Project Planning: Changes and Resources

Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)

The organizational structure facilitates the process of production and management of human and material resources. An organization could be structured to ensure that each department runs autonomously and collaborates with others to achieve its objectives. The structural breakdown in an organization is essential in ensuring each department’s accountability so that the areas of weakness could be detected and corrected early.

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This is important for the growth and development of the organization. Sometimes, various departments may initiate competition aimed at increasing the overall productivity of the organization. In such a scenario, none of the departments would lag behind in adopting progressive approaches to develop the respective section (Covitz & Downing, 2007).

In the chart below, one could understand the kind of interdepartmental relationships that the organization has. For instance, the human resource, finance, and production departments are very critical to the organization and have to work closely to make sure that the company achieves its objectives. Moreover, they have to relate to other departments so that the production system does not halt.

The procurement department also works closely with the production and export counterparts to harmonize the production system (Covitz & Downing, 2007). On the other hand, the IT department also works closely with that of training, research, and development to increase innovation and improve efficiency. Finally, all the departments have to coordinate with the security docket to ensure that the operation is not threatened by external aggression and internal conflict.

Organizational Structure.
Figure 1: Organizational Structure.

In project management, a resource accountability matrix is a way of ensuring transparency in implementing the project. Accountability reduces the number of resources being wasted because the managers would utilize the available materials prudently (Brunnermeier, 2009). It shows the commitment of the managers as they implement the project, and it outlines the materials to be used (PMBOK, 2008). This makes such information available for the people affected by the project.

The matrix includes a number of variables, which have to be applied in project management. For instance, the performance data during the project’s implantation is crucial when analyzing and presenting the achievements and steps made by the implementers (Brunnermeier, 2009). Similarly, project allocations are equally important when evaluating resource accountability so that the financiers might consider extending the aid or intervention. In order to ensure accountability, awarded amounts for each program from resource acquisition to its completion must be documented (Morris & Pinto, 2007).

Chart 1: RACI.

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RACI Chart Person
Activity General Manager HR Manager Finance Manager Production Manager Sales Manager
Define I R C C A
Design R C C I R
Develop A A I R R
Test A I I R I

R = Responsibility A = Accountable C = Consult I = Inform

RACI Chart Cont… Person
Activity IT Manager Procurement Manager Export Manager PR Manager Training Manager
Define C I R C A
Design R I C I C
Develop R R I I R
Test C I R R I

R = Responsibility A = Accountable C = Consult I = Inform.

RACI Chart Cont. Person
Activity Internal Auditor Conflict Resolution Manager Security Manager
Define C R R
Design R I I
Develop I A C
Test I C C

R = Responsibility A = Accountable C = Consult I = Inform.

Change Management Plan

In making sure that the organization achieves its change management plans, it has to consider the components such as planning, assurance, improvement, and control during the process of service delivery (Evans & Lindsay, 2007). This is very crucial in making services consistent with global standards. In essence, the main focus of change management is to incline the organization towards the recommended service delivery standards and means of accomplishing its mission.

Therefore, it involves the basic aspects of achieving consistency in the delivery of services to customers. Furthermore, the various departments in the organization adopted the planning through enforcing practical approaches such as training (Freed, Shervin & Romano, 2010). This could help the management acquire skills in solving problems which the customers faced.

Notably, change is very necessary for an organization as it seeks to deliver competitive services (Evans & Lindsay, 2007). This is one of the reasons for the continuous struggle to adopt change in the organization. As the organization plans, controls and improves the quality of services, the consumers have to be assured of high quality and favorable outcome that satisfies their needs. The criterion that the organization embrace during change management is a direct result of the advancement in civilization.

In managing change in the organization, the manager will be charged with the responsibility of reviewing and evaluating the entire production system (Robbins et al., 2009). Therefore, change management should be done progressively. In addition, the overall evaluation of the organization’s output that results from the adoption of different means of production should be done frequently, perhaps every three to four months (Ferreira & Matos, 2008).

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Change management also has to do with increasing organizational efficiency in the process of delivering services (Schapiro, 2009). An efficient system will make it easier to monitor the qualities and come up with workable policies to ensure that managing the operations becomes cheap (Robbins et al., 2009). In the organization, the efficiency movement was the main approach that the administration enforced to achieve change management.

In this regard, the organization made sure that the services were standardized through adopting the new systems. Moreover, the organization adopted certain practices, which improved the value of its services since this would help in change management (Morris & Pinto, 2007). For example, the organization’s management practiced new systems, which intended to facilitate its operations. In fact, the standardization mechanisms that the organization carried out were considered as a strong foundation intended to achieve the change management strategies (Schapiro, 2009).

In reality, change management cannot be realized easily without having good and responsible leadership (Evans & Lindsay, 2007). In this situation, the organization’s management had adequate knowledge that dedication and leadership change is a process of adopting new strategies that could not be sabotaged. As a result, the organization could effectively implement the intended change planning, improvement, and control during the process of delivering services (Linck, Netter & Yang, 2009).

Moreover, the organization had to put in place the kind of leadership that would be responsible for carrying out new policies (Robbins et al., 2009). In this regard, the organization had to employ leaders who possessed certain characters such as integrity, exceptional skills, and high levels of experience in conducting their work. These were the main ways of making sure that changes which the company adopted brought remarkable outcome.


Brunnermeier, M. (2009). Deciphering the Liquidity and Credit Crunch (2007-2008). J. Econ.Perspect, 23(1): 77–100.

Covitz, D. & Downing, C. (2007). Liquidity or Credit Risk? The Determinants of Very Short-Term Corporate Yield Spreads. Journal of Finance, 62(1): 2303–2328.

Evans, J. & Lindsay, W. (2007). Managing for Change and Performance Excellence. New York, NY: Thomson South-Western.

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Ferreira, M. & Matos, P. (2008). The Colors of Investors’ Money: The Role of Institutional Investors around the World. J. Financ. Econ, 88(1): 499–533.

Freed, R., F. Shervin & J. Romano (2010). Writing Winning Business Proposals (3rd Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 9780071742320

Linck, J., Netter, J. & Yang, T. (2009). Effects and Unintended Consequences of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on Corporate Boards. Rev. Financ. Stud, 22(1):3287–3328.

Morris, P. & Pinto, J. (2007). The Wiley Guide to Project Program & Portfolio Management. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

PMBOK (2008). A Guide to The Project Management Body of Knowledge (4th Ed). Pennsylvania: A Publication of the Project Management Institute.

Schapiro, M. (2009). Address to Transatlantic Corporate Governance Dialogue-2009 Conference. U.S. SEC. Washington D.C.

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