of this study offer effective insight so that more teachers may adopt, integrate, and use new media technologies in high school teaching.

Elaborates on the research methodology (from Chapter 1) for the study (qualitative). Provides the rationale for selecting the particular methodology supported by empirical studies in the research literature. Justifies why the methodology was selected as opposed to alternative methodologies.
Uses authoritative source(s) to justify the selected methodology. Note:Do not use introductory research textbooks (such as Creswell) to justify the research design and data analysis approach.

Research Design

The study used a qualitative case study in data collection and analysis. Each qualitative design is unique. A key component of any qualitative research design is flexibility. This researcher used the explanatory case study design because it relies on multiple sources of evidence and multiple data collection methods for validity and reliability reasons. Data may be collected in case studies through various means such as questionnaires, surveys, interviews or observations (Yin, 1994).

The case study method

The case study method was used for investigating this case under study and for capturing reality and the educators’ valid perceptions (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007). Case studies are in-depth examinations of people or groups of people or institutions. Personal interviews, focus group discussion and field notes are considered very important sources of explanatory case study information. The researcher collected data through open-ended face-to-face personal interviews with participating educators (see appendix).

Data collection

The face-to-face interview data, focus group discussion data, and field notes also present the research findings based on the three research questions and an overarching question. The initial interview transcripts for the participating teachers were included in one group. Based on the participants’ answers to the interview questions, the responses were separated into broad themes significant to high school teachers (e.g., technologies used, and training/experience using new media technologies). The data collected during interviews and observations was organized and documented systematically.

Researchers use interviews as a tool for collecting detailed information about a topic or subject (Wilkinson & Birmingham, 2003). Denzin & Lincoln (2003) found that during interviews, the researcher and the participants sometimes develop a common perceptive regarding the topic under discussion. Russ-Eft & Preskill (2001) suggested that interviews enable researchers to interact directly with participants and provide new perceptions about the topic being examined. Similarly, in this study, individual interviews, focus group discussions and field notes were helpful in collecting answers to the three research questions and also the over-arching question (Stake, 1995).

Explanatory case study

The explanatory case study design best suits this study because the goal of the researcher was to create a broad explanation of the phenomenon of teacher adoption and integration of technology (Yin, 2004). This researcher used the explanatory case study design because it is a highly versatile research method and employs methods of data collection (Yin, 1994). The case study provides richness of data and deeper insight into the phenomena under study.

The case study researchers have the option of conducting structured, semi-structured, or non-structured interviews. For this case study semi-structured personal interviews were conducted to collect data. This design enabled the researcher to elicit the participants’ ideas on the matter and identify the most recurrent topics as well as themes to be considered during focus group discussions. These themes can be further analyzed, which will help answer the research questions.

Based on the above discussion about research questions, the data collected during interviews, focus group discussion and field note taking was tabulated for easy understanding and reference. This process was helpful in comparing educators’ perceptions, ideas, views and experiences about the effects of new media technologies on their teaching.

The interview answers also promote understanding, adoption, and change; the emphasis was on participants’ intellectual understanding of the importance, adoption, integrating and use of new media technologies with CCSS curriculum adoption in high school teaching. In this case study a Sony voice recorder was used to record the interviews and focus group discussion. Field notes were taken on a notebook and recorded on a personal laptop. The data was then manually transcribed into text using a personal laptop (Anderson, 2007; Lodato, 2005; Park & Zeahnah, 2005).

Other qualitative designs

Other qualitative designs were considered, but discarded. For instance, phenomenological qualitative studies are used to examine peoples’ experiences through the descriptions that are provided by the participants. However, this approach concentrates on inner dimensions rather than the external manifestations of people’s experiences (Percy, Kostere & Kostere, 2015). This focus in inappropriate for the present research as it is important to understand motivations and actions of people based on their beliefs rather than describe their beliefs and opinions on a ‘static’ phenomenon.

Ethnographic qualitative studies are used to collect data from groups, such as certain cultural groups. Researchers live with the people they study and collect data from key information providers who are most knowledgeable about the culture (Moustakas, 1994). Nonetheless, the focus of this research is not put on any culture (Percy et al., 2015). The researcher tries to identify beliefs and some external factors that affect educators’ decision to implement or avoid using the new media technologies. Hence, ethnography cannot equip the researcher with the necessary tools to address the research questions.

Grounded theory researchers, on the other hand, look for certain participants who can shed new light on the phenomenon being studied with the goal of developing a theory or model (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The researchers collect and analyzed collected data and developed a theory that is grounded in the data. This is completed using a constant comparison process, in which data are constantly compared to the collected data.

Grounded theory researchers identify pertinent concepts and assign codes. The major aim of the grounded approach is to analyze some data and explain them through the development of a theory. The creation of a theory is not central to this study as it focuses on identification of particular beliefs and factors that motivate or discourage teachers to use technology in their classes. These designs were not appropriate for the study topic. For this reason explanatory case study method was found most suitable for this study.

Stake (1994) claimed that a case study should avail a detailed explanation of the study topic. The case study design is favorable for studying the questions in this research, since it focuses on a limited number of respondents in a limited environment; in this case, the sampled four high schools in California. Rastrick and Corner (2010) suggest that a case study design is effective in exploring real issues, like technology adoption, and the above mentioned discussion explains that an explanatory case study is best suited for this study. In this study, it was easy to understand the confines of the environment under the selected schools and how such case environments shape the adoption and integration of new media technologies in curricula. Therefore, this discussion explains that case study was an appropriate design for the study.

Elaborates on the research design from Chapter 1. Provides the rationale for selecting the particular research design supported by empirical references. Justifies why the design was selected as the best approach to collect the needed data, as opposed to alternative designs.
Describes how the specific, selected research design will be used to collect the type of data needed to answer the research questions and the specific instruments or data sources that will be used to collect this data.

Population and Sample Selection

As discussed in the research design section, a qualitative methodology with a case study design was used in this research. Sampling, refers to the selection of individuals or units to be studied. In this study it refers to the selection of educators to be studied. The general population was comprised of schools that may have been embracing new media in teaching and those schools that were still weighing on the possibility of deploying new media technology tools in learning. The sample consisted of 25 educators from the participating school district.

The study population included three administrators and 22 teachers across all four targeted high schools in a school district in central valley, California. Participating teachers taught one or more core subjects; some participants were from same or different department and high school. The school district where data collection occurred is comprised of three comprehensive high schools, two alternative education high schools, one community school, two middle schools, four K-8 schools, and nine K-5 elementary schools.

More than 850 teachers, counselors, administrative staff, and directors serve over 17,000 students in the school district. School and district administrators were contacted personally and asked for permission to contact the teachers after permission was granted from IRB and the district office. The school administrators and teachers, upon their acceptance of the researcher’s request, were notified personally regarding the nature and purpose of the qualitative case study.

Sample size

Patton (1990) claimed that there are no strict criteria for sample size. For instance, Grant (2004) used only four samples for his study. Therefore, the sample size of 25 was appropriate for this qualitative, case study. Patton (2002) stated that it is important to emphasize procedures for minimizing any research bias. For this reason, high quality qualitative data that were credible, trustworthy, and authentic and balanced through systematic data collection procedures, multiple data sources, and triangulation were collected and used in this study. The sample consisted of 25 educators from the participating school district. The study population included three administrators and 22 teachers across all four targeted high schools.

Communication with the participants

Following proper confidentiality measures, all participating teachers and administrators were informed about the content and importance of signing the consent form before participating in the personal interviews and focus group discussion. Individual interview data, focus group discussion data, and field notes from target four high schools provide for matters of data triangulation (see appendix A for approved and signed copy of a content form).

Teachers from the four high schools were approached personally or contacted by email and/or by phone to determine if they were available and willing to participate in the study and share their ideas and experiences about the above stated problem. It was a sample of convenience. Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where participants are selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher (Boyce & Neale, 2006).

The selected participants were available and willing to share their ideas, views, perceptions and experiences with which data could be gathered. Some participants taught different grades and subjects and had different levels of experience, ideas and perspectives regarding the adoption and integration of new media technologies into instruction. The study included a sample of 25 educators who cover the spectrum of perspectives in relation to the topic under study in both extreme and typical cases that can be identified.

Sources of Data

The first stage of instrument development for this study was the creation of a questionnaire that utilized open-ended interview questions and focus group discussion questions. For this qualitative case study three sources were used to collect data in order to answer the research questions: semi structured interviews, focus groups and researcher field notes. A Sony voice recorder was used to record focus group discussion and interviews. A notebook and a laptop were used to take field notes and provide quick reference. For all components of this qualitative study, the field notes, interviews, and focus group discussion protocol was the instruments.

The interview and focus group discussion protocol was developed and approved by IRB before the interviews were conducted. Interview questions were used to guide the conversation. The question order and information addressed before each interview was specified in advance. Minimization of researcher bias was done through careful, detailed, and thorough documentation of all face to face personal interviews. Face-to-face interviews and focus group discussion were recorded using a Sony voice recorder to decrease the number of errors and additions. The case study method was used as a lens through which to view, study, understand and analyze issues about use of new media technologies in high school with CCSS based teaching.

Interviews

With a thorough review of the literature and based on the ideas of the district administrators and committee specialists the research lead to developing interview questions that are grounded in the literature, that differ from what previous research says, and that still need to be answered. It also helped to select the participants and focus the questions in ways that created meaningful data. Interviews were critical in gaining the opinions and views of the study sample, thereby helping in providing answers concerning the perceptions of the researchers on new media technology adoption in high schools (see Appendix B for interview and research questions).

Trondsen (2014) states that semi-structure interviews enable the researcher to explore people’s experiences from different angles. Importantly, the participants are encouraged to “tell their stories” and contemplate on factors that affect their decisions and actions (as cited in Trondsen, 2014, p. 495). The interview is also used for the development of further discussions. Trondsen (2014) used interviews to implement a deeper discussion during more substantial inquiries. In this study, the researcher used interviews to develop questions and identify themes for focus groups discussions as well as members of the focus groups who have the most valuable views on the matter.

Focus group discussions

Focus group discussions were a part of the data collection process used to ensure the validity of the study. The triangulation is an effective method to address the validity of the qualitative research. Pacho (2015, p. 47) notes that focus groups can be referred to as “a facilitated environment where people with similar interest or agenda discuss particular issues.” The major value of this method is the insights into people’s views and opinions that often arise due to the dynamic setting.

It is difficult to achieve the similar environment during face-to-face interviews. In this research, teachers’ answers to interview questions 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 10 helped the researcher to select 10 teachers based on their interview answers to participate in focus group discussion (see Appendix B). To better understand teachers’ attitudes, participants were asked to list what they consider to be positive and negative outcomes of teaching in general and with integration of new media technologies.

Field notes

During each interview and during focus group discussion, the researcher continued to take field notes. All 25 participants participated in one-on-one face-to-face individual interviews. Face-to-face individual interviews enabled the researchers to establish rapport with participants and also gain their cooperation. Ten teachers also participated in focus group discussion. Some participating teachers and administrators were veteran educators with over 15 years of experience from the same or different departments or schools (See Appendix A). Therefore, three sources used to collect data to find answers for the three research questions: semi structured interviews, focus groups discussion and field notes were most appropriate for this qualitative case study to explore teachers’ perspective.

Data Collection Instruments: Provides a detailed discussion of the instrumentation and data collection which includes validity and reliability of the data. Includes citations from original publications by instrument developers (and subsequent users as appropriate).
Data Collection Instruments: Describes the structure of each data collection instrument and data sources (tests, questionnaires, interviews, observations data bases, media, etc.). Specifies the type and level of data collected with each instrument.

Validity

Guion, Diehl and McDonald (2011) state validity in qualitative research, “as to whether the findings of a study are true and certain — “true” in the sense that research findings accurately reflect the situation, and “certain” in the sense that research findings are supported by the evidence” (p.1). In this study, methodological triangulation was used to ascertain the validity using multiple sources of data, such as open-ended face-to-face interviews, focus group discussion and field notes related to the adoption, integration and use of new media technology tools in daily teaching (Yin, 1994).

Maxwell (2005) suggested that the validity of a study “depends on the relationship of researchers’ conclusion to reality” (p. 105). The findings from the interviews, focus group discussions and field notes drew similar conclusions, hence validity was established. The collected data was hence aligned to the three research questions and the overarching question, thereby fulfilling the purpose of the study.

Thurmond (2001) suggested that the triangulation method increases confidence in research data and creates innovative ways of understanding a phenomenon by “challenging and providing a clearer understanding of the problem” (p. 254). Three different types of data were recorded and field notes were taken during interviews and focus group discussion. Three different types of data were used to triangulate the study.

Validation of the data was attained through the use of the triangulation method. Triangulation of the data from different data sources, such as main respondents, secondary findings, and first-hand information was critical in ascertaining the quality and validity of the data in relation to this research. Field notes, recorded interviews and focus group discussion, and information about technologies used at various high schools were used as data (Lincoln & Guba, 1985).

Five practice interviews were also conducted on a trial basis with four teachers and an administrator. Therefore, field notes, interviews and focus group discussion, and information about new media technologies used at participating four high schools were most appropriate for finding answers to the three research questions, an overarching question, and validation, and triangulation of the data.

Reliability

Reliability and validity are conceptualized as trustworthiness, rigor and quality in qualitative paradigm. Seale (1999), while establishing good quality studies through reliability and validity in qualitative research, states that the “trustworthiness of a research report lies at the heart of issues conventionally discussed as validity and reliability” (p. 266). Patton (2002) with regards to the researcher’s ability and skill in any qualitative research states that reliability is a consequence of the validity in a study.

Reliability and validity of the case study method remains in doubt despite various other advantages of this study method. Tests to establish the validity and reliability of qualitative data are important to determine the stability and quality of the data obtained.

However, there is no single, coherent set of validity and reliability tests for each research phase in case study research available in the literature. Healy and Perry (2000) explicate on the judging validity and reliability within the realism paradigm which relies on multiple perceptions about a single reality. In this study data collection was in line with what is being investigated. Moreover, reliability can be ascertained by relating the data collected through different sources such as interviews, focus group discussion with 22 participants, field notes taken during research and inference to earlier findings.

In this study an interview protocol based on the interview questions was created and used as a template to interview all 25 participants (Perry, 1998). Questions were also created for focus group discussion for ten participants.

Participant’s perceptions were used as a window to reality through which a picture of reality was triangulated with other perceptions. Realism relies on multiple perceptions about a single reality, and this is a quality criteria. Triangulation refers to multiple ways of data collection such as interviewing, observation, focus group discussion, field notes and/ or document analysis to increase credibility. It is in data analysis that the strategy of triangulation has more benefits. The multiple perceptions involve triangulation of three data sources such as personal interview and focus group discussion data and field notes in this study. This study allows other researchers to use similar approach in other situations and conclude similar results.

The qualitative inquiry process is subjective in nature; therefore, issues of credibility may come up which have been answered in the research finding report. Patton (2001) suggested that procedures must be emphasized to minimize investigator bias. For this reason, every effort was rightly made to produce high quality qualitative data that are credible, trustworthy, and authentic and balanced through systematic data collection procedures, multiple data sources, and triangulation (Patton, 2001).

Therefore, it is possible to note that the validity and reliability of data collection were achieved through repeatability of data obtained through different channels. The data collection process was developed on the basis of a detailed analysis of methodologies in other qualitative studies as well as theoretical frameworks described in the literature.

Establishes consistency and repeatability of data collection through in-depth documented methodology; detailed interview/observation/data collection protocols and guides; creation of research data-base; and/or use of triangulation.

Data Collection Procedures

After receiving the study proposal approval and permission to conduct research from Grand Canyon University (GCU) IRB, the researcher requested and received written permission from the school district, with permission from Grand Canyon University IRB. The research protocol was reviewed and approved by the school district review board and covered by a required confidentiality permission certificate. A copy of the permission certificate was submitted to Grand Canyon University – IRB.

Communication with the participants

After receiving written approval from the school district, the researcher contacted high school administrators and district administrator personally and informed them that some high school teachers will be contacted to participate in a research study. The school and district administrators were also informed that the participants will be contacted and interviewed personally before and/or after school hours. Some participants emailed and personally informed the researcher that they were willing to participate in this study.

Participants comprising of 3 school administrators and 22 teachers, upon their acceptance of the researcher’s request, were personally contacted by the researcher to sign consent forms for participating in the research. The participants were contacted via email and notified of the nature and purpose of the study and then sign the consent form to participate in the study. With permission from the assistant superintendent and respective school principal the participants were then invited via individual email to participate in the interview and focus group discussion.

After informing the participants the scope of the study in the process, interview times and later focus group discussions were scheduled after school hours in school library, school district library and with some in their classrooms, as it was convenient to the participants. All participants were fluent English readers and were free of any impairment that could have compromised their ability to provide valid informed consent/assent, and be in good general health.

Interview and focus group discussion venue

The interviews and focus group discussion were conducted in vacant classroom after school hours as per teachers’ convenience. The interview questions were based on three research questions. After the introduction a set of open-ended questions were read to the participants to answer the interview and focus group discussion questions (see appendix). Lists were used to compare the general categories between the participating teachers, teaching, and subject and technology experience. Based on educators’ ideas and experiences, a table was used to list the new media technologies used by them in teaching. The table also projects the role played by teachers in adopting modern technologies and enhancing high school teaching (see appendix A).

Interview guide was used to extract information from the participants through informal focus group discussion and individual interviews. Based on the answers to the research questions, a table was also used to tabulate the data collected during recorded interviews, focus group discussions and field note taking (see appendix B). A Sony voice recorder was used to record interview responses, and focus group discussion which were later transcribed into text using a personal laptop (Matheson, 2007).

This reiterates the importance of purposeful sampling, where the selection of people with knowledge on the research problem was done. Field notes were taken in instances where the researcher personally administered the questionnaires and moderate the interviews under the focused groups. A focus group discussion was conducted with 10 teachers who use new media technologies in teaching and some who do not use technology as much as other high school teachers. Most interviews took about 30-45 minutes each.

Data analysis process

Sampling involves more than just the number of participants included in the study; sampling is a process that includes the number of participants, the number of contacts with each participant, and the length of each contact (Subramanian, 2010). It is suggested that a single case studies should generally contain 15 to 30 interviews although it is not required. Patton (1990) claimed that there are no strict criteria for sample size. Therefore, the sample size of 25 was appropriate for this qualitative, case study. Patton (2002) also stated that it is important to emphasize procedures for minimizing any research bias. For this reason, high quality, authentic and balanced qualitative data through systematic data collection procedures, multiple data sources, and triangulation were collected and used in this study.

Data analysis in this case study began in the field during data collection with the recorded interviews with the participating educators. Population sampling was used to better define participants and to arrange interviews with them (Patton, 1990) (see appendix A and B). Data was duplicated into two copies and stored as soft copies only for the sake of preventing the loss of any data. The data is available for reference during and after the development and presentation of the full research report has been completed and approved by GCU-AQR. The soft copy of the data will be deleted after one year from when it was stored after the development of the report. No hard copies have been printed for any participants, school, and district staff or for personal reference.

Data Analysis Procedures

Case study results relate directly to the common readers’ everyday experience and facilitate an understanding of complex real-life situations (Guba & Lincoln, 1994; Patton, 2002; Mays & Pope, 1995). To achieve efficiency in this research, several sources of data as well as data analysis procedures have been used. Before analyzing the data, the researcher personally transcribed all interviews, focus group discussions, and field notes using a Sony voice recorder and Microsoft Excel software on a personal laptop.

The process of transcribing recording into text allowed the researcher to become acquainted with the data (Edwards, 1993). Data collection and analysis procedure activities were systematically and methodically noted and specify the sources of data, the collection method, and how the data was collected, managed, and analyzed.

The analysis of the interview data and reanalysis of the study provide a foundation for understanding the perception of educators. It was a sample of convenience. Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where participants are selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher (Explorable.com, 2009). The relative cost and time required to carry out a convenience sample are small in comparison to probability sampling technique.

