Domestic Violence: Physical Emotional, Sexual


Domestic violence is one of the most extensive topics in the recent past, and with frustrations caused by the Covid-19 pandemic rising, the cases are bound to increase. Domestic violence is any form of violence, be it physical or emotional, experienced within an intimate relationship. Did you know that emotional manipulation can also be a form of domestic violence? Since the broader definition of domestic violence is centered on power and control, emotional manipulation is where mind games are applied to gain control in a relationship. Domestic violence ranges from acts of persuasion, bullying and intimidation, severe physical violence, and in the worst case, death (Guerin and de Oliveira Ortolan 5). Therefore, domestic violence can occur to anyone, both men and women, and can be physical, emotional, sexual, or psychological.

Main body

Physical assault as a form of domestic violence is one of the most reported forms of violence within close relationships. People often overlook physical violence more so in marriage or cohabitation setups where one partner might result in assaulting another. Society needs to understand that nothing is normal about this vice, and there is a need to speak out and bring into light the dangers and consequences of this form of domestic violence. Moreover, during a pandemic like the current covid-19 crises where isolation is being encouraged, there is a need to enlighten people on the importance of opening up when physically assaulted by close partners. Reports indicate an increase in intimate partner violence cases during times of pandemic where lack of marital satisfaction might result in aggressive behaviors as a result of conflicts (Viero et al. 2). Most of these aggressive behaviors often result in physical assault, which might not be reported during pandemic times due to forced lockdowns and isolation. Therefore, there is a need to inform society on the importance of reporting these cases to stem out the vice of domestic violence.

For decades, emotional violence has been overlooked since it does not necessarily attract attention like other domestic violence forms. Emotional violence can be abuse to another person in verbal abuse, put-downs, isolation, and bullying. Often people tend to undermine the overall effects that this type of domestic violence can have on people’s lives, but upon close examinations, its effects can have dire consequences. In most cases, children might be victims of emotional violence from their parents or other siblings, such as bullying, verbal abuse, and put-downs. As Chandran et al. state, “sibling bullying is widespread with almost 50% of children reported to be involved in the act every month” (2). Most people fail to recognize that emotional violence is a serious domestic violence as it is a physical form of abuse. In many instances, this type of violence might lead to depression, low self-esteem, and to a fatal extent, it causes suicidal thoughts or attempts. Thus, it is essential to understand and recognize emotional violence as a form of domestic violence.

The sexual form of domestic violence is more often overlooked within the marriage setup since most people think sexual consent does not apply between spouses. However, that notion is not true to the fact that sex is supposed to be mutual consent between adults and not when one party is forced into the act, even within a marriage setup. Often sexual violence is instigated by someone close to the offended person, which includes intimate relationships. Moreover, in this type of violence, women are more likely to be affected than men within a family setup, be it a family member’s or intimate partner (Kurt et al. 2). Even though men might experience this form of violence in rare cases, it is a sporadic occurrence but of worthy note is that this type of violence is not defined by gender but its abusive nature. In most instances, this type of domestic violence might not look serious since it is more of a controlling behavior that most people overlook until it escalates. People need to be self-conscious of these behaviors and report them before the matter becomes more serious.

Psychological violence is another form of domestic violence that has an enormous impact on close or intimate relationships. Any act that might lead to psychological harm is termed as an act of psychological violence and can be defamation, coercion, or verbal insult. Psychological violence is intentional, and it’s mainly aimed at gaining control by creating psychological fear upon another person. Dim and Elabor-Idemudia state that “psychological violence is the use of verbal and nonverbal communication with the intent to harm another person mentally or emotionally” (2). Physical violence is more prevalent in females than males, with research indicating 17% female and 9.3% male victim rate (Dim and Elabor-Idemudia 14). Even though there are more female victims of psychological violence within intimate partner relationships, men can also experience the same form of violence. Thus, the need to understand that psychological violence can affect everyone, and it is a severe form of domestic violence.


In conclusion, domestic violence is an extensive topic that requires deep understanding and closer examination of factors that constitute it. Physical violence, emotional violence, sexual violence, and psychological violence are the most common domestic violence forms. Even though physical violence is the predominant form, other types of violence significantly impact people, and emotional violence is seen as the leading cause of suicide. Therefore, there is a need to address every form of violence within intimate or cohabitation setups to ensure the society is well knowledgeable on the causes and consequences of those actions.

Works Cited

Chandran, Suhas et al. “”Bullying In Incognito Mode”: The Evolution Of Sibling Bullying”. Indian Journal Of Social Psychiatry, vol 35, no. 2, 2019, p. 142. Medknow.

Dim, Emeka Eugene, and Patience Elabor-Idemudia. “Prevalence And Predictors Of Psychological Violence Against Male Victims In Intimate Relationships In Canada”. Journal Of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, vol 27, no. 8, 2017, pp. 846-866. Informa UK Limited.

Guerin, Bernard, and Marcela de Oliveira Ortolan. “Analyzing Domestic Violence Behaviors In Their Contexts: Violence As A Continuation Of Social Strategies By Other Means”. Behavior And Social Issues, vol 26, no. 1, 2017, pp. 5-26. Springer Science And Business Media LLC.

Kurt, Emel et al. “DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING TO PYCHIATRIC OUTPATIENT CLINIC”. Archives Of Neuropsychiatry, 2018. Turk Noropsikiyatri Dernegi.

Viero, A. et al. “Violence Against Women In The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Review Of The Literature And A Call For Shared Strategies To Tackle Health And Social Emergencies”. Forensic Science International, vol 319, 2021, p. 110650. Elsevier BV.

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Premium Papers. 2023. "Domestic Violence: Physical Emotional, Sexual." January 12, 2023.

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