Computer Memory Management and Algorithms


It is paramount to guarantee a high quality of memory management or operating systems (OS) to be competitive in the modern market. Understanding resource management and how processes and OS govern it is vital to creating a stable, safe, and usable environment. This essay will discuss memory management, its principles, algorithms, and methods and explain the differences between logical (virtual) and physical (real) addresses.


There are several core concepts that outline the goals of memory management. The primary principle is the most efficient allocation of memory by all operating programs (Silberschatz et al., 2018). It is necessary for each program to function without causing disruptions to other processes. An OS must clearly outline the boundaries of each program, ensuring that each byte is adequately marked as free or allocated (Silberschatz et al., 2018). Moreover, depending on the goal of each application, the portion of memory it uses must be secured yet made available under proper requests to keep its functionality intact (Silberschatz et al., 2018). A system is only as functional as it allows the scalability of new and existing resources to be appropriately incorporated into its processes (Marufuzzaman et al., 2019). Any OS relies on these principles to present its users with feasible functionality.


Memory management relies on algorithms that allow systems to map addresses in a way that will be usable by other programs. The first algorithm that reads all available physical addresses occurs when a computer’s hardware initializes memory read to outline OS and processes’ necessary base spaces and limits (Silberschatz et al., 2018). CPU later utilizes this data to reallocate this memory in accordance with programs’ necessities, analyzing their requirements and limitations to ensure the most efficient usage of existing physical space (Silberschatz et al., 2018). User programs also follow similar orders to ensure step-by-step execution. Their initial goal is to compile a code that will begin the process of memory allocation (Silberschatz et al., 2018). The object files are then selected to be loaded and utilized through a software’s functions (Silberschatz et al., 2018). This function of management is critical for the stability and clarity of all operations within an OS.


Optimizing these algorithms requires modern methods to be open to complex manipulations. For example, dynamic loading is an approach to memory allocation that loads data only when called, leaving space as available for other processes as possible (Silberschatz et al., 2018). Dynamic linking is also a regularly utilized method that creates libraries accessed by different processes that share similar functions (Silberschatz et al., 2018). Static linking is a less preferable method, as it treats libraries as objects loaded into memory by a program alongside its image (Silberschatz et al., 2018). All these techniques give an OS advantage in managing limited hardware space without the need for its constant expansion.

Logical and Physical Addresses

There are two types of addresses that OS utilizes in its processes. The first one is the physical address, which represents the direct physical location of any given data on a device’s memory unit (Bisht, 2021). This information is constant and unavailable to users openly, requiring a program to assign a logical address to it (Bisht, 2021). Unlike physical addresses, logical ones are generated by the CPU at the moment a software requests one to be assigned for its operations (Bisht, 2021). Logical addresses can be shared or briefly passed between programs to ensure communication (Silberschatz et al., 2018). These addresses create an ever-changing environment that supports processes that would be otherwise too complicated to implement.


In conclusion, memory management is a set of functions and techniques aimed at distributing any available space for programs in the most resource-efficient way. An OS has a complex set of mechanisms that govern memory usage, considering programs’ requirements and limitations. Algorithms and methods behind these processes enable users to access data by creating necessary links for any stored information. Efficient manipulation of physical and logical addresses is what gives an operating system an advantage.


Bisht, A. (2021). Logical and physical address in operating system. GeeksforGeeks.

Marufuzzaman, M., Al Karim, S., Rahman, M. S., Zahid, N. M., & Sidek, L. M. (2019). A review on reliability, security, and memory management of numerous operating systems. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Informatics (IJEEI), 7(3).

Silberschatz, A., Galvin, P. B., & Gagne, G. (2018). Operating system concepts (10th ed.). John Wiley & Sons.

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Premium Papers. 2023. "Computer Memory Management and Algorithms." September 23, 2023.

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