Convenience sampling enabled the researcher to collect sufficient data to provide rich details about participating educators’ experiences and views about adopting and using new media technologies to maximize the range of information collected. The selected participants were available and willing to share their ideas, views and experiences with which data could be gathered.

Research questions guided data collection

Following three research questions guided data collection by interviews and focus group discussion for data analysis for this study:

  • R1. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how are they integrated into daily instruction?
  • R2. How do teachers report the way in which training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?
  • R3. How do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core State Standards?

Since data collection includes open-ended face-to-face interviews, focus group discussion with the participants, meaning was drawn from the study so that readers can understand the context. Readers will also know how the adoption and use of new media technologies emerged and how they influence or support modern teaching based on Common Core State Standards.

Convenience sampling

The data collection and analysis of this study, interpretation and reporting took place simultaneously during data tabulation. Convenience sampling is a type of nonprobability sampling. It was used to bring teachers from four high schools from a school district in central valley, California. Convenience sampling was also used to facilitate focus group discussion and because it allowed the researcher to obtain basic data without the complications of using a randomized sample. The key component of this qualitative research design was also the flexibility to form 2-groups of five teachers and have an hour long focus group discussion and 25 interviews, the duration of the interviews was between 30-45 minutes each.

Focus group discussions and field notes

Two groups of five teachers each participated in focus group discussion–Group 1 represented teachers using new media technologies in teaching and the second or Group 2 – represented teachers who did not use new media technologies as much as other teachers. In this case, multiple perspectives were taken from three different sources of data. Therefore, the readers, teachers and researchers will be able to understand the context and know in which ways the transition from adoption, integration and use of new media technologies are significant and effective in modern teaching.

In terms of research question 1, for which the views of the educators are being sought, data was collected from participating high school teachers and administrators through interview guides and questionnaires (See Appendix A and B). As it was expected most of the data attained under research question 1 was descriptive in nature. Different response categories were developed from the responses attained through the focused groups.

Data was also collected through field notes, research and an exploration of the data collected for research questions 1, 2, and 3, which required more open views about the adoption of new media technologies in CCSSs based high school curricula. In this case, the research was critical in synthesizing the responses under research question 1 and relating them to the participants’ responses and results from secondary studies.

Data documentation and interpretation

For ease of analysis, each set of data was separated according to the research tool used to collect the data; that is systematic documentation. This made it easy to categorize and tabulate data. Systematic documentation enabled the researcher to focus on the research based on the topic. Another important defining quality of qualitative research is the open-ended and inductive style of questioning. Qualitative research is empirical research in which the data do not take the form of numbers (Punch, 1994).

Statistical tools are critical in synthesizing and simplifying data, thereby making it easy for researchers to draw conclusions from the data. Qualitative research, on the other hand, produces rich, contextual, and detailed data. Qualitative research usually does use some form of quantification, but statistical forms of analysis are not seen as central. Hence, statistical instruments were not used in this study as the analysis of the texts (transcribed accounts of participants during interviews and focus group discussions) enabled the researcher to answer the research questions. No generalization is necessary to address the research questions, which made the use of statistical tools unnecessary.

Data analysis for this study resulted in the interpretation and finding of answers to the research questions and an overarching question. The data transcribed into text describes and compares educators’ perceptions, ideas and experiences about the effect of new media technology tools on their teaching. The research easily draws a line between similar and varied responses of the educators by tabulating information from the data collected. This helped in deriving findings for research question 1.

In this study a convenience sample was convenient in collecting useful data and information that would not have been possible using probability sampling techniques, which require more formal access to lists of populations. Convenience sampling was also used to facilitate focus group discussion and because it allowed the researcher to obtain basic data without the complications of using a randomized sample. Using a convenient sample was also useful because the goal here was in-depth, idiographic understanding rather than more general, nomothetic understanding (Saumure & Given, 2008). In order to keep some heterogeneity in the homogeneous sample, the researcher contacted teachers from different disciplinary backgrounds and departments from four different high schools.

Also, the rationale for selecting educators working at the same school district was useful in order to apply the notions of communities of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991). The researcher anticipates that there were some similarities and interconnections between the participants, their professional trainings, the department, subject, or the high school at which they teach. Educators’ ideas, experiences, and suggestions gathered during this study provide valuable information and contribute to the existing literature.

The researcher explained to the participants the purpose of this study and how their views and experiences would help the study and other educators about possibly adopting, implementing and using new media technologies in teaching. The participants were informed that their participation in the study was on a voluntary basis and that they could discontinue or decline participate in the study if they so wished. The participants were also informed that their name, school, and district information will all be kept anonymous. The researcher applied convenience sampling method to select participants who offer different views and experiences for this study.

Convenience sampling enabled the researcher to collect sufficient quality data to provide rich details about educators’ perceptions, experiences, ideas and views about the adoption and use of new media technologies and maximize the range of information collected. Patton (2002) suggested that procedures must be emphasized to minimize investigator bias. For this reason, every effort was made to produce high quality qualitative data that are credible, and authentic and balanced through systematic data collection procedures, multiple data sources, and triangulation (Patton, 2001).

Based on Miles and Huberman’s (1994) ideas, the data collected during interviews, focus group discussions, and field notes has been organized and meaningfully reduced by the process of selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting, and transforming the data that appear in written up field notes or recordings. Coding is an analytical process in which data, such as questionnaires results and or interview transcripts is categorized to facilitate analysis. The data could also consist of participant observation, field notes, journals, documents, literature, artifacts, photographs, video, websites, e-mail correspondence, and so on.

In addition to coding with words and short phrases, “pre-coding was done by circling, highlighting, bolding, underlining, significant participant quotes that were worthy of attention (Layder, 1998 & Boyatzis, 1998). The teachers’ names were coded as T1-T22, and the administrators’ names were coded as A1 and A3. Coding for participating 22 teachers and 3 administrators helped in inducing new meanings from the data available. Based on the above discussion about this qualitative case study, the researcher, as a data-collecting instrument, tabulated the data collected from multiple sources, including personal interviews, focus group discussions, and field notes.

In this study, open coding was used to analyze the data obtained during interviews and focus group discussions. A number of codes and themes were identified. These codes are consistent with the research questions. The first research question is concerned with the way the participants see and describe technology as well as integrate it into their daily instruction. The following codes were used: hardware (computers, laptops, tablets), software (memory, Windows, PowerPoint and so on), devices (printers, LCD projectors and so on), Internet (meaning the access to the World Wide Web), and media technologies (Dropbox, Wikis, OneNote and so on). These codes helped the researcher to focus on the most influential factors that affect educators’ choices concerning the use of new media technologies.

The second research question is concerned with the impact of training and administrative support on teachers’ use of new media technologies. The researcher used such codes as training (courses, training, discussions, collaboration), instruction (availability of resources, administrators’ support and involvement), technology, change, teacher-centered, learner-centered. Thus, the majority of educators were willing to receive training. Importantly, those who were eager to self-develop (through training) understood the benefits of the implementation of new media technologies and the need to employ a learner-centered approach.

Teachers often mentioned the need to upgrade the technology available at schools. The access to the Internet (including the availability of wireless devices) is regarded as an essential premise for the adoption of technology. Teachers also claimed that administrators could play an important role in the processes of transition from the teacher-centered to learner-centered approach and adoption of new media technologies. They saw this involvement as beneficial.

The third research question was concerned with the connection between the use of new media technologies and Common Core Standards as seen by the participants. The codes used during the analysis of the participants’ answers include media used (OneNote, Dropbox, PowerPoint, camera, texting and so on), online research (websites, tools used for research), curriculum (standards). Those who are extensive users of media reported that they employed technology, which was beneficial for meeting Common Core Standards.

Moderate users of technology felt they needed more training, but acknowledged the benefits of new media for the improvement of students’ performance. Those who do not use technology reported that they feared that students would focus on the use of technology itself rather than acquiring knowledge, which was seen as a distraction and an obstacle to meeting the standards.

The next stage of the analysis of data is theming. The codes were carefully considered and related to the research questions. The following themes were identified: change, limitations, opportunities, fears, hopes. These are recurrent themes that characterize the participants’ attitudes towards the use of media technologies in the classroom settings. It is necessary to note that the ‘change’ appears to be the core concept as the participants stress the need for change, and, in the majority of cases, the commitment to change.

All the participants are life-long learners who stress the importance of development and the utilization of new methods in their teaching. They also acknowledge the changes that are taking place in the society as well as the educational system. However, the teachers who have worked over 15 years are reluctant to change their teaching plans although they understand that some changes in the educational sphere are necessary.

It is possible to single out the themes of limitations as seen by the participants. The teachers, as well as administrators, note that the curriculum and technological preparedness of schools are not consistent with the adoption of new media technologies. The technological limitations include scarcity (or rather out-datedness) of technologies at school, the lack of technicians who could provide the necessary support and the inaccessibility of technologies (no Internet access) for students. The participants also note that they have limited time to invest. Teachers stress that they do not have enough work or personal time. They note that they need more time to search for information and to train to use new media technologies.

As far as the opportunities are concerned, the participants claim that their schools provide the necessary training or, at least, assist in teachers’ effort to develop their professional skills. Availability of information is another opportunity as teachers share knowledge and acquire new skills through online research and discussions. Students’ motivation to use technology is another opportunity as teachers emphasize students’ interest in and favorable attitude towards media technologies.

The next theme to be discussed is concerned with fears. It can be regarded as an important theme as the participants tend to fear that they will be unable to effectively utilize technology. Some teachers’ fears are associated with students’ performance as they believe learners can be more interested in the technology itself rather than the acquisition of knowledge. Finally, the participants hope they will get the necessary training and will acquire the necessary skills to implement the transition from the teacher-oriented to learner-oriented approach. They also expect the standards to be consistent with the latest trends in the sphere of education.

Describes in detail the data management practice including how the raw data was organized and prepared for analysis.
What:Describes, in detail, statistical and non-statistical analysis to be used and procedures used to conduct the data analysis.
Why:Provides the justification for each of the (statistical and non-statistical) data analysis procedures used in the study.
How:Demonstrates how the statistical and non-statistical data analysis techniques align with the research questions/design.
Qualitative Analysis– evidence of qualitative analysis approach, such as coding and theming process, must be completely described and include the analysis /interpretation process.
Provides evidence that quantity and quality of data is sufficient to answer the research questions. This must be present in this section or in an appendix including data samples.

Ethical Considerations

The researcher has ensured all necessary IRB approval of the study. Only volunteering participants were interviewed for the study, and they had the right to withdraw from the study at any time. The identity of all participants will be protected, and codes were used in the report to protect confidentiality. Participating 22 high school teachers and 3 administrators from a school district in central valley California signed an appropriate informed consent form (as suggested GCU research requirement) to participate in the study (see Appendix C). School district administration provided written permission to the IRB, thus giving the researcher access to conduct research in the school settings. At the conclusion of the study, school district will receive a soft copy of the final summary of the research project and no hard copy will be printed.

This researcher has been honest and reflective about the analytic process. District administrator providing permission to conduct research and interview teachers signed a content and permission letter that has been submitted to the IRB. Participants also signed a consent form indicating that they are volunteering to participate in the study and have not been forced to participate in the interviews and focus group discussion. The researcher focused this study on examining educators’ perceptions, views, ideas and experiences about using new media technologies in teaching.

Participation, ethical issues and CITI

The desire to participate in this study depended on educators’ willingness to share their experience and views on why they have adopted or want to adopt and integrate new media technologies in their new curricula. Punch (1994) claimed that ethical failures are very rare in case studies; conversely, Batchelor and Briggs (1994) claimed that researchers who fail to address ethical issues result in being inadequately prepared to cope with the unpredictable nature of the study in question.

The researcher took CITI online tests on ethical considerations suggested and required by Grand Canyon University Doctoral Studies. This investigation did not interfere with any of the normal processes operating on the observation site. For this reason, this researcher collected data through interviews, focus group discussions and field notes after school time. All data was noted and stored on a personal laptop and no hard copies have or will be printed for any school or other reference.

The results of this study could expose educators or schools; thus, safeguards such as anonymity and coding have been built into the study. Ess and the Association of Internet Research (AOIR) (2002) ethical guidelines suggest that users should examine the “acknowledged publicity of the venue” (p. 6). The AOIR ethical statement advises on guidelines that are more useful when conducting new media studies. The changing nature of the research relationship might be read as evidence that the existing principles, like minimizing harm, are still relevant for new media ethics. This author has documented the personal perceptions and emotions for readers to evaluate the topic ethical considerations.

Review and procedures to protect participants from any possible risk

Dresser’s (1998) idea has been followed during the review and procedures to protect participants from any possible risk. According to Richardson (2009), new media users are more open, although the issue of what is classed as public on the web is important, because it influences the ethical decisions that the users make depending on the particular research circumstances. In this study, different forms of data, face-to-face interviews, field notes and discussions give a richer and more inclusive description of the study. Multiple sources of data also support the validity of this study by providing various evidences that can validate the reported findings (Yin, 1984).

Using field notes as a research collection mechanism can have its limitations given the fact that the researcher took field notes based on observations based on participants’ facial expressions and style of talking during interviews and focus group discussions. For this reason, emphasis on the data collection instruments is critical. Moreover, these are the main instruments for collecting data from the participants.

Data storage and safety

Research data is a valuable resource that needs to be properly managed. Data collected for this case study was duplicated into two copies and stored as soft copies only for the sake of preventing the loss of any data. The data is available for reference during and after the development and presentation of the full research report has been completed and approved by GCU-AQR. The soft copy of the data will be deleted after two years from when it was stored after the development of the report. No hard copies have been printed for any participants, school, and district staff or for personal reference.

Limitations

As new media technologies become more affordable and educational resources continue to be placed in digital formats, soon all teachers will need to have good working knowledge of technology tools as a part of the professional skills they bring to their classrooms. High schools, middle schools, elementary schools and many other private and many other learning institutes from 47 states are in process of adopting CCSS and therefore all educators will need to focus on more consistent professional development about new media technologies and CCSS curriculum.

This increased pressure may be passed down to all teachers through administrators. To mitigate this limitation, it was essential to encourage teachers to share their views and beliefs on the technology and administrators’ opinions on the matter as seen by teachers. In other words, the researcher had to make sure that teachers shared their views (concerning the past and present) as well as reported about any pressure or support from administrators. Coding of individuals names was an effective measure to enhance the validity of the study. This allowed to differentiate between teachers’ opinions and what could be imposed.

Furthermore, the initial beliefs identified by the focus groups may differ now. Clearly, discussions in focus groups are likely to shape educators’ views on the matter. It is impossible to avoid this limitation. At the same time, it is possible to note that the ultimate aim of this study is to encourage the transition from teacher-centered to learner-centered approach with the use of technology, which will be achieved to a certain extent. Additionally, most schools have more technology resources (hardware, software and new media technologies) that may have changed teachers’ beliefs about new media technologies.

Again, it is essential to elicit the participants’ past and present views on the adoption of new media technologies. At that, the availability of resources is one of the factors affecting educators’ choices, which could be checked through the analysis of teachers’ accounts concerning their use of technology in their daily activities, in their previous years of work, during their studies. Other limitations of this study are consistent with the inherent weaknesses of a qualitative case study research.

Limitations due to population

This research studied only high school teachers’ views, experiences, and ideas about integrating new media tools in teaching and therefore may be limiting the ideas, experiences, and views of school to exclude district administrators and elementary and middle school teachers. Consideration for used or new curriculum, teachers, new media technologies, and balanced class strength could produce different results from that of limited technological resources.

The number of participating teachers and schools and whether the participating teacher teaches at any other comprehensive high schools, middle or elementary schools may also limit or change the outcome of this study. However, this limitation is unavoidable as the focus of the study is made on the adoption of media technologies in high schools. At that, a particular community is under consideration. This limitation is also unavoidable as it is associated with boundaries of the qualitative research.

Limitations due to type of qualitative study

Case study method enable researcher to closely examine the data within a specific context. In most cases, a case study method selects a small geographical area or a very limited number of individuals as the subjects of study. Case studies, in their true essence, explore and investigate contemporary real-life phenomenon through detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions, and their relationships. This qualitative case studies may be limited, by the sensitivity and integrity of the only researcher. The researcher was the primary instrument of data collection and analysis. This has its advantages.

However, it is also associated with certain limitations. A group of researchers can collect and analyze data using different perspectives, which eliminates any possible bias. When the study is conducted by one researcher, it can be less valid and more biased. To mitigate this limitation, training could be an effective tool. But training in interviewing, though necessary, is not readily available to aspiring case study researchers.

A concern about case study research and evaluation is what Guba and Lincoln (1981) refer to as “unusual problems of ethics. A case study can help to understand complex inter-relationships. An unethical case writer could so select from among available data that virtually anything he wished could be illustrated” (p. 378). Although case study is useful for both generating and testing of hypotheses but is not limited to these activities.

Both the readers of case studies and the authors themselves need to be aware of biases that can affect the final product. Further limitations of a case study involve the issues of reliability, validity, and generalizability. Hamel (1993, p. 23) explained that, “the case study has basically been faulted for its lack of representativeness…and its lack of rigor in the collection, construction, and analysis of the empirical materials that give rise to this study.”

Limitations due to demographic data

For the given study, observations and interviews of high school teachers were delimited to only four high schools in a school district in Central Valley, California. Limiting the demographic sample helped the researcher to use four different methods, namely informal and formal open-ended face-to-face interviews and observations to collect data for this study. Three different methods of data collection contribute to the goal of obtaining accurate results at the end of the study. Interviewing three administrators and 22 high school teachers was useful to collect different ideas and experiences expressed by the participants.

Although case studies have various advantages, in that they present data of real-life situations and they provide better insights into the detailed behaviors of the subjects of interest, they are also criticized for their inability to generalize their results (Yin, 1994). Case study method has also been criticized for its lack of rigour and the tendency for a researcher to have a biased interpretation of the data. Grounds for establishing reliability and generality are also subjected to scepticism when a small sampling is deployed. This study analyzed the collected data and determines the hurdles in adoption of new media tools in four high schools.

The answers to the research questions have helped to identify the factors that may influence the process of adoption and use of new media technologies in teaching. The limitations mentioned above, could not be mitigated as it would affect the efficiency of the research that aimed at identifying teachers’ views on the use of technology. It was essential to identify recurrent themes in teachers’ attitudes towards the adoption of new media technology. Generalization was not the point of this study. Moreover, the themes identified can be further researched, and some generalization will be possible through addressing the topics in quantitative and qualitative designs.

Describes any limitations and delimitations related to the methodology, sample, instrumentation, data collection process and analysis. Explains why the existing limitations are unavoidable.
Presents strategies to minimize and/or mitigate the negative consequences of limitations and delimitations.

Summary

The focus of Chapter 3 was to establish the research methodology and the parameters within which this case study was conducted. This researcher interviewed high school teachers from four high schools in a district in central valley, California, to obtain data regarding their views on and experiences with adopting and using new media technologies. This study is an exploratory case study utilizing the qualitative methodologies employed in data collection and analysis. The chapter has elaborated on the study research methodology that has been used for this research.

Mertens (1998) supported the use of case study research when “the focus is on diversity among unique qualities exhibited by individuals” (p. 163). In this study, interview questions and focus group discussions explored how high school teachers perceive new media technology use in the school site and their attitudes, willingness, or reluctance about adopting new media technologies. The interview was chosen as a method of data collection since this tool allows to facilitate the participants’ contemplation on particular issues (Trondsen, 2014). The researcher can get a deeper understanding of the participants’ beliefs and motivations.

Pacho (2015) adds that the focus group discussion is an effective tool to encourage participants to share their views on different aspects of the issue, which can be difficult during the face-to-face interview. Qualitative methodology measured the richness of the information needed to fully understand the perceptions, uses, and attitudes and therefore prompt the use of a case study methodology to guide the research.

Rastrick and Corner (2010) suggested that a case study design is effective in exploring real issues, like technology adoption, integration and use in daily teaching. The chapter also expounds on data collection techniques, tools, and methods. The final sample in the research was attained through the use of purposeful sampling. Convenience sampling was applied to select key participants in focus group discussions and personal interviews. The research has explored three main data sources and data collection instruments. The instruments include interview guides, focus group discussion questions, and field notes. Data sources were 22 teachers and 3 administrators and findings from other research study literature.

