Computer security is an essential component of securing organizations’ information. Classified information and customer information should be secured because it is both illegal and unethical to share such information with other people or to allow other people to access it without the consent of owners. For instance, health records are private and confidential and should only be available to owners. Several security controls for computer systems are used to deter hackers from accessing information illegally. Securing computer systems avoids vulnerabilities such as accidental disclosure, deliberate penetration by unauthorized personnel, active infiltration, physical attack, and passive subversion (Avoine, Junod, and Oechslin 35).
User authentication and designation
User authentication requires users to identify themselves before assessing any information in an organization’s system (Bishop 21). This ensures that only authorized personnel access the system. Authentication is necessary because it allows the system to determine whether the user is allowed to view certain data. Different authentication techniques and devices are used depending on the sensitivity of the information, types of users, and the physical location of the system (Bishop 21). It is imperative for organizations to develop complex authentication protocols that cannot be easily bypassed by unauthorized individuals. Users should also be designated by the system administrator to ensure that they view the information that they are allowed to access only (Ye 34).
Antivirus and anti-spyware software
Many hackers use malware components such as viruses, scareware, botnets, and spyware to hack into computer systems of organizations to access classified information (Gollmann 44). Malware enter systems through downloaded software, removable storage devices, and email attachments. Antivirus and anti-spyware software monitor computer systems and stop suspected malware components from entering the mode by deleting them (Ye 39). Organizations should purchase authentic software and install updates regularly.
Protection with passwords
Passwords are standard features that are used to secure phones, laptops, tablets, and desktop computers. They are most secure if they include complex password protocols. Organizations should guard their networks and data systems with unique usernames and passwords that are difficult to crack or bypass. Strong passwords utilize letters, symbols, and numbers. Encryption of data is also used to enhance security (Vacca 84).
Competent and trustworthy system personnel
Organizations need to hire competent and reliable system personnel to deal with different aspects of their systems. System administrator, system certifier, system security officer, system operator, and system maintenance personnel jobs should be given to highly skilled individuals who can detect, identify, and neutralize any threat to information systems (Gollmann 56). Also, system personnel should be kept to a minimum to reduce the number of people who have direct access to the delicate aspects of the systems.
Many computer system breaches occur because of user carelessness and errors that render systems vulnerable. It is necessary for organizations to provide basic training to their employees regarding the importance of security and the various measures that can be applied (Tjaden 60). Moreover, leaders should encourage the creation of corporate cultures that embrace computer security as a critical aspect of organizational success. Employees should learn about the dangers of using software, illegal programs, and storage devices carelessly on their organizations’ systems (Tjaden 62). Monitoring employees is also essential to ensure that they refrain from activities that could sabotage the security of their systems.
Information security is important because it protects an organization’s data by preventing unauthorized access. Examples of effective ways to secure computer systems include user authentication and designation, use of antivirus and anti-spyware software, passwords, user training, and hiring competent and trustworthy system personnel. Securing information is implemented primarily based on the sensitivity of the data and the types of users.
Avoine, Gildas, Pascal Junod, and Philippe Oechslin. Computer System Security: Basic Concepts and Solved Exercises. New York: EPFL Press, 2007. Print.
Bishop Matt. Computer Security: Art and Science. New York: Addison-Wesley Professional, 2003. Print.
Gollmann, Dieter. Computer Security. New York: John Wiley & sons, 2011. Print.
Tjaden, Brett. Fundamentals of Secure Computer Systems. New York: Franklin Beedle, 2003. Print.
Vacca, John. Computer and Information Security Handbook. New York: Newnes, 2012. Print.
Ye, Nong. Secure Computer and Network Systems: Modeling, Analysis and Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2008. Print.