Genetic Engineering: The Various Viewpoints

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Anderson, C.E. (2000). Genetic engineering: Dangers and opportunities. The Futurist, 34(2), 20-25. Web. 

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This article came from a peer-reviewed journal and was intended for a general reading audience. The focus of this article was on the probable impacts, both good and bad, that genetic engineering can have. The methodology utilized by this article was a basic literature review and a trend analysis of emerging issues related to genetic engineering. The results indicated that genetic engineering is impacting a larger number of industries each year, and it has already had a dramatic impact on agriculture, the environment, economics and governments. The information contained in this article can be utilized to develop a base of knowledge about the potential applications and threats of genetic engineering.

Fox, D. (2007). Silver spoons and golden genes: Genetic engineering and egalitarian ethos. American Journal of Law and Medicine, 33(4), 567-623. Web.

This peer-reviewed article explored what is referred to as safe genetic therapies, which are utilized to genetically modify an embryo. The methodology utilized by this article was an evaluation of doctrinal justifications of parents to genetically modify their offspring. The results indicated that the U.S. Constitution does grant legal rights to reproduction freedom, including genetic manipulation of offspring. However, egalitarian theories object to such processes. The main debate in this article is based upon the concept of eugenics, which is a philosophy that has had dire consequences in the past. The information provided by this article can be used to develop legal and ethical arguments for or against the genetic manipulation of embryos.

Gerdes, L.I. (2004). Genetic engineering: Opposing viewpoints. Chicago, IL: Greenhaven Press.

This book was a compilation of articles written by a variety of authors that explored the various viewpoints on genetic engineering. Topics discussed in this book included the dangers related to human cloning, the ethics of genetically engineering human babies and risks associated with the genetic modification of crops. This book is an older version of a series of books on genetic engineering. It can be used to establish a literature foundation for genetic engineering topics, but more recent viewpoints on this topic should be selected from newer versions/editions from this series.

Hays, K. (2003). Genetic copy of cat not a copycat after all. Sun-Times. Web.

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This newspaper article presented an overview of a case of a cat that was cloned. The results of this story indicated that while an orange tabby cat was cloned, a striped grey and white cat was produced. This demonstrates the uncertainties that still exist in terms of genetic engineering results. This information can provide anecdotal support of evidence that is provided in a research paper on genetic engineering, but it should not be used as an authoritative source of information.

Herring, M.Y. (2005). Genetic engineering (Historical guides to controversial issues in America). Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.

The purpose of this book is to explore the various issues being raised by the debate over the pros and cons of genetic engineering. Historical case studies, court cases and other resources are used to explore both sides of the debate over a variety of controversial issues related to genetic engineering including cloning, genetic modification and stem cell research. The information contained in this book can be used to identify ethical and controversial issues related to genetic engineering as well as to identify applicable court cases, laws and case studies that can be used to enhance the depth of a paper on genetic engineering.

Ho, M. (2005). Genetic Engineering – Dream or Nightmare: Turning the Tide on the Brave New World of Bad Science and Big Business. London, England: Continuum International Publishing Group.

This book focused on the science of genetic engineering. It was written by a well-respected English scientist who is an expert in this field. The information contained in the book can be used to gain a better understanding of what science is capable of, the processes involved and the limitations that exist.

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Nuenke, M. (2001). Improving nature: The science and ethics of genetic engineering. Mankind Quarterly, 41(3), 331-334. Web.

The purpose of this article was to review a book called Improving Nature: The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering by Reiss and Roger published in 1996. The review included what Nuenke liked and disliked about the book and highlights of what was contained within the book. The value of this resource is that it points to a specific resource that can be used to develop a paper on genetic engineering, and particularly a paper on the ethics of genetic engineering.

Rabino, I. (2003). Genetic testing and its implications: Human genetics researchers grapple with ethical issues. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 28(3), 365-402. Web. 

This article explored the ethical issues that are raised by human genetic research. A survey of scientists working on human genetics experimentation was conducted. Results indicated that scientists generally support voluntary human genetic testing to identify genetic heritage and to test for genetic anomalies that could lead to serious birth defects and quality of life issues. However, the results also indicate that scientists in this field generally do not support the use of genetic testing as a methodology for other purposes related to altering an individual genetically to produce a specific human result. This information can be used to develop arguments for or against genetic engineering.

Spier, R.E. (2002). Toward a new human species? Science, 296(5574), 1807-1808. Web. 

The purpose of this brief article was to examine the implications of genetically engineering a new human species. This was a basic book review of Redesigning Humans: Our Inevitable Genetic Future by Gregory Stock. This article can be used to locate a new source, the book being reviewed by the author, but it generally has no value as a direct source of information.

Streiffer, R. (2005). At the edge of humanity: Human stem cells, chimeras, and moral status. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 15(4), 347-370. Web. 

This is an article from a peer-reviewed journal. It was written from an academic perspective and it focused on the ethical issues raised by experimentation with human stem cells and the creation of chimeras. The methodology used was a meta-analysis of available literature to create a framework for the moral status of chimera creation and experimentation. The results indicated that there currently are no ethical standards in place to deal with the moral status of chimera embryos, and as a result, it is prudent to continue experimenting with these biological entities as long as early termination policies are developed and implemented. The value of this article is to establish an understanding of some of the ethical concerns related to human stem cell and chimera experimentation.

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