The results of this case study will add to the literature base in the field of technology-based learning and provide practical approaches toward why educators should integrate new media technologies in teaching (Akyeampong, 2011). The researcher also anticipated a high percentage of accuracy upon the use of the methodology in the field, given the choice of the case study methodology and the development of research techniques that were used in the study. This has determined the findings of the research as they have been depicted in the research report.

Chapter 3 examined the research method for this case study

Chapter 3 applied the theoretical frameworks and related constructs (discussed in Chapter 2: Review of Literature) for the development of the study’s analysis, interviews, and focus group discussions. The focus group participants and approach to data analysis have also been discussed in Chapter 3. In addition, the data analysis procedures, participants’ perceptions and views, experiences and ideas, reliability of measures and other analysis have been discussed here.

A Case study method was used for this research because it has a level of flexibility that is not readily offered by other qualitative approaches such as grounded theory or phenomenology. This research provides findings in line with Snider’s (2010), where numbers impress; yet they also conceal far more than they disclose. This study follows Davis’s (2007) observation that, good qualitative research equaled, if not exceeding, quantitative research in status, significance, and procedural rigor” (p. 574).

The researcher took field notes and interviewed 25 educators. Ten teachers also participated in focus group discussions. Interview and focus group discussion answers were analyzed to find answers to the three reach questions and the overarching question. Importantly, three methods to collect data ensure validity and reliability of the data collection process.

A case study design was chosen for this study based on the observation by Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2011), who noted that case studies help educational evaluators to make empirical evaluations based on other visible attributes in research, which increase the range of data collection. The investigation of new media technology adoption in the research revolves around three research questions, one overarching question, ten interview questions, and focus group questions (see appendix) that fall under the three research questions. The overarching question is to explore what factors motivate or limit teachers from adoption new media technologies in high school teaching.

  • R1. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how are they integrated into daily instruction?
  • R2. How do teachers report the way in which training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?
  • R3. How do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)?

The first research question investigates the perceptions of the teachers about new technology deployment in daily instruction. The second research question investigates how trainings and administrative support motivate or hold teachers in incapacitating challenges of new media technology adoption in the modern learning environment. The third research question finds out how teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core Standards. The research questions dig deeper into the different attributes of new media and the way they can influence modern learning based on common core standards from the perspective of instructing and acquiring instructions.

The role of theory of planned behavior (TPB)

This research study was conducted based on Ajzen’s (1988) theory of planned behavior (TPB) which in this study identifies teachers’ deliberate behavior and also the behavior they can plan to adopt or limit adoption of new media technologies in teaching. One of the major strengths of the theory of planned behavior is that it is widely applicable to a variety of behaviors in different contexts, including diverse areas such as health communications, environmental concerns, and, more recently, technology adoption (Ajzen, 2011).

The relation of Ajzen’s (1987) TPB to this study is evident as the research question one (R1) addresses the teacher perceptions towards the adoption of new media technologies in educational settings. Therefore, this chapter provides adequate detailed information about the research method so that readers can understand the theory and the findings of the study, allowing replication of the study in related research environments.

Chapter 4 focuses on the study and analysis of interview data, focus group discussion data, and the relationship between the key predictor variables: attitude toward the act, behavioral control, and the teachers’ decision as dependent variables. Chapter 4 provides the foundation for the analy­sis, conclusions, and recommendations that appear in chapter 5. In the following two chapters, teachers were interviewed, and asked to participate in focus group discussion to share their experiences and ideas about barriers limiting or motivating them from adopting and using new media technologies in in high school teaching.

Teachers answered and discussed various questions about training received for interactive online technology applications. The review of current literature provided a basis for topics that were evaluated in the survey. Chapter 5 focuses on the summary of the results, interpretation, context and implications of the findings. Chapter 5 highlights discussion and suggestion on limitations of study and on future directions of research. This chapter also addresses how the research findings improve and add to the subject under investigation.

Summarizes key points presented in Chapter 3 using authoritative, empirical sources/citations.
Presents alignment of the strategic points, illustrating how the research questions align with the problem statement, methodology, design, instrumentation, data collection, procedures and data analysis approach.
Demonstrates in-depth understanding/mastery of the overall research methodology, design and data analysis techniques.
End Chapter 3 with a transition discussion to focus for Chapter 4.

Data Analysis and Results

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand teacher perceptions about what factors influenced or held them from adopting and integrating new media technologies into their new curriculum. The researcher interviewed twenty five educators, recorded their views during focus group discussions and took field notes to collect data for this study. Based on collected data analysis this qualitative study revealed which new media technologies are used, and what factors may have influenced or limited high school teachers from adopting new media technologies in modern teaching. The aim of the study was to provide educators’ insight for planning new standards based curriculum CCSS with new media technology tools.

Introduction

While the use of new media technologies is helpful when deployed in classrooms to support classroom instruction, a substantial number of teachers still find it quite challenging to adopt and integrate new media technologies in teaching. Therefore, it is reasonably important to establish the mechanisms of determining the level at which new media technologies can be integrated in a learning environment and whether it can improve teaching abilities of the teachers, considering the fact that new media technologies are finding elaborate use in education.

The purpose of the proposed research investigates some factors that play a critical role in shaping the adoption of new media technologies in high school teaching. The case study focuses at the factors influencing or limiting the adoption of new media technologies in four high schools in a school district in central valley, California.

The research uses a case study methodology, which is critical in providing evidence-based outcomes on the modalities of adopting new media technology in high schools (Yin, 1994). Yin (1994) suggests that case studies can be used to explain, describe or explore events or phenomena in the everyday contexts in which they occur. The case study approach lends itself well to capturing information on ‘how‘, ‘what’ and ‘why‘ questions. The use of multiple sources of data (data triangulation) has been advocated as a way of increasing the internal validity of a study.

Denzin and Lincoln (2011) and Thomas (2011) suggest that case study is an increasingly popular approach among experienced qualitative researchers. Case study research has a level of flexibility that is not readily offered by other qualitative approaches such as grounded theory or phenomenology. This research provides findings in line with Snider’s (2010), where numbers impress; yet they also conceal far more than they disclose. This study follows Davis’s (2007) observation that, good qualitative research equaled, if not exceeding, quantitative research in status, significance, and procedural rigor” (p. 574).

Research design

A case study research design was chosen for the proposed study based on the observation by Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2011), who noted that case studies help educational evaluators to make empirical evaluations based on other visible attributes in research, which increase the range of data collection. The investigation of new media technology adoption in the research revolves around three research questions, one overarching question, ten interview questions, and focus group questions (see appendix A) that fall under the three research questions. The overarching question was designed to explore what factors have motivated or limited teachers from adopting new media technologies in high school teaching.

Research questions

  • R1. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how are they integrated into daily instruction?
  • R2. How do teachers report the way in which training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?
  • R3. How do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)?

The first research question investigates the perceptions of the teachers about new technology deployment in daily instruction. The second research question investigates how trainings and administrative support motivate or hold teachers in incapacitating challenges of new media technology adoption in the modern learning environment. The third research question finds out how teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core Standards.

This question digs deeper into the different attributes of new media and the way they can influence modern learning based on common core standards from the perspective of instructing and acquiring instructions. Of greater essence in the first research question is the finding of the challenges of new media technology adoption teachers may be facing in high school learning environment.

This section of the study is quite important in the research as it carries out the synthesis of the data collected and presents the outcomes of the research. This part of the research presents a summary and a further analysis of the data following research methods and the sampling techniques deployed in the research in order to derive outcomes that answers to the research questions. In summary, the chapter provides a description of the data collected by categorizing the data into distinct groups for the ease of analysis and understanding.

A description of the school district offers a general insight into the diverse aspects of new media technology adoption and integration in some California high schools. The description is in terms of the real school set up and the tendencies of new media technology adoption in the high schools. Different categories of qualitative data, collected through interviews, focus group discussion and help in deriving the results of the study.

Descriptive Data

This section provides a narrative summary of the population characteristics and demographics of the participants in the study. It establishes the number of subjects, education level, subject they teach, and some other sample characteristics. The use of graphic organizers, such as tables to provide further clarification and promote readability is utilized to organize and present coded data.

Role of Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour

This research study was conducted based on Ajzen’s (1988) theory of planned behavior (TPB) which in this study identifies teachers’ deliberate behavior and also the behavior they can plan to adopt or limit adoption of new media technologies in teaching. One of the major strengths of the theory of planned behavior is that it is widely applicable to a variety of behaviors in different contexts, including diverse areas such as health communications, environmental concerns, and, more recently, technology adoption (Ajzen, 2011). The relation of Ajzen’s (1987) TPB to this study is evident as the research question one (R1) addresses the teacher perceptions towards the adoption of new media technologies in educational settings (see appendices A).

The study population

The study was conducted in one phase. Twenty-five participating administrators and high school teachers were interviewed to investigate their perceptions on adoption and integration of new media technologies at four high schools in a school district in Central Valley, California. Face to face interviews, focus group discussion and field notes helped in finding some factors limiting or facilitating the adoption of new media technologies. All participants provided in-depth information. Participating teachers were from four high schools. The teachers were from different departments and they taught different grade levels and subjects. All the participants had college degree and teaching credential. They shared diverse teaching experiences.

Of the 25 participants, 22 were teachers and three were administrators. The number of years these participants had spent teaching or administrating ranged from three to 30 years. Two longest serving participants had served for over thirty years. One of the teachers had served for only three years. This variation helped get a range of perspectives concerning the adoption of technology in the high schools over a wider range of time. Some teachers had served for as long as their schools had been in operation. Teachers came from different departments from four different high schools, and two participants represented the district administration.

All the participants provided information in the supportive aspect, where they provided information about the factors that support the adoption of new media technologies in high school teaching. The teachers also shared their perspective, ideas, experiences and information about the factors that possibly limit them from adopting new media technologies in high school teaching. The next section presents the findings of this study that of new media technology adoption in four high schools has reached a satisfying level or if there are still limitations and technical hitches when it comes to new media technology adoption and its integration in common core state standards based curriculum teaching.

Description of the school district in central valley, California

The school district used in the study was established in the year 1997 in the Central Valley, California with elementary schools, middle schools and high schools with a mission to provide K-12 education to all the students. Since its establishment, the school district has been proactive in responding to the learning and teaching needs of the students and teachers by introducing new courses and programs of study that target the felt needs of state and federal standards of education. Associated with this approach has been flexibility in trying out new things, of which computer technologies and tools are employed. The discussion indicates the embrace of technology adoption in education. It is also a pointer to new media technology integration in high school teaching.

New media technologies

The school district took a leading role in introducing and adopting new technologies for the teachers during its early stages of operation. Owing to increased support through state and federal funds, a substantial number of schools in the central valley, California, were provided with more efficient computer devices and other technological tools to support modern K-12 teaching and learning. A new laptop or computer was issued to all the teachers, as well as most administrators in the school district. Before this development, some teachers and staff shared or used the library or office computers and printers for internet access and printing.

From the year 2006, internet provision was extended to the classrooms. Wireless internet technology installed in the offices, as well as classrooms has improved the network speed. This is how participating administrators and the district technology report describe the electronic technology’s progress at the district office and schools. From the year 1999, schools started with a dial-up connection and they did not have a complete Local Area Network. In 2004-05 technology improved and the district extended the local area network to the classrooms. In 2006, the district upgraded the downlink bandwidth to one Meg and the network was extended to wireless in all schools.

In 2006 most schools received computers for the teachers and students depending on the school’s budget. Bigger high schools could afford more computers and other technologies. Then the main problem was performance of the computers because within two years all the computers were outdated and slow (A2, 2014). Some teachers used Internet resources and PowerPoint presentations for teaching. The following is an integrated report of the results of the data collection procedure. The first part is a presentation. It describes participants, and then discusses the findings related to the research questions that guided the study.

Description of the participants

In seeking to draw data that described participants, a number of questions were asked requiring them to indicate their gender, age category, the highest degree they had attained, and what subjects they taught. Other descriptive information included number of years they had taught at school or worked at the district, courses they taught in a semester or year, average student population they taught, and most importantly the level of experience in using technology.

Table 1. Gender of the Participants.

Male/Female Frequency Percent
Female 17 68.0
Male 8 32.0
Total 25 100.0
Age

Twenty two teachers and three administrators participated in the interview. There were 68% females and 32% males. Most participants were in the 36 to 45 and 46-55 age category. The rest of the participants were in 56-65 age category.

Table 2. Age of the Participants.

Age Frequency Percent
36-45 9 36.0
46-55 9 36.0
56-65 7 28.0
Total 25 100.0
Educational Qualification

All the participants provided responses to this item. All participants had a bachelor’s degree and a teaching credential. Twenty eight percent of participants had bachelor’s degree. Some teachers taught more than one subject (multiple certification). Some participants also had master’s degree (56%) and multiple certification or administration credential. Four participants (16%) had a doctorate degree.

Table 3. Educational Qualification of the Participants.

Qualification Frequency Percent
Doctorate 4 16.0
Masters 14 56.0
Bachelors 7 28.0
Total 25 100.0
Job Title

With regard to position held, teachers accounted for the largest proportion of the participants at (84.0%) followed by school and district administrators. All teachers hold a bachelor’s degree or higher degree and single and/or a multiple subject teaching credential considered necessary for teaching at high schools, while administrators also need a master’s degree and administration credential. Very few educators (16%) attained doctoral level degrees.

Table 4. Job Title of the Participants.

Position Frequency Percent
Teachers 22 88.0
Administrators 3 12.0
Total 25 100.0

Teaching or Administration Experience: This item asked participants to provide information regarding the number of years they had taught at present High school or worked at an administrative position. All 25 participants provided an answer for this question. Participants who had taught for three to five years were less represented by the participants accounting for 16%, followed by most highly representing 40% those who reported teaching or held administrative positions for six to ten years. Participants who had taught or were administrators for eleven to fifteen years represented the highest percentage in the study’s with a total of 44 percent.

Table 5. Teaching or Administration Experience of the Participants.

Experience Frequency Percent
3-5 4 16.0
6-10 10 40.0
11-15 11 44.0
Total 25 100.0
Number of work hours per week

Participants were asked to indicate the number of classes or work hours they were teaching or working in a week. All participants provided information for this item. All participants were generally teaching except three administrators; they informed that they worked forty hours or more every week.

Table 6. Work hours.

Work hours per week Frequency Percent
35-40 hours 21 84.0
41-45 hours 4 16.0
Total 25 100.0
Class Strength

Participants indicated the typical number of students they were teaching for every class. A total of 22 participants provided responses to this item because three participants were involved in administrative duties. The largest proportion, 49.5%, of the participants taught an average of 27-32 students in their classes followed by teachers who taught 20-26 students, 45% , followed by one teacher who taught 10-19 students, 4.5%.

Table 7. Class Strength.

Students per class Frequency Percentage
10-19 1 4.5
20-26 10 45.0
27-32 11 49.5
Total 22 100.0

Information about the Interviewees

A total of 25 participants were interviewed. The number of years these participants had spent teaching or administrating ranged from three to 30 years. Two longest serving participants had served for over thirty years. One of the teachers had served for only three years. This variation helped to get a range of perspectives concerning the adoption of technology in the high schools over a wider range of time. Some teachers had served for as long as their schools had been in operation. Teachers came from different departments from four different high schools, and two participants represented the district administration. In this case study, the data collection presentation of results from the interviews, focus group discussion, and field notes were noted and transcribed by the researcher.

Based on the findings of the research by Kohlbacher (2005), the analysis of the data in this qualitative research is based more on the content of the responses, rather than the quantity of the data. In a similar sense, the model of analysis in this study is based on the works of Zucker (2009) on qualitative research, which reiterates research questions in the study as the reference point for the synthesis of the data that is collected.

The study concentrates on identifying how the data that is observed and collected influences outcomes and contributes to the theory (TPB). As such, meaning from the vast amount of qualitative data can only be derived through the sampling of responses according to the questions that guide the research. As a result, the researcher represented links, explained, questions and highlighted theoretical and observed phenomena of the teachers studied, the tools described and their relation to the theory of planned behavior. The following section presents findings of the study as they relate to the three research questions.

Research questions

Research questions were read to all the participants first, followed by a short description how their response and experience would help teachers in adopting or not limiting new media technologies in teaching. The answers were studied and analyzed to find answer to the overarching question.

  • R1. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how they are integrated into daily instruction?

The first research question sought to determine educator perceptions about new technologies adopted and integrated in teaching. It was noted, during interviews and from focus group discussions with the teachers in all the four sample high schools, that they had desktop computers and laptops connected to school district internet network. Technology is a major contributing factor in modern education. For this reason, all twenty two teachers and the administrators had at least one computer or laptop in their room connected to the Internet. The administrator had this to say concerning old computers with Windows XP and others that did not have enough hard drive and memory to work with Windows 8.1 new media software, printers and wireless LCD projectors:

  • Most dated computers have been either updated or e-wasted.
  • California has adopted CCSSs so state and federal governments have allotted money to all the school districts, starting 2012. Hence, this school district has set aside some money for technology upgrades and new devices for teachers and students (CCSS, 2012).
  • New laptops and tablets have been purchased and issued to all the educators.
  • New laptops have also been purchased for student use so that they can learn and practice web based learning and online testing.
  • All schools are all getting some major new technology updates and number of new devices for some classrooms and computer labs.
  • Computer labs in all the schools are being updated and made functional for new devices. The intention is to have teachers and student use new media technologies for teaching and testing.

Sixteen participating teachers said they use one or more new media technologies such as Edmodo, Dropbox, OneNote, Wikis, sites for online research in teaching from time to time, four teachers said they have tried some new technologies sometimes in their teaching, and two veteran teachers with over 15 years of teaching experience said they are not very interested in trying any more new technology in teaching because they are comfortable with their existing lesson plans. These teachers wanted to continue to use PowerPoint and white board and did not want to redo their lesson plans and labs for teaching classes any other way.

Group discussions and the answer to research question one (R1) enable teachers to learn and understand the importance and effective uses of new media technologies. The answer also suggest ideas on how teachers plan curriculum based on Common Core Standards and integrate new media technologies into teaching. The discussion and data may motivate participants to better understand and align current curriculum to CCSSs.

The number of participating teachers who shared that they were using the new media technologies for teaching because of technological updates provides evidence for Common Core Standards. Another example comes from the mention of a district wide allocation of funds to schools for upgrade of computer equipment. This is another indication of a standardized approach to presenting education gains to stakeholders. Moreover, teachers appear to have embraced the new technology because of their ability to deliver results that they want. On the other hand, teachers expressing reservations about using new media technology tools explain that they are comfortable with their existing PowerPoint and Word worksheets.

This example serves as an indication of the need to provide appropriate incentive for teachers to catch up with technology rather than just assume that presence will influence behavior change. In this case, teachers adopting the new media technologies and tools end up fulfilling the intention of CCSS because they intend to deliver the education to students the CCSS way. Meanwhile, those who do not already use new media technologies are not providing education the CCSS way. Thus, going with the theory of planned behavior, the teacher’s attitudes help to predict their behavior towards introduction of new teaching technology tools.

  • R2. How do teachers report training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?

Literature, research findings and participants’ answers to research question two (R2) suggest some possible examples and solutions to the training opportunities. The findings also suggest some administrative support that can influence teacher’s adopting new media technologies into their teaching. The discussion and data may motivate administrators schedule trainings to help teachers understand and align new curriculum to Common Core Standards, which is a shift from teacher-centered learning to real life, more hands on, real work student-centered learning.

The trainings, research and teacher’s perceptions and focus group discussion answers will help teachers to learn how to collaborate to learn to integrate new media technologies and use them in teaching. Therefore, one way to influence teacher attitude is through training. If the training is sufficient, attitudes may be positive towards conducting behavior, which is to adopt new media technologies.

