Humans attempt to answer philosophical questions regarding the nature of the world and humanity for centuries. Each person faces these issues at least once in their lifetime and chooses different paths which help them either address or accept these relentless musings. Christianity provides answers to these questions, whereas atheists assume that it is impossible to be sure about the purpose of human existence or the meaning of life because they base their beliefs on scientific notions. This essay will examine the different approaches to issues of ethics and morality, as well as personal musings concerning the questions of the structures of existence.
Spirituality is a religious notion that concerns the human soul. Spirituality helps Christians in their search for the meaning and purpose of life (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). Postmodern relativists believe that all questions regarding ethics, morality, and human existence cannot be answered objectively, and, instead, can be addressed merely from a subjective point of view (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). This philosophy focuses on the individualism of human beliefs and does not see spirituality as an existing concept that can be proved.
According to Christianity, ethics is an important concept which dictates human behavior. This religion suggests a tight correlation between ethics and morality. Christians view the former by the standards of the morality of God (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). Humans are to behave according to the concepts outlined in the Bible. Postmodern relativism rejects the idea that it is possible to know what is right or wrong (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). Instead, this movement believes that it is a personal choice of each human to assume the morality of their own and others’ actions. In healthcare, ethics is an important problem, as medical professionals ought to care for the patients without harming them. However, atheists and theists might debate over whether such controversial issues as whether abortion or euthanasia are ethical or not.
Although semantically similar, scientism and science are not the same concepts. Instead, scientism is a philosophy that incorporates scientific ideas to explain the structures of the world (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). It is a belief that every aspect of existence can be explained through the lens of known empirical discoveries (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). Scientism views these findings as the only objective truth that can be used to gain knowledge about life.
Although scientism believes in seemingly objective truth, it cannot be seen as a reliable philosophy. Science cannot account for the explanation of human morality and ethics because research discoveries only provide data, which should then be interpreted by humans. Science does not tell how to apply these findings in terms of ethics and morality. All mental activities such as thinking and reasoning are subjective, whereas scientism argues for the objective basis of its philosophy (Feser, 2010). Therefore, human behavior is dictated by some other force, and whether the actions are ethical and moral cannot be judged by science.
Assuming that everything can be explained through science alone is in itself an unscientific approach. Burnett (2011) suggests that there is no proof that the knowledge about the world can be merely gained from science, which means that this philosophy is not credible. According to Feser (2010), scientism is self-refuting, as its existence cannot be proved scientifically. This further questions the reliability of scientism as a trusted philosophy.
The study of ultimate reality is a quest for the source of life and the highest power that oversees the world. It is the truth about human existence and its reason. In Christianity, God is the fundamental source of the life of the world, and, therefore, represents ultimate reality (Barr, 2017). Christian ultimate reality suggests that God is the creator of the world (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). One’s beliefs regarding all other philosophical questions and concerns are shaped by their considerations of what ultimate reality is.
The Nature of the Universe
Ultimate reality is, therefore, directly related to the question of the nature of the universe. Christianity sees the universe as consisting of both the physical world which is explained through science and the spiritual world (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). The God is the creator of the universe and is the reason for the existence of the humanity at the same time. God is present in every mechanism of the world and in every human being.
A Human Being
Atheism suggests that a human being is simply a result of evolution and biological forces and is skeptical about the existence of a human spirit. However, it is difficult to believe that people do not possess souls. The spirit accounts for human behaviors that are based on morality and ethics, which science fails to explain. The physical death of a human being does not mean the death of their spirit. Christianity explains this through the concept of an afterlife of a human soul (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). A human being was created by God, and its physical life is merely a beginning of a long journey. If this was untrue, that would suggest that human life is meaningless.
Knowledge is all information gained about the world which is used by humans to base their opinions and behaviors upon. Knowledge can be obtained in two ways: through the physical world and spirituality (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). The physical world provides knowledge from scientific discoveries which are the objective notions regarding the structures of the world (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). The spiritual source is the knowledge that can be found in the Bible, which includes truth regarding ethics and morality of human beings, dictated by the standards of God.
The Basis of Ethics
Ethics is a study of morality, which answers the questions of what is right and wrong. Unlike atheism, Christianity can explain the objective truth regarding ethics and morality. It is outlined in the Bible and is based upon the standards of God (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). Biblical notions hold the universal truth about morality which applies to all human beings and should be actively enforced and shared among the people.
The Purpose of Existence
The purpose of existence is to serve God and live a moral life according to His teachings. Christianity explains this concept through the image of God (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). Humans live to love God who is central to their existence (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). All human behavior ought to serve this purpose and should be implemented through worship and humane actions. God’s love is overarching and should be spread among humans.
The philosophical questions regarding human existence can be answered differently, depending on one’s worldview. Similarly, everyone holds an individual basis of ethics and morality and these views are impacted by religious beliefs. Atheism rejects the existence of one universal truth regarding any of the questions outlined above and suggests that the views on ethics and morality are subjective. Christianity, however, is able to provide answers to these considerations through the objective truth explained in the Bible.
Barr, W. (2017). Mindfulness, now and Zen: The sceptics guide to ultimate reality. Lulu Press, Inc.
Bogue D. W., & Hogan M. (2020). Foundational issues in Christian spirituality and ethics. Grand Canyon University Media. Web.
Burnett, T. (2011). What is scientism? American Association for the Advancement of Science. Web.
Feser E. (2010). Blinded by scientism. Public Discourse. Web.