The theory of planned behavior assumes that a person’s intention will help predict the behavior pattern with greater accuracy (Ajzen, 1991). The researcher found some behavioral intentions through structured open-ended face-to-face individual interviews and focus group discussions with the participants and by taking field notes. Therefore, interview answers suggest how professional training and administrative support and collaboration support influence or limit adoption of new media technologies in teaching. For instance the researcher asked the teachers their take on the introduction of new media technologies and upgrade of old computers in their schools.

The researcher sought to find out whether the teachers concealed any attitude towards the changes and how that affected their behavior. Results revealed that many of the teachers who adopted the new media technologies for teaching that were provided by new technologies are the ones that had good intentions about improving their teaching experience. They were open to changes created by the upgrading of computer systems and connection of schools to the district internet.

  • R3. How do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core Standards?

The third research question investigated to what extent high schools can use new media technologies to support common core standards. The interview protocol for the teachers, questions through focus group discussion two addressed this research question. An overview of results from the interviews indicated that most teachers had adopted one or more new media technologies such as Edmodo, Dropbox, OneNote, and sites for online research at all four high schools.

Some teachers used new media technologies at a greater frequency than the rest. In soliciting data that responded to the third research question, participating teachers were asked to indicate their experience with any new media technologies using the descriptive range of new-user, novice, and average. Fourteen participating teachers described themselves as having high average proficiency, followed by those who described themselves as average as far as adoption and integration of new media technologies was concerned. Six participants described themselves as novice as far as new media technology proficiency was concerned.

Two participants, one male and one female veteran teachers with over 15 years of teaching were the least users of new media technologies. Interview results shared similarities with those obtained from the focus group discussions. Of the ten teachers who participated in the focus group discussion, five reported having low to average proficiency in using the new technology devices. Five participants indicated that they had high proficiency. Mostly the average or novice users had basic to average computer skills, like exploring the Internet, using power-point, document camera, TV, online videos, e-mails, texting and some Microsoft Office applications.

The collected data also provided ideas about administrators collaboration with teachers to adopt, integrate and use new media technologies in Common Core State Standards based curricula. The three research questions were appropriately framed to narrow the gap in the literature and learn teacher perceptions of what factors limited or motivated them to adopt new media technologies in some California high schools. The three research questions also found some added information about different new media technologies already used in modern teaching on a daily basis.

Teachers’ views

The literature on high school teachers has explored their beliefs about teaching and learning, their attitudes toward technology, and the obstacles they perceive in integrating technology. Some teachers claimed that their educational beliefs about teaching and learning, about students, about pedagogy, and about the role of technology strongly influenced their decision to integrate new media technologies. Some teachers perceived that new media technology integrated learning made students’ learning more dynamic and active. All participants also believed that the technological environment and new standards had inspired and required them to change their role from knowledge dispensers to facilitators.

Although most participating teachers emphasized the benefits of technology, the attitudes of a math teacher and an English teacher were different because initially they feared that using new devices and new media technologies would make their students’ more dependent on technology and limit basic math concepts. Soon these teachers found that students were more excited to use new devices and new media technologies for quick results. Teachers also observed that new media technologies inspire students to learn.

Technical and resource limitations

During interviews and focus group discussion, all participating teachers complained that some computers were slow and they would like to have access to use some software like Google Docs and Skype in class. Teachers needed permission for accessing and using many new media tools; this added another step in planning teaching. With new devices some teachers found it difficult to integrate technology into the common core curriculum and teaching because they needed more hands on training in using new media technologies in teaching. High schools had only one technical staff that was available on certain days and therefore many teachers were techno-phobic and anxious about dealing with technical errors and hands on training in real classroom teaching. Teachers needed more in-class technology and CCSS related training.

Increased efficiency

Teachers perceived that using new media technology tools made students’ learning more self-motivated and active. The participants also experienced that new tools motivated students and promoted interaction and communication among students and between students and teachers. Four teachers flipped classes and found their role changed from knowledge dispensers to facilitators in class. These teachers were able to give more one on one attention to English learners and students with other learning limitations and needs. All participating teachers said that the usefulness of technology had and will have a significant effect on their intentions to integrate new media technologies in modern teaching.

The teachers who reported high levels of personal use more likely used new media technologies in teaching and grading student work. More teachers with four to ten years of teaching experience were inclined to think new media technologies are useful, therefore were eager and excited to integrate new technologies in the curriculum with training. Participating teachers also said that although they appreciated the rich resources and the increased accessibility of information provided by the new media technologies, some teachers used technology only for attendance; email and online video use in class. Teachers need more hands on training about integrating new technologies in in class.

Some participants commented that they often use new technologies like Edmodo, Dropbox, Evernote, and OneNote in teaching. Math and science teachers also said that they share ideas from other websites and presentations from Share slide and Khan Academy, for projects and labs and new strategies with other teachers from other schools, school districts, and even colleges. Some teachers found it difficult to work through the technical glitches, sometimes slow internet and Wi-Fi access, and other new technology related problems.

Interview answers

All teachers declared that changes were necessary to change traditional ways of teaching and learning. It is a big instructional shift from number two pencils to technology based teaching. Teachers need deep understanding of the content, the corresponding pedagogical knowledge and new media technologies (Mishra & Koehler 2006; Harris, 2008). Most except four teachers called for frequent use of new media technology tools and more advanced technologies in all K-12 grades to enable students to master required technology skills.

Participants felt more teachers would use new media technology, but some old machines, limited training and limited time to revise and plan new curriculum minimize their chances. Teachers also need training in online testing and the way to access online resources and integrate new media technologies in teaching. Participants also felt that the technology used at home is invaluable, but all the students do not have internet access at home. In this regard, school library or class computers should be availed to student for use after school hours.

Eight participants said that new technologies played vital role in their classroom teaching, especially when they wanted their students to collaborate and share their knowledge with other students and teachers and do online research. Students used new media technologies to research online articles, current events and some other assignments that were initially hard to visualize. Teachers found online articles, animations and demonstrations very helpful, effective and innovative way of learning for their students. New media technologies also helped teachers and students to visualize with models, videos, examples and simulations.

In her personal interview, Teacher eleven (T11, May 2, 2014) who has integrated new media technologies in CCSS based new curricula states:

We have a four member science and technology team. We are always open to try new ideas …. And so when any one of us try a new software or application, I mean something new …. is an example of having a technology team willing to try, share and collaborate our experience with other teachers willing to try. We support each other throughout the school district. I think that is really good.

Three science teachers said that new media technologies had made it possible for them to use virtual dissection, animations, and lab simulations to help students understand, replay and learn the craft and skills they need to learn before going to college. Science, Math, and Engineering teachers also conferred that the world has become so technologically advanced; it was important to integrate new media technologies in teaching and let students practice new technologies that they will need in college learning and jobs.

Teacher nineteen (T19, May 1, 2014), in his personal interview stated:

Two- three years ago, as a new teacher I did not know what resources were available for high school teachers. Sometimes I wished we just had a list somewhere on the district portal or school website or department website where all this information was posted.

Math teachers had attended as many as ten hands on training sessions and piloted new media integrated curriculum courses based on new standards and experienced that they devoted more one on one time to students who needed personal time in understanding math concepts and use new technologies to practice math. Participating Math teachers’ echoed technology is imperative for education because it is an integral part of the modern world and new media technologies are designed to prepare, test, and challenge the students with right grade level standards and advanced thought-provoking and challenging problems.

Some teachers believed technology helped make the content more accessible. For example, teacher eighteen a science (T18, May 1, 2014), stated, “Physics, Chemistry and other science subjects are kind of, subjects so you can show how the concepts teachers talk about relate too everyday things, technology I feel bridges that gap, especially for high school level students.”

The administrators described that some common tried web links were accessible on the district Instructional Media Services (IMC) website and they had scheduled special technology training sessions, common core adoption training sessions, and district steering committees to help teachers in lesson planning; but it would take time, patience, understating and will to learn and use new media technologies, standards and successfully apply them in teaching. The administrators were confident that the training will help teachers’ better understand, prepare, and design curriculum with integration of new media technologies.

Another very high technology self-efficacy teacher stated, I use OneNote, Google Docs and my personal website to save all my work, just to be safe and have access anytime, anywhere. I can also use Smart Board, but unfortunately we do not have access to Google Docs in our schools. Teacher fourteen (T13, May 8, 2014) stated, “I think new media technologies offer a lot of choices. I just think many of us do not take advantage of it. I am sure many of us want to learn how we can use technology for physical education, art and some other quality activities at school. We should be able to take advantage of all that is available.”

Participating teachers believed that the use of new media technologies demanded time and certain skills that all the students needed were different from textbook based learning where students used pen and paper to write, solve and derive problems. Three teachers said they believe some teachers and students more than they believe others needed to focus on the practice of basic skills before they could try new media technologies. Teachers mentioned the use of new media technologies as support teaching forced them to change their teaching practices and re-plan lessons. Therefore, due to some initial technical hiccups, all participating teachers accepted that they were apprehensive about adopting new media technologies in teaching and sometimes, went back to traditional pen and paper.

One factor that contributed to the teachers’ willingness to integrate technology was their comfort level with new media technologies and the subjects they were teaching. Eighteen teachers said that they were more comfortable using new media technology when they taught familiar topics than where they had to try new technology integrated new lesson plans. Sixteen teachers were practicing and mastering new media technologies, more than others master because new devices, new standards, new technologies and new lesson plans are time consuming. All participants found new media technologies important and interesting however all the teachers reiterated that they needed more training and time to refine their newly learned skills, revise lesson plans, fine-tuning and practice with new media technologies and devices.

Another teacher who had a high technology self-efficacy, believed she is techy and innovative stated:

“I am constantly updating my lesson plans, not because they do not work well but especially with new standards CCSS and due to high number of English Leaners, some differentiated instructions and strategies work better than others in narrowing the learning gap in my classes. Outside of the class, I am a risk taker so I try new technologies and ideas, it is just my personality. And if something does not work, then I collaborate, reach out to other teachers, go online and try how to make it work” (T16, May 6, 2014).

Teacher twelve said, “Convenience of technology has influenced my attitude towards technology, I remember when I first got a smart phone, I did not use it as much, but now I use it way more …. You know it is so convenient to synchronize it with other tools and I just like it. We must try technology more, just play with it and they will be surprised that it is very convenient.”

Although, some new teachers were more conversant with new technologies, and could gain root, their problems were new standards based lesson plans while practicing teaching and performing secondary duties that they felt overwhelmed them at this time. New teachers had to juggle between their classes, lesson planning, teaching and understanding student needs, helping students while they were still learning to teach the new standards based curriculum and some new media technologies.

Focus group discussion responses

During focus group discussion nine teachers also expressed that new media technologies had made their teaching more interesting and equipped. Some teachers suggested that modern technologies provided the flexibility to enhance student learning because now students can learn at their own pace. All participating teachers iterated that they integrated hands-on assignments, projects, online research and group work in their teaching that improved student confidence, work ethics, writing and collaboration.

In focus group discussion six teachers said their focus was to integrate new media technologies into new curriculum based on Common Core Standards. Teachers also shared that all school districts in California had received special grants, especially to upgrade new technologies, new technology devices for the teachers and students, professional development for the teachers, books for the students, because new media technology is an integral part of Common Core standards. New technology devices are lightweight, have more memory, latest software, required ports so that teachers and students can use wireless in class.

Seven teachers also discussed how their students shared knowledge and ideas online with other groups in the class and with the teacher. Teachers indicated that using new media technologies allowed students to go beyond basic tasks, such as advanced writing, complicated number operations, and online research. This, in turn, had enabled teachers to focus more time on English learners and students who needed extra help and a little motivation to do their work.

Four teachers said that they were more comfortable teaching on the board than using new media technologies. Teachers said new standards, curriculum, and integration of new media technologies were slowing their planning and teaching. Teachers further said they wanted to plan, try and revise what lessons and technologies worked well and change what did not work well in their class. Teachers also indicated that they wanted to survive through new standards based lesson planning, integrating new media technologies and to make sure that their students could learn new skills. Teachers conferred it was more important for the students to understand, learn and also practice using new technologies.

Eight teachers shared that they were afraid to use technology more often because they were possibly far from being proficient. These teachers said they needed training and help on regular basis and wanted to be more comfortable planning and teaching technology integrated lessons. One administrator said “Oversold and underused” as described in Cuban’s work, is fading away with adoption of Common Core Standards in California. Relatively teachers had started integrating and trying new media technologies in high school teaching.

Four English teachers said they used new media technologies to import articles, types of writing, assignments, and worksheets. Fourteen teachers said they used an excellent online collaboration source Edmodo to share ideas, resources and lesson plans with teachers even from other schools and states who have already adopted new media technologies and common core standards. Three teachers said they were going to try ‘Edmodo’ during summer and share their ideas with other teachers.

Teachers exchanged ideas that worked well or not so well and what changes and modifications gave better results. Some teachers also shared their class demographics and discussed how collaboration among teachers was an important component that helped teachers across different grade levels, schools, and subjects. Teachers said new media technologies often inspired and overwhelmed students, as well as them.

During group discussions eight teachers also iterated that the integration of new media technologies had not only improved student efficiency, exploring and writing but also their pedagogical approaches, and better lesson preparation in using new technologies in teaching. When teachers were asked to comment on their ideas about using new technology in teaching, focusing on the labs and presentation tools, it was indicated that they had a lot of curriculum to cover.

All participants including administrators said that teachers need time and hands on experience in class. Teachers integrated new media technologies in teaching when necessary because they need more training and time to integrate new media technologies in new standards based curriculum. Some Science, Math, English and Social Studies teachers shared ideas how new technologies have helped their students to visualize abstract ideas, explore, do online research, refer online information and write.

Answers highlight professional development needs for teachers

One senior teacher said that most teachers did not have a problem with technology. The problem that they had was a pedagogical issue that was holding them from adopting new media technologies (T3, 2014). Reaching the teachers and professional trainings helped teachers understand that new media technologies will not and cannot replace teachers, but with the adoption of common core standards, integration of new media technologies was essential to provide tools that enable and prepare students for the colleges and the global market.

Teachers five, seven, eight, eleven, thirteen, fifteen, sixteen, twenty, Administrators one, two and three described their views and experiences about available professional development opportunities at their department, schools and also at the district level. T13 said, “Yeah, professional development opportunities are there. I would say our school and school district does a good job of providing lots of different opportunities for different professional development.” Most participants shared this same belief and felt that multiple opportunities to learn about new media technologies are offered, but subject matter, CCSS based ideas and more time would be better.

Teachers insisted that it is important to train teachers with a ‘hands on’ approach as opposed to other approaches. Some teachers also felt it was hard to find time to learn or practice as a result of being pulled in different directions for other work-related things. T17 also stated, “I am guilty of, the problem. We got our teaching, and then need to find time to grade and attend professional training and plan for the next day. We need professional development opportunities focused on new media technologies aligned with CCSS because, when it is not mandatory, all teachers cannot be on the same page and therefore attend another training and feel left out. I will say we need training. We also need practice in something that we can practice and use in our classes” (May 6, 2014).

All teachers said they needed a consistent training and ideas on how new media technologies transform lesson planning and teaching. This supports Levin and Wadmany’s (2008) findings. The findings highlight that training programs for teachers that embrace educational practices and strategies to address beliefs, skills, and knowledge, improve teachers’ awareness and insights, in relation to transformations in modern teaching. Training that is consistent and in line with current teaching programs for the teachers, will be possible to ensure that attitudes and uptake of introduced teaching technology tools lead to use.

Otherwise, some teachers are likely to drop out of the program as they respond to other pressing needs such as CCSS curriculum. This is in line with expectation from the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) where intentions precede outcome, but action taken by an individual towards a desired outcome will only arise when conditions are right. Continuous training provided the right conditions for behaviour change, according to most teachers interviewed. The professional training in CCSS and integrating new media technologies also help teachers feel more confident about integrating the new technologies in their teaching. Therefore, through professional trainings teachers likely form positive attitude, which lead them to try new technologies in the classroom.

Answers highlight technology-enhanced environment

During focus group discussion teachers suggested that the administrators should design a technology-enhanced environment so that it serves the goals of educators. Future research is necessary on how to design such technology-enhanced educational systems that enable harmony and, “the realization of a vision of the future society using systems design” (Banathy & Jenlink, 2004, p. 50). All the teachers said that new media technology and standards based curriculum, trainings and busy work days push teachers to the limit and, in some cases, beyond. That cause delays in the adoption of new media technologies in high school teaching.

According to all participating teachers, professional development remains a key factor in integrating new media technologies into teaching. Teachers also explained how their time committed to teaching, the amount of technology training and curriculum changes, and designing based on common core standards were reliable factors of technology use in modern teaching.

Research answers highlight limitations of new media technologies

Interview answers

All participants also reiterated that although students have cell phones, many do not have internet connection at home. For this reason teachers must give students more time on school computers during class and before and after school hours so they can complete technology related assignments. Initially, most teachers were planning limited technology related assignments and projects so that students could use new media technologies during or after school hours.

Some teachers said they had a difficult time using new technologies. Now more teachers need to gravitate towards a more technologically savvy way of teaching. This happened in the use of simulations and 3D modelling, virtual dissections, science labs, Mathematics Analysis Software, Computer Algebra Systems, statistical, geometry packages and taking online tests. One reason was that the tests were timed and users were learning testing skills using new media technologies, to use online resources, access new chapter or standard only after the student had mastered the previous one. Administrators said that they were planning based on teachers’ ideas and needs.

Focus group discussion

During focus group discussions twenty teachers conferred that they had observed mixed responses from their students about using new media technologies. Eight teachers preferred paper and pen because they felt they were more reliable and easier to use. All teachers said that both infrastructure and technical support was imperative. They cited lack of technical support as restrictions for adopting and integrating new media technologies in teaching.

During focus group discussion teachers shared their experiences and ideas about new media technologies, how they use or why they do not use technology as much. For example, Teacher three (T3, May 8, 2014) said, she has seen her students get bored despite the colorful, multi-media presentations. Classroom dynamics is indeed different especially when she throws some surprise questions. She feels it is vital to integrate new technology, encourage group discussions, surprise questions and notes in teaching to increase student focus and attention in class.

In response teacher six (T6) said, in her opinion it is also important that all teachers use new technologies in teaching based on student needs, subject of the topic, learning time, and teaching skills. Teachers need time to plan lessons, learn and practice that how much technology time may be important for any subject or class per day or per class period (T6, May 8, 2014).

Another English teacher (T4) said, for online research, student attention and discussion in class, we also require some strategies, skills and new media technology support just as mush is required for the content (T4, May 8, 2014). This was an indication that the teachers needed reinforcements to sustain their positive attitudes towards the new media technologies that they were embracing. Meeting the conditions highlighted by the group discussion responses would be a way to affect the normal working conditions for teachers, and therefore affect their attitude towards use of technology in teaching.

Another teacher (T17, May 8, 2014) stated, technology, well utilized, can enhance instruction, but when it’s imposed on teachers who are not yet competent in the how’s and whys of its use and CCSS, it can only harm instructional effectiveness. Somehow, technology and I are not best of friends and possibly many other teachers may be also finding it difficult to adopt, integrate and implement technology skills in modern teaching.

A science teacher (T15) said, the effectiveness of teaching is primarily limited by the content knowledge and teaching skill of the teacher. If a teacher is competent in the use of suggested technology, it can enhance instructional effectiveness. However, imposing the use of a suggested technology on a teacher who is not skilled and comfortable using technology, it can actually reduce the effectiveness of the instruction (T15, May 8, 2014).

As an example of the statement, when asking the research question 1 of this study, two veteran teachers said they preferred to use PowerPoint and their current lesson plans. The two teachers saw no need for use of new technologies because they had everything covered. Besides, the new technologies would derail them from their work according to their expressed opinion. Therefore, it may not be the best thing to do said T19. T19 believes limiting students from using technology in classroom learning is not right either. T19 also said that she has had some bad experiences but now she is trying and implementing technology in her daily teaching (T19, May 8, 2014).

Teacher twelve (T12) who is also a physical education coach said, technology use is very important in the teaching and learning process. For example, physical education or sports and science courses, all need the technology during teaching and learning process. Just so that the students can read, see, use and understand better, we should use technology in the classroom. With new CCSS, NGSS and Physical Education Standards we should use new media technologies, teaching skills, ideas and strategies to acquaint our students with the latest (T12, May 8, 2014).

Yet another teacher (T4) said, depending on the learning styles of my students and their interests I use to determine and plan what medium would capture most attention in class. This year I have tried to change my style of delivery which is more teacher directed, I am more whiteboard, notes and lecture type of teacher. I have also tried experiential teaching with new technologies and reorganized my classroom to facilitate technology based learning (T4, May7, 2014).

A veteran teacher (T3) said, technology is for enhancement of learning. New media technology is an aid in modern teaching and learning. Therefore, it should be used like a helping hand not as a mandatory condition. I think teachers should skillfully lead teaching aid and blend lecture, hands on work, projects and technology use in class (T3, May7, 2014). Teacher (T1) sitting next to him said, my goal is to reach all my students. I plan a small technology based modules for each day teaching. I have a sound framework, and use evidence-based assessment of my effectiveness and think how technology enhances my approach. I believe that if teachers are not skilled in technology use, it can make things worse (T1, May 7, 2014).

Administrator 3 (A3) intervened backing this teacher and said delivering a lecture using modern technology is more effective when the teacher is skilled and has subject knowledge required to teach. Some teachers believe that technology centered teaching is not as effective as paper-pencil and lecture style teaching. But it is time to adopt new technologies and teach the millennials the modern way. Smile! (A3, May 7, 2014).

Teacher 7 (T7) questioned what teaching style Albert Einstein would have favored in his modern math and physics classes? (T7, May8, 2014). Teacher 8 (T8) said, Einstein would have adopted various new media technologies and used paper-pencil in his math and physics classes. Because Einstein wanted to learn new things and he was not type of teacher, who do not accept new technology as a transformative tool in teaching. I believe it is important to learn, adopt and use new technologies in teaching. Although planned technology may not always equate to good teaching or pedagogy, technology has been very effective in promoting student engagement and learning teaching (T8, May8, 2014).

Teacher 6 (T6) said, it is critical to understand how the digital ecosystem is shaping modern learning. Technology use in teaching for me has been very valuable and exciting; it engages students in new and innovative ways. It is important not to overdo it. Technology for me has improved my teaching in so many ways, when I use it properly” (T6, May 8, 2014). Administrator 2 (A2) stated, new media technology tools enhance learning but cannot replace quality teaching. Some teachers are technology ready than their colleagues. Some teachers embrace new media tools thinking that access to technology in the classroom may instantly improve students’ learning. Therefore, it is important that teachers collaborate, plan lessons based on CCSS and integrate new media technologies alongside a strong pedagogical foundation” (A2, May 8, 2014).

Perceived behavior control and attitude

Based on the theory of planned behavior, perceived behavior control, where enacting the behavior is within one’s control, positive attitude should lead to the desired behavior. The subjective behavior is a social factor that refers to the perceived social pressure to perform, or to not perform, the behavior, in this study, the perceived social pressure was to adopt and use or do not adopt new media technologies in teaching. The focus group discussion and the finding of this study revealed teacher’s behavioral intentions. This can be applied to any behavior for example teacher’s intent to adopt use new media technologies in teaching.

The responses in this section that provide an interpretation of the use of technology according to a teacher’ interview and focus group discussion responses, represent individual attitudes. Attitude towards the behavior is a person’s overall evaluation of the behavior (Ajzen, 1991).

TPB explains that a person’s attitudes may enable or create barriers to his or her intention to change. Attitude in this study refer to a favorable or unfavorable disposition towards an action according to whether they believe it to be beneficial or not. For example, when teacher three said she has witnessed her students being bored, she relays her individual opinion. Individual attitude also appears in statements that explicitly say that they refer to a teacher’s opinion. For example, when teacher six said it is her opinion that teachers need time to plan, she represents her individual opinion.

The researcher observed and noted some teachers’ attitude during focus group discussion and during individual interviews. Some veteran teacher’s attitude about adopting new media technologies in teaching was not very positive and exciting. When teachers are giving a general view of technology and its introduction or impact on teacher’s work, they were presenting information about the subjective norm. According to TPB, the second determinant of intention to change is the social factor termed subjective norms. It suggests that a teacher’s intention to change their teaching practice could be influenced by how they perceive that using technology fits into the present teaching culture of the school. For example, do the colleagues they respect think that teaching with technology is a good idea? Does the school principal or other administrators expect teachers to use technology for teaching?

Subjective norm

Subjective norm here is teachers’ beliefs about how people they care about will view the behavior in question. An example of subjective norm presentation was by veteran teacher T11 that “This summer we have CCSS and technology integration related professional development trainings setup for all subject teachers. Isn’t that cool. I will attend both these preservice day trainings and all buyback day professional trainings for CCSS and technology integration in teaching”. This is an indication of belief about how administrators and other teachers, would like T3 to perform in this situation, it does not touch on their actual experience with it. The subjective norms that validly and reliably influence teachers’ intention to adopt new technologies in high schools are their fellow teachers and administrators.

The perceived behavioural control factors are measured validly and reliably by their experience, skills, capability and ability to adopt and use new media in teaching successfully. The significant finding of the current study show evidence for the influencing effect of subjective norms, comprising of administrators and teachers’, intention; is in contrast to the importance of teaching and learning environment on high school teachers’ attitudes. Teachers’ perceptions of positive expectations and support by a principal, or of having the use of technology imposed, evoke different responses.

Meanwhile perceived behavioral controls appear from statements that teachers made indicating what they were supposed to do, or why they had problems with the new media technologies. These statements show that there is an intended behavioral response, which the teachers are seeking. Perceived control is more about ability than motivation to enact a certain behaviour. The administrator made reference to perceived behaviour controls when A3 said that all teachers should be able to adopt new technologies and teach the millennial generation the modern way. According to the statement, teachers should be skilled, able and proficient to use new media technology and meet generational demands of their students.

The research constructs of this study that is, attitudes and perceptions are latent variables which are not directly observable. Teachers’ attitudes towards new media technologies are validly and reliably linked to their liking and enjoying when using these tools in teaching. However, teachers’ perceptions of other teachers, and administrators’ limited enthusiastic attitudes and experiences towards new media technologies may contribute towards their decisions to adopt and use new media technologies in teaching or not. This study also provides further support of the applicability of the Theory of Planned behaviour as psychosocial theoretical model in explaining and predicting behaviours in the field of education.

The third determinate of intention to change recognized by TPB is a person’s perceived behavioral controls. This encompasses a person’s subjective views of limitations that may prevent them taking the action in question. Therefore, considering factors which possibly have been presenting barriers to teachers’ intentions to adopt and use new media technologies, one’s influence, identified in the literature, is teachers’ perceptions of their own technological knowledge; for example, if they feel they will be able to cope with unexpected problems (BECTA, 2004).

Administrator 2 (A2) responded that media technology tools enhance learning yet they cannot replace quality teaching. This is an implication of the role of new media technology in teachers teaching behaviour. Part of the response from administrator two (A2) also says that teachers should collaborate and plan lessons based on CCSS. Their integration of new media technologies to teaching should only come as part of their pedagogical foundation and skills.

The focus on the individual attitude, subjective norm and perceived behaviour controls highlight the relevance of the responses to specific research questions. Research question one concentrated on individual attitudes, answered by teacher’s references to their classroom experience. The second research question focused on subjective norms and the way teachers highlight opportunities and administrative support they get or ought to get. The third research question helps to bring out perceived behavioural controls as it captures the connection of new media technology’s introduction and usage by teachings in line with Common State Standards. With this structure of analysing the data, the research is able to build a relationship of the TPB, research questions and CCSS from the responses provided.

Themes and patterns used to understand data

The researcher thoroughly studied and deconstructed the data collected during interviews, field notes and focus group discussions with the participants, to identify themes and patterns that could be used to understand the data better. Key-words-in-context (KWIC) and metaphor technique were used to identify key words and develop codes (D’Andrade, 1991). There were also words that helped the researcher to identify the context of the responses from any participant. Participating teachers’ name were not used directly, they were coded as T1, T2….T22 and administrators’ names were coded as A1, A2 and A3, school and school district name was kept anonymous. Grade level and subjects they taught were not coded for research.

When analyzing data, the researcher underlined some keywords using different colors, which provided the necessary background for the development of codes and themes. As far as the codes are concerned, the basic ones used to come up with themes are hardware, software, device, Internet, media, training, discussion, instruction, teacher-centered, learner-centered, curriculum, online research. These codes correspond to the research questions as they are concerned with the attitudes towards the new media technology, the use of technology and the views on the standards as related to the adoption of new media technology.

Thus, the first research questions is formulated as follows:

  • R1: How do teachers describe new media technologies and how it is integrated into daily instruction?

The question correlates with the following codes: hardware (computers, laptops, tablets), software (memory, Windows, PowerPoint and so on), devices (printers, LCD projectors and so on), Internet (access to the World Wide Web), and media technologies (Dropbox, Wikis, OneNote and so on). During the analysis of the participants’ accounts (obtained during both interviews and focus groups discussions) themes as opportunities, limitations, fears, hopes and change are recurrent. Thus, one of the participants stressed, “We are always open to try new ideas …. try a new software or application” (T11, May 2, 2014).

This can be regarded as an illustration of the theme concerning change. The participants are life-long learners who are ready to use technology. The example of the theme ‘opportunity’ can be the following idea, “I think new media technologies offer a lot of choices” (T13, May 8, 2014). The theme of limitations is mainly associated with such codes as software, devices, Internet and media technologies. At that, teachers mainly expressed their regrets concerning limited resources available. The same codes were used to develop the theme ‘fears’, but the focus lied on the educators’ inability to use the technology rather than unavailability of devices.

The second question is as follows:

  • R2: How do teachers report training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?

The following codes are identified as regards this research question: training (courses, discussions, collaboration), instruction (availability of resources, administrators’ support), technology, teacher-centered, learner-centered. Three themes (opportunities, hopes and change) mentioned above are recurrent in this set of data. At that, training is seen as the key to the successful implementation of new media technology and the transition from the teacher-centered to learner-centered learning.

For example, during the focus group discussion, Speaker 3 said, “We will also need training from time to time in new media technologies because they change every few months.” Training is seen as the primary opportunity associated with the increased efficiency of teaching. Hopes of educators lie within the terrain of collaboration. For example, Speaker 4 mentioned the importance of collaboration, “The master teachers can learn and train other teachers.” As for fears and limitations, teachers were rather optimistic as they felt the administrators’ and their peers’ support. The participants also acknowledge the rapid changes that take place in the society, and they believe technology will be used extensively in the near future.

The third research question is as follows:

  • R1: How do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core State Standards?

The codes developed to analyze the data are media used (Dropbox, PowerPoint, camera, texting and so on), online research (websites), curriculum (including standards). All the five themes can be found in the participants’ accounts concerning the set of questions on the matter, but the theme ‘limitations’ is the most frequent. The participants stress that they feel the lack of time for changing their lesson plans to make them more consistent with the CCSS when it comes to the use of technology.

They also stress that they have to make sure students obtain the necessary amount of skills and knowledge, and simply do not have time to ‘waste’ on the adoption of technology. Speaker 2 stated, “teaching the content and also how to use the technology tools takes time.” The participants also expressed their fears as to their ability to meet the standards using the available resources and limited time given for the integration of the technology in their teaching. However, the educators also expected that the changes will be effective, and the use of technology will soon be a common practice.

It is possible to conclude that five common themes were found regarding similarities between and among participant’s experiences adopting and using new media technologies in teaching. The first theme revealed that teachers did not believe enough time was available for them to plan, collaborate and practice using new media technology tools; the time included work time and personal time. About the second theme, the results indicated that participants shared similar beliefs about available professional development opportunities to learn about CCSS and integrating new media instructional technologies in new curricula. The third theme revealed teachers’ attitudes, regardless of years of experience, were overall positive toward new media technologies.

All participants agreed that new media technology is relevant to today‘s students and was a great way to engage them and that the technology skills are essential to students’ professional and educational future. A fourth theme identified was that many participants had a fear that integration of new media technologies in CCSS curriculum may not be very successful. Some teachers said that they were scared of technology breaking and some that specific barriers existed that kept them from being able to utilize these technologies as much as they would like. The fifth theme was that all participants shared the similar personality trait of being life-long learners.

Although time constraints and other factors contributed to participants‘ opportunities to learn and practice new media technologies in classroom teaching, all of them cited a desire to learn in order to enhance their professional practice.

This study relied on one overarching question, three research questions to group responses from the research in the individual interviews, focus group discussions and field notes. The researcher relied on the first person reference to identify statements that would have information related to the individual attitudes of the responder. Second person and third person statements presented subjective norms or perceived behavioural controls. An attitude, according to Hawkins, Best, and Coney (2001), is an enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual, and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of our environment.

It is an evaluation of the circumstances presented to an individual. The researcher also noted teacher’s facial expressions, responses and reactions to the questions and other participants’ reaction and response during focus group discussion and interviews. Directly asking the participants about their attitude or opinion could divert or prevent them from sharing their genuine response and disagree or agree with other participants or not share their experience and response. For this reason the researcher chose to take field notes during research process.

Moreover, the references made by the participants also highlighted the category that the response would fit in, or the main research question that the participant was answering. For example, when a teacher referred to his or her students in the classroom during a lesson, the teacher was presenting an individual opinion, attitude or observation. On the other hand, when an administrator referred to conditions in a school, or the technological links with a school and the education body in California, the response would be providing the context of teaching.

In the same way, references to technology that were abstract and could apply to any teacher or school were subjective norms. However, when the same responses highlighted the link of the technology and the expected outcome, then they brought out perceived behavioural controls. Teacher references to (CCSS) standards of teaching or curriculums and evaluation of their teaching methods were also cues used in the data analysis to represent perceived behavioural controls.

Describes in detail the data analysis procedures. Include description of coding process, description of how codes are related to themes, examples of codes and themes with corresponding quotations, how codes were developed into themes.
Explains and justifies any differences in why data analysis section does not match what was approved in Chapter 3.
Provides validity and reliability of the data in statistical terms for quantitative research OR describes approaches used to ensure validity and reliability for qualitative data including expert panel review of questions, practice interviews, member checking, and triangulation of data, as appropriate.
Identify sources of error, missing data, or outliers and potential effects on the data. Discuss the limitations this places on the study results.

It is also necessary to add that the validity and reliability of the data analysis were ensured by the triangulation. It is necessary to note that practice interviews took place, which allowed to develop precise questions and topics for focus group discussions. The key words, codes and then themes were identified in all the three types of data (interviews, focus group discussions and field notes). Notably, all the major codes and themes were recurrent. The face-to-face interview enabled the researcher to consider verbal as well as nonverbal information. The necessary rapport was established, and coding also contributed to participants’ sincere and comprehensive answers.

The focus group discussion was specifically valuable as the researcher encouraged the participants to “query, question and explain their viewpoints through group interaction, teasing out complementary and argumentative interpretations of the research topic” (Moore, McKee & McLoughlin, 2015). There were no questions that could predetermine answers (like it could occur during the interviews), but there was an active interaction, which still resulted in addressing major themes mentioned above. The use of three different methods of data collection and their thorough analysis enabled the researcher to avoid any errors or outliers.

Results

Both the personal interviews and focus group discussion answers served to explore factors that motivated or held teachers’ from adopting new media technologies. The answers based on field notes and teachers’ responses to interview questions and focus group discussion found answers to the three reach questions and the overarching question. The results based on the three research questions, are as follows.

  • R1: How do teachers describe new media technologies and how it is integrated into daily instruction?

The findings of this study reveal that although the participating teachers spoke highly about new technologies they were all not very content with the current media technologies that they use. The responses denote some level of discontent with the hands on training, time to practice and infrastructure that supports new media technology adoption and usage in the high schools. The findings further point to certain developments over time when it comes to the development of an environment in the schools that supports new media adoption.

  • R2: How do teachers report training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?

The findings of the study reveal that there are numerous challenges as far as the adoption and use of new media technologies in learning is concerned. To begin with, the needed infrastructure, Internet, Wi-Fi, new computer devices and access to new media technologies need, technical and hands on support, enough time and training for good planning. From the study, teachers do not get enough time to acquire and practice new media technology skills and technology integration training. Teachers also manage large classes, with a limited number of computers available for student use. There also seems a lack of technical and pedagogical support, training and collaboration among teachers and with the administrators. Also, the findings reveal that new media technology supports the ease with which the teachers access information.

  • R3: How do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core Standards?

The findings of the study indicate that the availability of the new media technologies is an important step towards full adoption of new technologies for teaching and communication and collaboration among the teachers and with the students. The findings of the study reveal that a number of schools from the sample have made progress in teachers’ embrace of technology use. The responses in the interviews and focus group discussions show that teachers need and have attended trainings and collaborating with other teachers to learn how to adopt and use the new media technologies in teaching.

Of the factors identified as a result of teachers’ answers they were split into two major categories: work-related factors and personal/outside factors. The study findings reveal that new media technology adoption in the high schools is a required thoughtful idea, although in adequate infrastructure, an effective policy for year round adequate professional development for the teachers and administrators need to be established to support the development of the grounds that support new media technology adoption and use in learning.

Similar to Buabeng-Andoh’s (2012) study, which pointed to the limitations in terms of technology adoption in education improvement, the results of this study show that these limitations may be inherent in most high schools in the central valley, California and other states. The studies by Demirci (2009), as well as Chigona and Chigona’s (2010) agree with the findings of this study. In response to what role leadership played in technology adoption, teachers responded that when school and district administrators encouraged and dedicated collaboration and training time for teachers to plan student-centered learning, it influenced effective technology transformation.

Summary

This case study found that there have been progressive efforts to use new media technologies in the high schools in central valley, California. With today‘s technological advancements, instructional technology tools exist that create opportunities for teachers and students to more meaningfully and innovatively engage in teaching and learning practices. The findings of this study further point to the fact that new media technology adoption in high schools has not reached a satisfying level. It is because there are still a lot of difficulties and technical hitches when it comes to adoption and use of new technologies in the schools and its full integration in CCSS based teaching.

Based on research question one (R1), most of the respondents in the research, according to the data presented, reveal the desire to adopt and use new media. However, the level of optimism about new media technology adoption in participating high schools is reduced by what can be termed as the prevalence of above discussed challenges, some of which are understanding new standards and role and technical needs of new media technologies, while others are based on the limited level of support and hands on training for new media technology adoption in high schools.

Findings of this study

These findings agree with the findings by Demirci (2009) and Chigona and Chigona (2010), who sought to examine the decisions of the teachers appertaining to technology adoption in learning. Just like in the present study, the results of the study by Chigona and Chigona (2010) pointed to the mixed feelings of teachers about the best way to adopt technology in high school teaching. This leads to the research question 2 (R2).

The results of the study point to the fact that there are numerous preliminary challenges when it comes to new media technology integration in teaching in high schools. The challenges can be classified into hands on practice, technical, financial, and infrastructure. Technical challenges point to the nature of technology. Based on the data collected from the participants in the sample schools, it is evident that efficient internet connection has been a problem for some time. Even in the present times, with latest software the Internet supply is not always too efficient to support the full deployment of new media technology in CCSS based learning.

Sometimes the internet and the Wi-Fi are slow during school hours and it disrupts the lesson planning for the day or sometimes student work, research or test is lost or freezes because of the slow internet connection. Financial challenges can be linked to the aspects of funding and the limited capacity of all the schools to acquire enough modern and effective computers for the students, the administrators, and the teachers. According to the responses given by the participants, the technology infrastructure in some schools should be improved to effectively support new media technology adoption and application by teachers.

The data that relates to research question 3 (R3) denotes the potential of high schools to adopt and use new media technologies in the high schools, provided that the technology environment in the schools is crafted so that it can be fully receptive to new media technology deployment in teaching and learning. The data shows that there is a considerable level, though minimal, at which new media technologies have been developed in high schools in Central Valley, California.

However, there is a pointer to the full adoption and development of the infrastructure that some instructors will always resist new media adoption, especially the deployment of new media in interactive learning. There is a need for a gradual procedure when introducing new media technologies. Administrators and teachers require a common platform for collaboration. It is better to have a graduated approach to the use of new media technologies. The emphasis on the new media technology introduction and usage should be on collaboration and communication and adoption and use of new media technologies in district wide teaching.

Sources of data used

The following is a description of the sources of data used for this research and the outcome obtained from all of them. First, the study relied on a sample of 22 teachers and three administrators from four high schools from a school district in central valley, California. All the participants selected for the study were involved in the use of technology in their teaching in at least one way. Moreover, the study also wanted to highlight the perceptions of teachers towards new media technology in three different ways (TPB).

There was the reporting of individual attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural controls. These were informed by the study’s interpretation of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). In this regard, there were three questions formulated to help answer the study’s overarching question, which was to explore the perceptions of high school teachers on factors motivating or limiting them from adopting and integrating new media technologies in teaching.

Interviews

The preferred methods of data collection for the study were individual interviews with selected 22 teachers and 3 administrators. There was also the use of focus group discussions. The individual interviews provided an environment for teachers to provide personalized responses about their attitude to new media technologies. This was also an opportunity for the researcher to find out any limitations that the participants faced in their expression of the appropriate behaviour towards the adoption of new media technologies. The individual interviewees were informed of the intentions of the study and were encouraged by open-ended questions to provide as much information as possible regarding the specific research questions.

Focus group discussion

In addition to that, there were focus group discussions that provided a collective response, but an additional advantage of the research was that focus group discussion provided teachers with cues on ideas that would be relevant for the research. Focus group discussion allowed the teachers and administrators interviewed in the research to build on each other’s responses. They also provided the researcher with an opportunity to get a better understanding of a given information provided by a teacher.

For example, when teachers explained that they faced difficulties in using new media technologies due to slow Wi-Fi connections, an administrator added that technology was supposed to aid the existing pedagogical framework and not replace it. Such responses provide a related base for understanding attitudes and responses such that it is possible to interpret and attach them to various aspects of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB).

Data analysis

In the data analysis part of the research, a qualitative methodology was adopted. The research questions and the data collection procedures were open-ended, it was appropriate for the research to use an analysis method that would capture as much information as possible about the observed and investigated phenomena. This study was explorative in that it intended to find out the existence of particular perceptions by teachers in their teaching, about technology usage.

Before the actual data analysis, the researcher relied on existing literature on the subject of TPB and technology usage in teaching. Attitudes of teachers on technology use were also a parameter followed by the researcher when seeking relevant literature on the subject. The exploration started with the researcher only having research questions to answer. The method chosen was appropriate in developing evidence to support the conclusions of the research.

Personal interviews provided information regarding each participants’ teaching backgrounds and personal experiences with technology. Additionally, the personal interviews, along with the two focus groups, revealed factors that influenced teachers’ technology skills.

Factors were either work-related or personal or outside factors. The work-related factors included participants’ perceptions of school and district support and available opportunities for new media technology, participants’ perceived knowledge of their access to these technologies at their schools, participants’ content area focus towards CCSS, the amount of time participants used towards instructional technology during the work day and perceived barriers. Personal or outside factors identified were participants’ personality traits, participants’ access to and/or personal time to learn how to use technology, teachers’ attitudes toward technology, and their skills about using incorporating new media technologies.

Factors that influenced teachers’ technology experience and that were connected to professional development opportunities were revealed through personal interviews, focus groups, and field notes. Work-related factors connected to professional development, participants’ training and experiences related to instructional technology, and types of professional development opportunities were all explored through data deconstruction and analysis. Additionally, participants’ ideas for future professional development opportunities to increase teachers’ technology skills were identified as a result of participants’ personal interview and focus group discussion responses.

Also examined were the differences among participants from different high schools or department. There were notable variations found in field such as years of teaching experience, personal experiences with new media technologies and teachers’ content area focus. The data analysis part was descriptive. First, the researcher provides the demographic basics for high school teachers who teach in any one of the targeted four high schools.

The descriptive information followed the 22 teachers’ and 3 administrators’ answers about the teaching environment. The researcher also provides an overview of the study population and the involvement of teachers into usage of new media technology tools in teaching. This is important because it highlights the structure that would influence perceived behavioural controls that teachers have concerning the use of new media technologies. After the presentation of descriptive information, the study provides responses related to each research question.

This was a summarized format used for the research given that there were a number of interview and focus group discussion questions used. In this regard, the research questions provide the three main themes being investigated by the study. Use of the three research questions as the basis for classifying the responses of the study is to make a corresponding confirmation of theoretical influence on the study findings and to link them to reported findings from other studies. Although the study is seeking to provide attitudes of teachers to adopt new media technologies in high school teaching, it also brings out the responses from administrators to provide a related understanding of the teacher’s responses. The administrator responses are presented in the same way that the teacher’s responses are represented.

The reported data was already interpreted by the research in regard to its relevance to the research question. However, as a means of increasing the emphasis on particular responses to research questions, the study also highlights specific teacher and administrator responses. These responses provide a true relationship between the individual attitude or subjective norm of the interviewed population and the research questions. Moreover, the use of a few exact responses as part of the study increase the validity of the research.

Limitations based on data analysis

As in any research, this study has some limitations. Some of these may lie in the population selection for the study, and others with the methodology. This case study identified factors influencing teachers’ perception about adopting and using new media technologies in high school teaching. Several implications exist based on the results of this case study that can aid educational institutes and school districts in enhancing teachers’ professional practice, which in turn, can create richer learning experiences for millennials.

The use of a qualitative data analysis method limited the research by providing a quantitative estimate of the perception of teachers on using new media technologies in teaching. Therefore, it would not be easy to find out the extent of similarities or differences of this study’s findings to the results from other studies on the same phenomena or study population.

Moreover, the study only used respondents from the same locality to present its findings. While there is a high likelihood that the results of teacher’s perceptions also point out to overall teachers’ perceptions of new media technologies in a bigger population, it is also possible that the reliance on only one locality may present biases in perceptions highlighted by the research. Comparisons between teachers’ technology skills as they perceived their own ability and confidence using new media technologies and their actual ability to effectively use technology were not made.

Therefore, it is recommended that future research make this comparison to identify what, if any, disparities exist between teachers’ technology skills and their ability to use new media technologies in high school teaching. Classroom observations could provide researchers with important information that may reveal additional factors that influence teachers’ technology skills and experiences.

Limitations due to sample size

Since the targeted school district is very large and contains various elementary, middle and high schools, the sample used for this study is not fully representative of the district as a whole. Future research could focus on participants of different schools to determine if grade levels or schools play a role in influencing teachers’ technology skills. Researchers should include a sample of participants from different schools within a large school district and/or include participants from multiple school districts, and the study might look different if it were conducted in a school district with Title-1 schools.

Limitations due to population

All participants were employees of one school district and they had access to similar media technologies, and thus may or may not have impacted teachers’ access and opportunities to learn about these technology uses in high school teaching. It is recommended that future research concentrate on schools that have specific types of new media technologies available to them so as to address this inconsistency. Another limitation is that a qualitative data analysis is relying only on interviews and focus group discussions presents numerous possibilities for the researcher to introduce personal biases to the research findings.

The researcher may also encounter language problems. However, the likelihood of such error occurring in this study was low because participants and researchers were conversant in written and spoken English, which was the language used throughout the study. After literature study, data collection, coding, study and analysis the next major step is discussion of overall summary, conclusions, and recommendations about the findings of this qualitative case study in the following chapter 5.

Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations

Introduction

The opinion of teachers as the facilitators of education is a critical indicator of the success or the failure of any development that is introduced in the field of education. Therefore, the use of CCSS and new media technologies in teaching can be more successful when teachers are fully involved in integrating new technology tools of learning in the classroom teaching. As such, this research is critical regarding the deployment of new media technologies in teaching. It is important to observe that latest research suggest and indicate the need to integrate new media technologies in learning.

The study uses the theory of planned behaviour as a guide to introduce new media technologies in modern high school teaching. It presents a real-life scenario for applying the theory of proposed behaviour (TPB). Overall, the results of this study in relation to TPB supported that various types of factors, including personal, behavioural, and subjective norms, attitudes and intentions of the participants, contribute to the development of technological skills and experience. Helpful behaviour and technological skills were identified as influencing some teachers; for example, some teachers discussed their willingness to fix when faced with technology challenges while using them. These findings are supportive of TPB.

From the study approach and its findings, insights emerge on how subjective norms, attitudes and intentions are influencing overall use of new media technology in high school teaching. On the other hand, the context of applying new behaviour is also affecting eventual adoption as presented by new teaching standards (CCSS) and overall upgrading in the infrastructure to support new media technologies. TPB has helped in the interpretation of result and serves as the standard that study findings would support or deviate from to validate the research.

Yeung, Taylor, Hui, Lam-Chiang, and Low (2012), discussed that the government of Singapore has developed policy that is supposed to require teachers in the country to integrate new media technologies in teaching. Going as per this observation, it is worth reiterating the fact that the use of new media technologies in teaching is something that can no longer be resisted, especially considering the level at which the world has been digitalized. Another highpoint is that the benefits of technology adoption in education are recorded throughout the academic literature. These are researches involving the adoption of information and communication technology in learning.

According to Badilla-Quintana, Cortada-Pujol, and Riera-Romaní (2012), the only way through which the perceptions of new media technology adoption and in learning by teachers can be changed is when there is adequate commitment on the side of the administrators and stakeholders in the field of education. This involves putting in place structures that can help teachers adapt and integrate new media technologies in teaching. However, the overarching question on adoption of new media technologies in learning looks at what teachers see as the real benefits of new media technology integration in modern teaching (Cennamo, Ross & Ertmer, 2010).

In similar terms Harris and Hofer, (2009) and Harris, (2008) suggest that teachers need awareness of the range of possible learning activity types with a particular content area and process goal for a lesson and what technology tool would best work in high school learning setting. Additionally, a lot of gaps prevail in the realms of education, especially when it comes to the use of new media technologies by teachers in modern teaching across the country and across the globe. For teachers to use technology and, perhaps, value the integration of new media technologies in modern education, they must first be on the forefront as far as the adoption of technology is concerned.

The main problem is that much remains unknown about the existing motivations for teachers in high school to adopt new media technologies in their teaching. The purpose of the study is to bring out the perceptions of teachers in high schools on the adoption and use of new media technologies in teaching. In this regard, the study used three research questions, which are as follows. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how are they integrated into daily instruction, how do teachers report the way in which training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching and how do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the CCSSs. In addition, the main issues being researched are individual attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behaviour controls of teachers’ use of new media technologies in teaching.

The rest of the content in this chapter discusses the study’s methodology, which highlights the main issues regarding data collection and analysis. This section also presents a summary of the study and a summary of the study’s findings and conclusion. It provides the reader with a brief overview of the study in a way to bring out its relevance and relationship to existing literature on the subject of teacher’s perceptions on the use of new media technologies as teaching tools.

The study was conducted with participants being teachers from three high schools. There were also 3 administrators in the study that provided information about the infrastructure available for teachers to use new media technologies in teaching. This study used field notes, personal interviews and focus group discussion with 25 participants using a qualitative methodology.

Overview of study design

The other important observation to make at this point is the manner in which this study was designed. From the outset, the study narrowed down to the research topic by way of selecting a number of high schools in school district in Central Valley, California. Getting the experiences and ideas of teachers in these schools was vital in providing in-depth information, which is also an indicator of how the teachers perceive the deployment of new media technologies in learning in schools in California and the United States. Perhaps, the other critical observation to make here is the design of the case study, involving conducting research within school settings. This in itself gives a clear overview of the real school surrounding and how that environment supports the use of new media technologies in teaching and learning.

In their study, Rodríguez, Nussbaum, López, and Sepúlveda (2010) sought to gather the opinions of students concerning the use of new media technologies in effecting learning processes in schools and the practice of new media technologies in public schools across the United States. This is also used in this research in the manner in which the study is conducted seeks to justify the perceptions of teachers on new media technology adoption in teaching and learning. It relies on the information that is gathered from interviewing teachers, information that is derived from focus group discussion data and some administrators as the key architects of the programs and standards (e.g. CCSS) that require new technology adoption in teaching.

The experiences and perceptions of teachers are highly shaped by the technology infrastructure available in the schools. As such, the fact that the research paid attention to the entire school environment in the selected high schools denotes that the research is elaborate in scope. This is a plus for this research and makes the researcher to gather enough information for synthesis and the subsequent production of elaborate information on new technology adoption and use in learning as viewed by high school teachers.

In addition, research conducted by Badilla-Quintana, Cortada-Pujol, and Riera-Romaní (2012) indicate the relevance of enhancing the capacity of children to use new media technology. When children learn new media skills, it becomes easy for the educators to adopt those and similar media technologies in teaching. For the reason that in that way, students already have the required skills and the teachers as facilitators find it convenient teaching using the new media technology integrated platform. Based on the study, it is apparent that the opinion of teachers on the adoption of web based technologies is shaped by the level at which schools embrace the development of structures that shape the adoption and integration of new technologies in teaching in schools across the United States.

The rest of the content in this chapter discusses the study’s methodology that highlights the main issues regarding data collection and analysis. This section also presents a summary of the study, data and a summary of the study’s findings and conclusion. It provides the reader with a brief overview of the study in a way to bring out its relevance and relationship to existing literature on the subject of teacher’s perceptions on the use of new media technologies as teaching tools.

Summary of the study

The purpose of the study was to study the perceptions some high school teachers about adoption and use of new media technologies in teaching. In this regard, the study used three research questions and their connection to the CCSSs. In addition, the main issues being researched were also individual attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behaviour controls of teachers’ use of new media technologies in newly adopted CCSS curriculum based teaching.

The opinion of educators as the facilitators of education is a critical indicator of the success or the failure of any new standards or any major changes introduced in the field of education. Similarly, the adoption and use of CCSS and new media technologies in teaching can be more successful when teachers are fully involved in integrating new technology tools of learning in their teaching. As such, this research is critical regarding the deployment of new media technologies in high school teaching. It is important to observe that latest research suggest and indicate the need to integrate new media technologies in learning.

The theory of planned behavior

The theory of planned behaviour was used as a guide to introduce technology advanced to teaching methods in high schools. It presents a real-life scenario for applying the theory of proposed behaviour (TPB). Overall, the results of this study in relation to TPB supported that various types of factors, including personal, behavioural, and subjective norms, attitudes and intentions of the participants, contribute to the development of technological skills and experience. Helpful behaviour and technological skills offered and adopted by the educators were identified as influencing some teachers; for example, some teachers discussed their willingness to fix when faced with technology challenges while using them. These findings are supportive of TPB.

Answers to three research questions

The research sought to answer three research questions and the overarching question of what is the perception of teachers on the use of new media technologies in high school teaching. These were geared at establishing the perceptions of teachers about the use of new media technologies in teaching in schools across the United States. The overarching question was to explore what factors motivate or limit teachers from adopting new media technologies in high school teaching.

The research questions used in this study are as follows:

  • R1. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how they are integrated into daily instruction?
  • R2. How do teachers report training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?
  • R3. How do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core Standards?

Research question one (R1) attempts to ascertain the level at which new media technologies can be integrated in learning. Of greater essence in the question is the ascertainment of the level at which the new media technology tools can be integrated with the means of teaching that are used in modern teaching. As such, this question guides in the ascertainment of the opinion of teachers based on the compatibility of new media technology tools with the instructional methods and standards that are used in schools. Participants answers’ to research question one (R1), two (R2), and three (R3) point at their observations and experiences in high school teaching.

Participants shared that they were getting familiar with new media technologies and CCSS the way in which their school district staff is encouraged collaborate and adopt and use of new media technologies in their teaching. The participants also shared that the administrators in the field of education have been active in terms of promoting an environment that is adaptive to new media technologies and new learning standards (CCSS), which also points at positive look at technology adoption in learning by teachers in Central Valley, California.

The second research question (R2) seeks to establish the essence of integrating efforts to ensure that there is success in terms of the adoption and use of new media tools in learning in schools. Of greater essence in this question is the fact that new media technologies cannot be fully adopted by teachers in teaching in schools when there is limited collaboration, communication, and cooperation between the teachers and the educational administrators as far as the adoption and integration of these tools in learning and the achievement of positive results are concerned.

In fact, research question (R2) guides the research towards establishing the need for promoting a collaborative environment in schools when it comes to the adoption and integration of new media technologies in teaching in schools. It brings out the current expectations of technology that various programs have when they are supporting for its usage by teachers (Yang, Wang, & Chiu, 2015).

Some teachers’ answers to research question two R2 were helpful in understanding their behavioral intent to adopt and integrate new media technologies. Therefore, through collective response of these teachers’, the answers to research question (R2) make the subjective norm of new media technology as a teaching or learning tool. Although some teachers’ responses perceive the collective response of small number of teachers, with adoption of CCSS, professional development for teachers, and emphasis on new media technologies these teachers will set good examples for other teachers to adopt new media technologies in teaching.

Teachers cannot work in an isolated environment because their ability to deliver is dependent on the need and structures that are set by all the other stakeholders in the education environment. This means that the opinions of teachers can be effectively established when the teachers are placed within the education environment where each support element as far as the adoption of technology is assessed in the research is concerned.

From the individual interview and group discussion responses, it was evident that teachers rely on the infrastructure provided by their schools to use new media technologies. Teachers also rely on their students’ access to computers and their own access and knowledge of new media technologies to be able to use the technologies in classrooms. In this regard, the study concluded that teachers could not work in isolated environments as their ability relies on the present structures of delivering education. Therefore, teachers’ opinions can be effectively established when the teachers are in an education environment with appropriate support elements in regards to adoption of technology and their perceptions to the technology.

The second research question also explains that the integration of new media technologies in learning still faces a number of challenges. This assertion comes from the outcomes of the research, which point out that teachers are impeded by the level of technology adoption among them and the fact that the Common Core State Standards based curriculum that has been put in place to aid in new media technology adoption in learning has not been fully accepted and embraced by all teachers. In other words, there are still a lot of gaps as far as the practice of education based on new media technologies is concerned.

The third research question (R3) points at the fact that high school teachers in Central Valley, California are working hard to align with the Core Common Standards that have been set in this sampled study area in the research. It was also discussed and suggested at the need for teachers and administrators to increase the level of collaboration and support from each other to enhance the capacity and the ability to fully adopt new technologies in teaching and learning. Through the structured open ended questions that were posed to the participants during interviews and focus group discussions, it became apparent that there are a lot of suggestions on the means through which the administrators can foster the adoption of new media technologies by teachers and the subsequent planning and integration of new media technologies in modern teaching.

Participants’ perceptions and suggestions

The suggestions presented by the interviewed teachers and administrators were as follows. There is the need to have broadband and reliable internet connections in schools. The broadband should be available through wireless technologies that allow both students and teachers to use portable computing devices to access the internet and collaborate with other teachers. Schools should also ensure that following Common Core State Standards does not force teachers to embrace new media technologies that they are not yet able to use well.

Therefore, upgrading of technologies and the technological infrastructure should not be the only basis of improving use of technology tools in teaching. The overall intention of the current technology should also advise frameworks or motivations by the schools and school district on having teachers use technologies.

Some teachers expressed concern that they may have to use new media technologies in teaching because that is the new CCSS trend even when existing methods were sufficient to enhance the education objectives of their old curricula. They suggested that new media technology use should follow the current curricular such that teachers are able to only use parts of the technology that are appropriate.

This response also brought another concern where teachers expressed their intention to use limited technology based on the content they were teaching. The theory of Planned Behavior explains that a person’s attitudes may enable or limit their intention to change (Ajzen, 2005). The individual interviews provided an environment for teachers to provide personalized responses about their attitude to new media technologies.

Subjective norms

According to TPB, the second determinant of intention to change is the social factor termed subjective norms. It suggests that a teacher’s intention to change their teaching practice could be influenced by how they perceive that using technology fits into the present teaching culture of the school. In addition to that, there were focus group discussions that provided a collective response, but an additional advantage of the research was that focus group discussion provided teachers with cues on ideas that would be relevant for the research. Focus group discussion allowed the teachers and administrators interviewed in the research to build on each other’s responses.

They also provided the researcher with an opportunity to get a better understanding of a given information provided by a teacher. Interview and focus group discussions provide a related base for understanding attitudes and responses such that it is possible to interpret and attach them to various aspects of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). These suggestions conform to the role of the environment as a factor in influencing behavior change in regards to the theory of planned behavior (TPB).

The gap

This also points at the fact that there is a gap in terms of the way some teachers perceive the adoption of new media technologies in learning, with the variation being necessitated by the wide gap in opinion about new media technology adoption and use among the teachers. Participants’ answers to the research questions answer and redirect the research to the main issues being investigated in the paper. This entails how the teachers perceive the adoption and use of new media technologies in teaching and learning in schools.

The following section is a summary of the conclusion of this qualitative case study. There is discussion how the theory of planned behavior in this study explains teacher’s attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control may enable or limit their intention to change. There is also discussion how answers to each research question has helped to find answer to the overarching question, that was to study views and experiences of high school teachers concerning the adoption of new media technologies in modern teaching.

This study is a valuable contribution to the understanding of the topic as it shows particular barriers to the utilization of new media technologies as seen by teachers. The participants revealed their concerns and expectations that extended their use of technology and included such issues as standards and administrative support. The qualitative method was instrumental in eliciting the specific ideas and views on the matter.

It has been acknowledged that the qualitative design helps the researcher to be open to any arising topics and issues that shed light on various trends existing in the society (Smith & McElwee, 2015). The qualitative method allows to dig deeper into people’s perceptions that can later be generalized and researched in detail. The use of interviews enables the researcher to identify major topics of concern while the focus group discussions allow to encourage the participants to share their ideas on opportunities and limitations as well as reveal the issues they face.

Provide an overview of why the study is important and how the study was designed to contribute to our understanding of the topic.
What are the main issues being researched. Provide a transition, explain what will be covered in the chapter.

Summary of findings and conclusion

The purpose of this study was to ascertain the experiences, ideas and view of high school teachers concerning the adoption and integration of new media technologies in teaching. One of the reasons for conducting this study was that the insights of the educators are vital as far as gaining the required momentum in the adoption of new media technologies in teaching is concerned. Different studies indicate that several parameters considerably affect the implementation of new technology in the school environment (Underwood, Baguley, Banyard, Dillon, Farrington-Flint, Hayes, & Selwood, 2010).

Research questions

Based on the three research questions that were used in the research, the following can be noted from the research. It is important to list the research questions to bring out a summary of the findings in regard to what the research sought to achieve.

Research question one (R1) stated that:

  • R1. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how they are integrated into daily instruction?

The findings in the research in regard to research question 1 denotes that a substantial number of teachers and administrators across high schools appreciate the value of new media technologies and, in one way or another, embrace the use of technologies in teaching and learning. As such, it is imperative to observe that most educators value the adoption of new media technologies in teaching because of what they see as the worthiness of using these technologies in enhancing the delivery of education in high schools and higher studies. Another important point to bring out here is the willingness of administrators to support the development of the infrastructure in schools that support new media technology adoption and use by both the students and the teachers in modern teaching.

It is encouraging to note that all the participants use new media technology, meaning that technology is something that is embraced by all educators. In addition, as long as the administrators support the development of adequate technological infrastructure, it is easy to train and convince the teachers to integrate new media technologies in new standards based curriculum.

The theory of Planned Behavior explains that a person’s attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control may enable or limit their intention to change. Attitude here refers to teacher’s belief towards adoption and use of new media technology in teaching. The theory of planned behavior attached meaning to participating teachers’ response to research question one (R1), as it offers teachers’ positive attitude. This acted as initial inspiration to individual teachers’ to change. The subjective norm also played a role in behavioral decision of the participants. Subjective norm here means a teachers’ perception of whether people important to them (administrators) think the behavior should be performed.

In this study the most teachers felt that with CCSS they should enroll in upcoming professional development trainings and adopt and integrate new media technologies in teaching. It is apparent that their attitudes could continue changing due to ongoing experience. The teachers’ attitudes, behavior, technological skills, experience and availability of new media technologies offered in high schools cover the effect that the teachers perceive this change may have on CCSS-based teaching.

  • R2. How do teachers report training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?

The findings in the research study show that the schools in the Central Valley, California were active in terms of the introduction and the subsequent adoption of the new media technologies. This is quite encouraging in the sense that it denotes easiness with which teachers in the schools can access and use new technology in teaching. Moreover, it is important to point out that the school administration in the sampled schools in Central Valley, California were committed to the development of new media technology infrastructure.

Contrary to the early times when students in schools took turns or shared computers in the library in some of the schools, the study findings showed that each of the teachers in the schools had been supplied with a laptop or a desktop computer. Some new laptops and desktops are also available in computer labs and school libraries for student use. This encourages the teachers to use technology for the purposes of enhancing learning efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore, it is imperative to conclude that most teachers embrace the initiative of ensuring that they are supplied with the relevant new media technology tools, the computers, the Internet and Wi-Fi because these tools make it easier to come up with initiatives of teaching using new media technologies.

The second determinant of behavioral intent is the social factor, which, according to the TPB captures subjective norms and its relevance to this study, is presented by Coffland and Strickland (2004) where teacher use of technology in secondary geometry class depend on the school principal’s attitude. Similarly, participant’s answers to research question two (R2) in this study point out a teacher’s intention to change their teaching practice relies on perception of using technology as it fits into the CCSS standards based teaching culture.

It is important to note that three administrators and twenty two teachers were important part of the sample of the intended population. All twenty five participants think teaching with new media technologies is a good idea. Therefore, based on the TPB predictions more teachers due to their attitude and subjective norm may adopt new media technologies in teaching.

  • R3. How do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core Standards?

The results of the study show that many high school teachers had adopted and were using more than one new media technology in teaching and for communicating with other educators. This is a positive result that showed the willingness of teachers to adopt more technologies given the support received from the school and district administration. The other finding reported in the study is about the need for a lot of technical training and assistance for the teachers from the administration, which can see the embrace of the Common Core State Standards by the teachers. This follows the observation that the administration should ensure that they create a supportive environment in schools that can see all the teachers adopt, integrate and use new media technologies in teaching.

Thus, it is imperative to conclude that the complete implementation of the Common Core State Standards begins with the administration, which has to first ensure that all the teachers are adopting, planning and integrating new media technologies in their teaching curriculum. This makes it suitable and convenient for the educators to integrate and use new media technologies based on certain standards of teaching or learning in school.

R3 responses capture participants’ perceptions of behavioral controls. The answers also focus on school factors such as a positive attitude to use technology by the school principal that affect teacher’s perceived behavioral control. TPB explains an individual’s perceived behavioral controls as its third segment in the intention to change and it is here that a person’s subjective view of limitations may motivate or prevent the person from performing.

The action would be in relation to the following: Using new media technology tools in modern teaching, teachers’ perceptions of their own knowledge, experience and technology skills. The extra time needed by teachers to learn adequate technology skills. The expense of purchasing technology and other external constraints are critical in determining their intention to change their teaching practice.

After conducting interviews, focus group discussions with 25 participants and taking field notes the researcher thoroughly studied, deconstructed and analysed the data collected during interviews, field notes and focus group discussions with the participants, to identify themes and patterns that could be used to understand the data better. Key-words-in-context (KWIC) and metaphor technique were used to identify key words (D’Andrade, 1991; Layoff & Johnson, 1980).

Five themes

Five common themes were found regarding similarities between and among participants’ experiences about adopting and using new media technologies in high school teaching. The first theme revealed that teachers did not believe enough time was available for them to plan, collaborate and practice using new media technology tools; the time included work time and personal time. About the second theme, the results indicated that participants shared similar beliefs about available professional development opportunities to learn about CCSS and integrating new media instructional technologies in new curricula. The third theme revealed teachers’ attitudes, regardless of years of experience, were overall positive toward new media technologies. All participants agreed that new media technology is relevant to today‘s students and was a great way to engage them and that the technology skills are essential to students’ professional and educational future.

A fourth theme identified was that many participants had a fear that integration of new media technologies in CCSS curriculum may not be very successful. Some teachers said that they were scared of technology breaking and some that specific barriers existed that kept them from being able to utilize these technologies as much as they would like. The fifth theme was that all participants shared the similar personality trait of being life-long learners. Although time constraints and other factors contributed to participants‘ opportunities to learn and practice new media technologies in classroom teaching, all of them cited a desire to learn in order to enhance their professional practice.

The themes identified are consistent with the scope of knowledge on the matter as it has been acknowledged that educators tend to avoid integration of the new media technologies due to the lack of the corresponding skills and training, insufficient motivation and support (Neyland, 2011; Jonathan & Josep, 2009; Johnson, Levine, & Smith, 2009). The participants’ views on the limitations concerning insufficient preparedness of schools are also common for the educational field (Lai & Chen, 2011). It is noteworthy that researchers often state that the curriculum, as well as the emphasis on the adoption of new media technologies, is the crucial factor affecting educators’ choice to integrate technology into their teaching (Ferrari et al., 2011).

However, this research shows that educators acknowledge the benefits of the use of technology and try to comply with the curriculum standards, but they often lack for time to implement an effective transition to the new methods. There is a common fear that the inability to successfully integrate the new media technology results in the gap between the education provided to the young generation and the real world (Moeller & Reitzes, 2011). The participants of the present study also share this fear.

The theory of planned behaviour states the nature of relationships between beliefs and attitudes. According to TPB, people’s evaluations of, or attitudes toward behaviour are determined by their accessible beliefs about the behaviour, where a belief is defined as the subjective probability that the behaviour will produce a certain outcome. The results of this study in relation to TPB supported that various types of factors, including subjective norms, behavioural, and intentions of the participants contribute to the development of their technological skills in integrating new media technology tools in CCSS based high school teaching.

The theory of planned behavior has attached meaning to participants’ response to research questions, as it offers teachers’ positive attitude. It is apparent that teachers’ attitudes could continue changing due to ongoing experience. And the teachers’ attitudes cover the effect that they perceive this change may have on CCSS-based teaching. The TPB also captures subjective norms and its relevance to this study based on participant’s answers to research question two (R2), indicating that a teacher’s intention to change their teaching practice relies on perception of using technology as it fits into the CCSS standards based teaching culture. Therefore, based on the TPB predictions more teachers may adopt new media technologies in CCSS based teaching.

Qualitative case study approach

Lee, Cerreto, and Lee (2010) used a qualitative grounded theory approach using discourse analysis to investigate preservice teacher’s views about using technology as an instructional tool in the classroom. They used the theory of planned behavior to examine teachers’ intentions to use computers to create and deliver lessons. The findings show that technology adoption in education was based more on teachers’ attitude than the subjective norm. Whereas this qualitative case study used the theory of planned behavior for understanding teachers’ intentions, attitude and perceived behavioral control are good indicators of their intention to adopt and use new media technologies in modern teaching, therefore researchers should use TPB in future education related research studies.

TPB also explains that an individual’s perceived behavior controls as its third segment in the intention to change and it is here that a person’s subjective view of limitations may motivate or prevent the person from adopting new media tools. Implications of the findings for future research are discussed. The findings indicate that attitudinal, normative, and control factors influence teachers’ behavior, understanding and views about adopting new media technologies in teaching based on new teaching standards.

The TPB was used to study teacher perceptions of technology in the hopes of determining what factors may have limited or influenced them from adopting and using new technologies in teaching. Following teacher’s perceptions, interaction and experiences with new media technology and then relating them to expect the behavior of individuals when interacting with new finding adds to the existing literature. The information also assists to review the potential uses of the TPB.

Teachers are receiving professional development and trainings related to new curriculum to change behavior through the Common Core State Standards, and school investment in new media technologies. However, teachers are subject to intrinsic reasons and other contextual circumstances. The study design and its research questions bring out teachers’ behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs that should shape behavioral intention, according to the TPB (Armitage & Christian, 2004). Interview data, field notes, focus group discussions data and answers to the research questions also reveal actual behavioral control and how it links back to perceived behavioral control expressed by the participants (Ajzen, 2005).

For future studies

The researcher noted two conditions from this study that should be further explored: (1) the need for additional professional training and support from the county office to equalize technological resources for CCSS based curriculum and (2) the need of continual technology training amongst teachers to enhance their usage of new technologies to the fullest potential. The interview and focus group discussion data analysis revealed that while all teachers were using technology in their daily teaching (at various levels), that in some schools the weakness may be with the existing infrastructure (i.e. equipment, funding, and consistent professional training).

Additions to the literature

The results of this study therefore add to the literature base in the field of identifying teachers’ perceptions that may be limiting or encouraging them from adopting new media technologies in teaching and learning. This research adds a qualitative study to the body of research conducted on the TPB. Information in this review of literature has broad implications for a larger population of skilled educators who integrate new media technologies in modern teaching.

The researcher found that teachers’ behavior to adopt and use new media technologies in CCSS based curriculum was a primary factor within the utilization of technology in high school teaching. Suitable infrastructure, professional development and support is very important for adoption and integration of new media technologies in modern teaching. Federally recognized CCSSs have identified new media technologies as a critical concept that is required of all stakeholders within the educational system—students, teachers, and administrators. Therefore, it is critical that teachers and administrators get trained how to integrate new technologies in teaching and provide students with 21st Century education.

Significance of TPB in education, CCSSs and new media technologies

In the literature, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has proven to be effective in predicting technology adoption. Similarly, based on the discussion and findings of this study applying the TPB is appropriate. Results of this study provide evidence that the TPB is a useful framework for understanding teachers’ intentions, attitude and their perceived behavioral control are good indicators of their intention to adopt and use new media technologies in modern teaching, therefore researchers and educators should use TPB in future education related research studies.

The TPB states that behavioral achievement depends on both motivation (intention) and ability (behavioral control). It distinguishes between behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. Results of this study provide evidence that the TPB explained high school teachers’ acceptance of new media technologies in teaching reasonably well. More specifically, more teachers who have positive attitude and behavior towards adopting new media technologies may integrate new technologies in new curriculum more that the teachers who make up the subjective norm and have positive attitude because teachers’ behavior may positively influence teachers’ intention to adopt new media technologies in teaching. The results also provide valuable implications for ways to increase teachers’ acceptance of new media technology tools in new common core state standards based learning.

The TPB in this study provides a framework and methodological approach for monitoring teachers’ attitudes and beliefs, thereby leading to predicting teachers’ behaviors in adopting and integrating new media technologies in CCSS based teaching. Teachers are adjusting to the CCSS curriculum, they may need to make some changes to their teaching styles. The TPB was used to assess teachers’ attitudes and predict their behavior (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010).

As evidenced in the literature review, TPB has been proven effective in many studies in predicting the intent in various contexts (Capo & Orellana, 2011). However, TPB has only recently been applied to new technologies, as in this research to study high school teachers’ perceptions and ideas to adopt and use new media technologies in teaching CCSSs, based curriculum. TPB is therefore useful for studying teachers’ behavior associated with new media technology use in modern high school teaching.

According to Ajzen (1988), the measurement of attitude and personality traits allow for prediction of behavior, therefore, measuring these through interviews and focus group discussions can help school districts predict what teachers would do if conditions they requested were provided. Other attitudinal characteristics that contribute to prediction of teachers’ behaviors include confidence level with which the attitude is held, skills and amount of information on which the attitude is based, involvement with the attitude object, and the way in which the attitude is acquired.

Considering above discussed factors that can prevent or facilitate behavior were used to determine participating teacher’s perception of behavioral control. The combination of these factors provides a basis for determining teacher’s tendency to perform or not perform the behavior. A teacher’s behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and control beliefs have corresponding interrelationships to their attitude toward a behavior, perceived pressure to engage in the behavior, and self-efficacy with regard to the behavior and the teacher’s actual control or skills and abilities to use new media technologies (see appendix C). These constructs influence teacher’s intention or readiness to perform a behavior and subsequently the act of performance of the behavior.

The theory of planned behavior allows for discovery of some components for influencing teacher perceptions because the success of any educational reform depends on the ideas and experiences from the teachers who will most be implementing the changes. The results of this case study provides a promising theory for understating teachers’ beliefs and ideas. Further use of the interviews, focus group discussions and field notes can aid target school district in the creation of high-quality professional development that fosters cultural change, which will motivate educators to adopt new media technologies in CCSS based curriculum teaching and affect students positively.

Organize Chapter 5 using the same section titles as Chapter 4, by research question(s). Significant themes/ findings are compared and contrasted, synthesized and discussed in light of the existing body of knowledge covered in Chapter 2
Summarize study findings. Compares, contrasts and synthesizes study findings in context to prior research on the topic (Chapter 2). Provides a cogent discussion on how the study is aligned to and/or advances the research on the topic.
Discuss significance (or nonsignificance) of findings and relates each of the findings directly to the Significance of the Study section and Advancing Scientific Knowledge section of Chapter 1.
Refrain from including unrelated or speculative information in this section.
Provide a conclusion to summarize the findings, referring back to Chapter 1.

Implications

Theoretical implications

This research was aimed at increasing the level of knowledge about the potential of integrating and using new media technologies in teaching in schools. Based on the three research questions, data was collected to ascertain the current school environment and whether the school environment can actually support the use of new media technologies by the teachers in teaching. This research could spur the development and implementation of a number of critical strategies that will promote the efficiency and effectiveness of new media technology deployment in teaching by teachers.

At present, it is imperative to bring in the observation by Lai (2009), who observed that new media technologies have kept coming up and they are helping the teachers and the students to be learners, as well as creators of knowledge. The findings of the study still point at the fact that the creation and synthesis of knowledge by the teachers and students can be easily attained through new media technologies, as long as there is enough commitment by education administrators to help in the development of the critical infrastructure. If there is adequate technology infrastructure in schools and teachers and students are equipped with skills to use new media technologies, teachers are bound to remain committed to teaching using new media technologies.

The main strength of this research is that it focuses on schools, meaning that the results attained are largely applicable across schools in the United States. However, it is also important to note that the research is concentrated in one state – California, meaning that the conditions that prevail in the given state could vary with other states. This limits the findings of the research. According to Capo and Orellana (2011), new media technologies used in education are supposed to contribute to the creation, modification, and the sharing of knowledge and information. While the research does not focus on the real attributes of new media technology adoption and use by teachers, it clearly points at what the teachers see as the potential of implementing and using new media technologies in teaching.

In this research, TPB helped to inform the observed behaviour of teachers in regards to use of new media technologies in teaching. TPB offers an overview of behaviour of attitude changes. In this regard, the research has highlighted that TPB provides a relationship between attitudes and behaviour outcomes when people help and receive help from others and work together in an environment. Based on available and provided support people get influenced by the quality of their shared social environments. In this regard, the research adds to the contextual understanding of the theory of planned behaviour that other researchers can quote in future explorations on the theory or its real-life implications.

The TPB has been used successfully to predict and explain a wide range of social behavior including safe driving, health behaviors and intentions including smoking, drinking, health services utilization, and substance use, among others (McMillan & Conner, 2003; Zimmermann & Sieverding, 2010; Topa & Moriano, 2010). As in many other behavioral domains, for this study the theory of planned behavior has proven to be a useful framework for the study of educators’ perceptions, attitude and behavior in adopting technologies in modern teaching.

The findings indicate that attitudinal, normative, and control factors influence teachers’ behavior, understanding and views about adopting new media technologies in teaching based on new teaching standards. Teachers get motivated or influenced by other teachers and administrators’ behavior depending on professional training and collaboration with each-other. In the literature, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has proven to be effective in predicting technology adoption.

Similarly, based on the discussion and findings of this study applying the TPB is appropriate. Results of this study provide evidence that the TPB is a useful framework for understanding teachers’ intentions, attitude and their perceived behavioral control are good indicators of their intention to adopt and use new media technologies in modern teaching, therefore researchers and educators should use TPB in future education related research studies.

Case study research is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers (Thomas, 2011). The case study is the most common qualitative method used in information systems (Myers, 2003 & Zuniga, 2010). This research takes the explanatory cases study approach. For that reason, three research questions and an overarching question were used as tools for attaining data. Four hypotheses were derived based on the research findings, which can again be used to inform future research as far as integrate and use new media technologies used in education is concerned. The hypothesis were derived to find potential for achieving high conceptual validity and viewpoints of this case study.

Teaching with new media technologies requires a marked change in behavior for practicing teachers who teach, have taught, and been taught, in traditional classrooms dominated by working with pen and paper. The rationale informing this assertion is that explanatory case studies, just as this research, do not deploy hypotheses in the search for information, but hypotheses are derived from the findings of the research. On that note, and based on the findings in the paper in line with the research questions, it is worth bringing out the two observations that are reflected in the findings. These include:

  • Most teachers are adopting new media technologies in their daily chores, a factor that implies support for the use of new media technologies in teaching.
  • The administration is offering a lot of support as far as the development of infrastructure that supports the adoption of new media technologies in learning.

Educational standards are the learning goals for what students should know and be able to do at each grade level. Educational standards help teachers devise their own lesson plans and curriculum, and tailor instruction to the individual needs of the students in their classrooms. The adoption, use of new media technologies in modern teaching and the implementation of learning through the new curriculum based on Common Core State Standards play a major role in application the curriculum.

The teachers undergo training and learn skills to integrate technology and teach to CCSSs. Teachers also learn to ensure that their students have the skills and knowledge to reach the standards and be successful. Therefore, student success motivates teachers to adopt and integrate new technologies in their teaching and focus on support required for smooth implementation of new standards.

Four hypothesis

It is worth bringing out the four hypotheses devised to achieve conceptual validity and viewpoints and are reflected in the findings. The four hypothesis include:

  • Most teachers are adopting new media technologies in their daily chores, a factor that implies support for the use of technology and new media technologies in teaching.
    • H1: There is a significant relationship between teachers support between adopting new technologies in their daily tasks and using them in teaching.
  • Most participants are supporting using new media technologies in their teaching, a factor affecting their intentions to change. There is connection between the TPB that considers attitudes and perceptions that motivate therefore enable or limit teacher’s intention to change.
    • H2: There is a significant relationship between participant’s support between adopting new technologies in teaching and their intentions to change the way they teach (TPB).
  • The administration is offering a lot of support as far as the development of infrastructure that supports the adoption of new media technologies in learning.
    • H3: There is a significant relationship between administration support between the development of infrastructure that supports the adoption of new media technologies and teacher’s intentions to adopt new media technologies in teaching.
  • There is a connection between the adoption of new media technologies in modern teaching and the implementation of learning through the new curriculum based on CCSSs that suggest integration of new media technologies.
    • H4: There is a significant relationship between the adoption and use of new media technologies in modern teaching and the implementation of learning through the new curriculum based on Common Core State Standards.

It is important to note that teachers are adjusting to the newly adopted CCSS curriculum, they may need to make some changes to their teaching styles because they are finding it difficult to learn, how much technology should be integrated in teaching, because CCSS do not specify amount of technology required for every class, course or subject. Teachers also shared their views that they need hands on and in class training, with some trained and experienced educators.

Based on the study design deployed in the research, it is worth concluding that the findings of this research are indeed indicators of the objectives of the research. The information that comes out in Chapter 2 of the study points at the fact that technology, though with a number of challenges, is indeed one of the ways to go as far as improvements in terms of modern teaching by teachers is concerned. However, it is important to bring out issues about the strength and weakness of this research. One weakness that has not been mentioned in this research is that it simply ignores the opinions of the students, who are part of the subjects in this research. Students as part of the sample could have played a resounding role in determining the opinions of the teachers on the use of new media technologies in teaching.

Another apparent weakness is that the researcher did not specifically operationalize ‘attitude’, ‘intent’ and ‘subjective norm’ in the interviews but infer these variables from what the teachers said in their response during interviews and focus group discussions. This is a weakness because the researcher did not have direct self-reports of the variables from the theory of planned behavior used as the foundation. Directly asking teachers about their attitude and intent, could have possibly made them give a different answer or just agree with their colleagues. Interviews and focus group discussion were a better approach to gather their views, experiences and perceptions.

Nonetheless, it is also important to note the fact that the research takes the initiative of involving teachers and administrators in the study sample. Getting the opinions of the teachers and the administrators gives a clear picture of the way the teachers perceive technology, both the acquisition and the use of the technology and new media technologies in teaching. The findings in the study point at the fact that there is a high desire, need and pressure to integrate new media technologies in learning. However, a consideration of the structures of modern technology, which is the enabling factor if all new media technologies can and should be adopted and integrated in Common Core State Standards based high school curriculum.

Practical implications

Teachers are the main facilitators of education in the sense that they are at the center of the deployment of new media technologies in teaching. From this research, it is apparent that teachers are an integral part of the revolution and embrace the use of new media technologies in teaching. One intriguing thing is that the application of new media technologies in learning is a policy affair that does not depend on the opinion of teachers per se, but also depends on the standards that are put in place to guide the adoption and the continued use of these technologies in teaching.

The existing research on the matter also shows that the standards introduced are difficult to meet due to the scarcity of resources (Neyland, 2011). This study unveiled teachers’ concerns including the lack of technical tools and support, training, and financial motivation.

While teachers are receptive of new media technologies, the deployment of the new media technologies in teaching is another thing all together because it requires the establishment of the means of moderating the manner and level at which new media technologies are integrated and used by the teachers in teaching. Looking at the issue of new media technology adoption in teaching and learning actually calls for researchers to consider the opinions of teachers, most of which point at the willingness to do so, only that some teachers are learning the way to go.

Future Implications

The findings of this research indicate the difficulty in adopting the Common Core Standards amidst the adoption of new media technology tools in learning. There is stress on the need to train the teachers in line with the manner in which they should use new media technologies in teaching (Neyland, 2011; Lai & Chen, 2011). Apart from unveiling the need to introduce comprehensive training to educators, this study also revealed possible ways to achieve the goal as seen by the educators. The teachers expect to have particular training courses, but they also value sharing information with other professionals. School-to-school communication is regarded as a vital option for the efficient introduction of new media technologies.

The skills and will of teachers as far as technology adoption and deployment in teaching lies in the commitment of the administration to come up with the criteria that can see the moderation of the strategies used in integrating new media technologies in teaching. Future research needs to pay attention to the standards of learning, specifically how learning can be organized in an environment that is supportive of new media technologies in modern teaching. The views of administrators have not received enough attention, but this research provides insights into their role in the successful adoption of new media technologies.

The other thing that comes out of this research is that the educational administrators are in the course of promoting the use of new media technologies in teaching. In other words, the school and district administrators are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that teachers embrace the adoption, integration and use of new media technologies in modern teaching. This research stimulates the desire to look into what can be done in terms of policy to foster the development of a supportive environment and culture of learning that embraces the use of new media technologies.

Therefore, this study is a call to policy makers who should develop standards that are achievable through the implementation of policies that provide schools with the necessary resources. It can be necessary to develop particular guidelines for administrators who will provide support and encouragement to teachers. Administrators should also be empowered to develop the technical background for the adoption of new media technologies.

The theory of planned behavior

Based on the finding of this qualitative case study the theory of planned behaviour explains and supports that a persons’ attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control may motivate or limit their intention to change. It is apparent that teachers’ attitudes could continue changing due to ongoing experience. The teachers’ attitudes, behaviour, technological skills, experience and availability of new media technologies offered in high schools cover the effect that the teachers perceive this change may have on CCSS-based teaching. According to a similar research by Underwood (2012), researchers may also have to consider other implications of the theory of planned behaviour in the same context, but on a larger study sample to eradicate any shortcomings that this study highlighted.

The finding of this case study suggest that a teacher’s intention to change their teaching practice could be influenced by how they perceive that using technology fits into their present teaching culture and environment. The theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was suitable to understand teacher perceptions with the aim to help teachers better integrate new media technologies in daily teaching (Ajzen, 1988).

Researchers have used the TPB as the foundation for their studies, including the studies conducted in the fields of education, business, and healthcare. The theory of planned behavior has been proved widely applicable to a variety of behaviors in different contexts, including diverse areas such as health communications, environmental concerns, and, more recently, technology adoption (Ajzen, 2011). Based on the finding of this qualitative case study the relation of the theory of planned behavior to this study is evident as the research questions, interview and focus group discussion findings clearly address the teacher perceptions towards the adoption of new media technologies in present educational settings.

In the literature, the Theory of Planned Behavior has proven to be effective in predicting technology adoption (Truong, 2009). The TPB has been used to assess attitudes and, according to Fishbein and Ajzen (2010), can be used to predict individuals’ behavior. In essence the TPB has been used to measure short-term exercise, medical science behaviors and teachers’ beliefs that their individual personal or environmental issues may prevent or contribute to their behaviors relative to educational initiatives such as the introduction of science, engineering, and mathematical practices.

However, TPB has only recently been applied to new media technologies, as in this research to study high school teachers’ perceptions to adopt and use new media technologies in teaching CCSSs based curriculum. TPB is therefore useful for studying teachers’ behavior associated with new media technology adoption and use in modern teaching and related research studies.

The discussion and findings of this study focus on ways in which current theory of planned behavior (TPB) research can be taken forward in the light of the present review. These findings advance theory, contribute to the existing literature regarding teacher perception about new media technologies in modern teaching with common core standards. The finding also contribute to the foundation for future research aimed at improving understanding of user adoption behaviour. Overall, educators should consider the relationship and infrastructure context of using media technologies to prevent attitudinal setbacks that teachers expressed in relation to using media technologies in teaching.

Limitations

It is necessary to note that this study is characterized by a number of limitations that are common for qualitative research designs. One of these limitations is the limited number of participants and schools. Educators from only four schools took part in the research, and, hence, the results can hardly be generalized. Teachers employed at other schools may face other issues or have the sufficient support and technical background that enables them to adopt new media technologies effectively.

The research could also be strengthened by the use of quantitative data concerning the number of educators (working at the four schools) who have adopted the new media technologies. It can be valuable to understand to what extent the use of technology is common in the schools studied. Although some background information concerning the schools and administrators’ accounts is analyzed, the researcher paid little attention to the culture of the schools in questions, which may affect the validity of the results. However, these limitations are difficult to mitigate due to the nature of qualitative research and scarcity of time. These issues can be the topic of further studies.

Another limitation is concerned with the theoretical framework used. TBP accounts for beliefs but disregards unconscious motives. People tend to make decisions based on their backgrounds. It could be favorable to consider unconscious motives, especially when looking into teachers’ fears and expectations. Again, this can be discussed in further studies based on a different theoretical paradigm. However, irrespective of certain limitations, the research is valid as the methodology chosen allows to address the research questions set. This study focuses on educators’ perceptions that are unveiled with the help of interviews and focus group discussions.

It should provide a retrospective examination of the theoretical framework presented in Chapter 2 in light of the findings.
Should connect the findings of the study back to the theoretical framework/conceptual framework and the study results are discussed in context to how the results advance a practitioner’s knowledge of that theory, model or concept.
Writing should connect the study findings to the prior research discussed in Chapter 2, and develop practical and future implications for research based on new insights derived from the research and how the results advance practitioners knowledge of the topic and how the results may influence future research.
It should indicate all limitations of the study, critically evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the study, and the degree to which the conclusions are credible given the methodology, research design, and data analysis and results.
Recommendations for future research
  • Future research should focus more on the perception of students towards new media technology tools used by teachers in classroom teaching. This study mainly focused on teachers and the administrators and gave little attention to students, yet they would influence the teachers’ adoption, integration and use of new media technologies as they are the direct recipients of the instructions. Both quantitative and qualitative data should be analyzed. It is crucial to understand whether the use of technology has a positive impact on students’ performance. Researchers should pay specific attention to students’ ideas on the use of specific types of technology, its efficiency or adequate use in the classroom settings as seen by learners.
  • Future research to should be a collaborative venture incorporating the views of all stakeholders in the use of new media technologies in modern teaching. The opinion of teachers, students, and education administrators would help policy makers and information technologists who develop the tools come up with tools that are in line with current standards – CCSS and have instructions how teachers can be integrate them in their teaching. The research design used in this study can come in handy for this purpose as focus group discussions will become an effective platform for sharing ideas and revealing basic limitations, fears and so on. It is also important to voice parents’ views as they are also important stakeholders especially when it comes primary and secondary schools.
  • This study was primarily based on one school district in Central Valley, California. Future research should spread to other school districts in other state so that the findings would be more generalizable. As for now, the findings of this study may not be a true representation of the new media uptake and use by the teachers in other states. It can be of particular interest to identify performance, expectations and fears of teachers working at schools with sufficient resources. This will help identify whether technical issues and the lack of financial motivation are primary. It is also important to consider the influence of the demographic peculiarities of each state as it can have an impact on the readiness to use new media technologies.
  • The findings of this study indicate that some teachers still prefer traditional means of instruction and they are hesitant to adopt new media technologies, future studies should seek to establish the best way to integrate both traditional and new media technologies in teaching. This may need a focus on demographic data, especially age. The development of training should include a particular attention to such groups as seasoned educators working for over ten years in the field. It can also be beneficial to introduce training nationwide with a focus to each discipline.
  • It is evident that the level at which the use of new media technologies are integrated in teacher trainings and professional development influences teachers’ adoption of the new media technologies. As such, future studies should seek to establish the extent to which teacher training colleges in the US blend and implement new media technologies in the curricula in preparing teachers to adopt new media technologies in teaching.
  • Introduction of new media technologies of instruction in the future should be preceded with pilot studies in all the states. The studies should be based on new standards and programs before rolling out the programs in school districts in all the states. Researchers in the field of education should take advantage of taking the perceptions of teachers as they would help establish the best way to roll out the new media technologies.
Recommendations for practice
  • The findings of this study about the perceptions of teachers about new technology use should be incorporated in teacher training curricula. For instance, new teachers should start practicing the use of new media technologies during their training so that they can easily integrate and use new media technologies in teaching when they start teaching in class.
  • The findings suggest that adopting new media technologies in teaching can improve the effectiveness of teaching. This should form a basis for incorporating the findings into practice.
  • There is a need for the convening of stakeholders to agree on the clear way forward if the deployment of new media technologies in teaching has to be successful. This is in line with the finding that there is a connection between the embrace of technology and the ability of all the teachers to design and use new curricula according to the Common Core State Standards.
  • Since the theory of planned behavior has not been utilized heavily in education, further research involving these items may lead to the discovery of other factors that exist within education specifically.
Suggestion for future research

An apparent weakness is that the researcher did not specifically operationalize ‘attitude’, ‘intent’ and ‘subjective norm’ in the interviews but infer these variables from what the teachers said in their response during interviews and focus group discussions. This is a weakness because the researcher did not have direct self-reports of the variables from the theory of planned behavior used as the foundation.

Directly asking teachers about their attitude and intent, could have possibly made them give a different answer or just agree with their colleagues. Another suggestion that could be involved in future research is the opinions of the students, who are part of the subjects in this research. Students as part of the sample could have played a resounding role in determining the opinions of the teachers on the use of new media technologies in teaching.

Future research should utilize the theory of planned behavior within school districts that will allow for initial pre-instrument assessment, pre-professional development observations of classroom practices, meetings to disseminate data, professional development planning based on results, post-professional development instrument assessment, and post-professional development observations of classroom practices for teachers, administrators and paraprofessionals.

This research was aimed at increasing the level of knowledge about the potential of integrating and using new media technologies in teaching in schools. Based on the three research questions, data was collected to ascertain the current school environment and whether the school environment can actually support the use of new media technologies by the teachers in teaching. This research could spur the development and implementation of a number of critical strategies that will promote the efficiency and effectiveness of new media technology deployment in teaching by teachers.

The findings of the study point at the fact that the creation and synthesis of knowledge by the teachers and students can be easily attained through new media technologies, as long as there is enough commitment by education administrators to help in the development of the critical infrastructure. If there is adequate technology infrastructure in schools and teachers and students are equipped with skills to use new media technologies, teachers are bound to remain committed to teaching using new media technologies.

The main strength of this research is that it focuses on schools, meaning that the results attained are largely applicable across schools in the United States. However, it is also important to note that the research is concentrated in one state – California, meaning that the conditions that prevail in the given state could vary with other states. This limits the findings of the research. According to Capo and Orellana (2011), new media technologies used in education are supposed to contribute to the creation, modification, and the sharing of knowledge and information. While the research does not focus on the real attributes of new media technology adoption and use by teachers, it clearly points at what the teachers see as the potential of implementing and using new media technologies in teaching.

In this research, TPB helped to inform the observed behaviour of teachers in regards to use of new media technologies in teaching. TPB offers an overview of behaviour of attitude changes. In this regard, the research has highlighted that TPB provides a relationship between attitudes and behaviour outcomes when people help and receive help from others and work together in an environment. Based on available and provided support people get influenced by the quality of their shared social environments. In this regard, the research adds to the contextual understanding of the theory of planned behaviour that other researchers can quote in future explorations on the theory or its real-life implications.

The TPB has been used successfully to predict and explain a wide range of social behavior including safe driving, health behaviors and intentions including smoking, drinking, health services utilization, and substance use, among others (McMillan & Conner, 2003; Zimmermann & Sieverding, 2010; Topa & Moriano, 2010). As in many other behavioral domains, for this study the theory of planned behavior has proven to be a useful framework for the study of educators’ perceptions, attitude and behavior in adopting technologies in modern teaching. Since TPB has not been utilized heavily in education, further research involving CCSSs and new media technologies may lead to the discovery of other factors that exist within education specifically.

TPB explains that an individual’s perceived behavior controls as its third segment in the intention to change and it is here that a person’s subjective view of limitations may motivate or prevent teachers from adopting new media technologies. Implications of the findings for future research have been discussed. The findings indicate that attitudinal, normative, and control factors influence teachers’ behavior, understanding and views about adopting new media technologies in teaching based on new teaching standards. Teachers get motivated or influenced by other teachers and administrators’ behavior depending on professional training and their collaboration with each-other.

In the literature, TPB has proven to be effective in predicting technology adoption. Also, based on the discussion and findings of this study applying the TPB is appropriate. Results of this study provide evidence that the TPB is a useful framework for understanding teachers’ intentions, attitude and their perceived behavioral control are good indicators of their intention to adopt and use new media technologies in modern teaching, therefore researchers and educators should use TPB in future education related research studies.

Case study research is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers (Thomas, 2011). The case study is the most common qualitative method used in information systems and education (Myers, 2003 & Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2011).

This research takes the explanatory cases study approach. For that reason, three research questions and an overarching question were used as tools for attaining data. Four hypotheses were derived based on the research findings, which can be used to inform future research as far as integrate and use new media technologies used in education is concerned. Construct validity defines how well a test or experiment measures up to its claims. Construct validity is a device used almost exclusively in social sciences, psychology and education. Four hypothesis were derived to find potential for achieving high conceptual validity and viewpoints of this case study.

Teaching with new media technologies requires a marked change in behavior for practicing teachers who teach, have taught, and been taught, in traditional classrooms dominated by working with pen and paper. The rationale informing this assertion is that explanatory case studies, just as this research, do not deploy hypotheses in the search for information, but hypotheses are derived from the findings of the research. On that note, and based on the findings it is worth bringing out the following three observations reflected in the findings. These include:

  • Most teachers are adopting new media technologies in their daily chores, a factor that implies support for the use of new media technologies in teaching.
  • The administration is offering support for the adoption, use of new media technologies and the adoption of new curriculum based on CCSSs play a major role in application the curriculum. The teachers undergo training and learn skills to integrate technology and teach to CCSSs.
  • Teachers know that their students have the skills and knowledge to reach the standards and be successful. Therefore, student success motivates teachers to adopt and integrate new technologies in their teaching and focus on support required for smooth implementation of new standards.
Identify and discuss the areas that need further examination, or that address gaps or new research needs the study found.
Provides recommendations that relate back to the study significance and advancing scientific knowledge sections in Chapter 1 and theoretical foundation section in Chapter 2

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