Enclosure the Rights of Peasants and Citizens of Different Statuses

Enclosure – enclosure was a form of depriving peasants of the right of owning or using a land in Great Britain. The process implied fencing open fields in a given village and the division of the common land in accordance to one’s property in the open fields. This process ended by 1800s, where only a “tiny minority of wealthy English (and Scottish) landowners held most of the land.” (McKay 646) The authorization came on the hand of the Parliament, which was controlled by land owners. The significance of enclosure can be seen through two historical developments, i.e. the market-oriented agriculture and the landless proletariat. Additionally, it can be said that enclosure played a role in the formation of capitalism.

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James Watt – James Watt was a remarkable Scottish engineer, who invented the modern steam engine in 1769. Steam engine can be seen as the major technological breakthrough in the eighteenth and the nineteenth century in Britain (650), where steam engine was used to in transforming the manufacture of textile, iron and the introduction of new methods of transportation such as railroads. The significance of James Watt’s contribution can be seen in that, he’s invention of the steam engine started the industrial revolution, which changed and affected millions of people, enforced the position of Britain, and introduced mass production.

Balance of power – The balance of power is a term that refers to equilibrium in Europe, to maintain which, various attempts occurred during the 18th and the 19th century in Europe to form alliances which will prevent the hegemony of one nation or one alliance. An example of such alliance was the alliance between Austria, Russia and Prussia in 1815. (676) The significance of this concept can be seen in the occurrence of many wars during that period, which changed Europe. The concept introduced can be seen through the continuation of the practice of maintaining the balance of power, where alliances are created and formed in short and long terms to oppose other formations.

Congress of Vienna – The Congress of Vienna is a European conference which took place during the period from 1814 to 1815 in Vienna, in which the political map of Europe was peacefully redrawn after the defeat of Napoleonic France. (676) The significance of the Congress can be seen through the establishment of the new balance of power on the long term, and the defeat of the ideas of liberalism.

Liberalism – Liberalism is an ideological concept that demands “representative government as opposed to autocratic monarchy, equality before the law as opposed to legally separated classes.” (679) The realization of liberal ideas in Europe started in only two countries, France and Great Britain in 1815. The significance of this concept can be seen that much of the liberal ideas such as freedom of speech, freedom of press, equality and etc, are now in the basis of any civilized society.

Communist Manifesto – Communist Manifesto was a political work written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, which was published in 1848. (681) The main ideas of this manuscript are based on that class struggle was the essence of historical development, and in which the emphasis is put on the working class. The significance of this work can be seen in that, it became the basis and the main document for the communist parties in the world, opposing to the ideas of capitalism.

Otto von Bismarck – Otto von Bismarck was a German politician, who was appointed by the King William as chief minister to defy parliament, which refused to ratify William’s military budget in 1862. The influence of Bismarck included the war with the Denmark, war with Austria and war with France, which made Prussia the new leader of the new German Empire. The significance of this figure can be seen through him overseeing the unification of Germany, influencing its consequent political decisions.

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Charles Darwin – Charles Darwin was an English naturalist, who introduced a theory known as the theory of evolution in his work “On the Origin of Species” in 1859. The basis of his theory argues that the natural selection was the cause for all the species to evolve. The significance of his theory can be seen in its acceptance in the scientific community, after it was misunderstood and misapplied by Social Darwinists, where his theory became the basis of many scientific subjects.

Neocolonialism – Neocolonialism is term that refers to a system of political and economic relations by which developing countries are controlled economically, rather than territorially, by developed countries. The term is specifically applied to Latin America, where by 1900 it was controlled by foreigners. This concept is significant in terms of its influence in economically controlling and forming new economic and political zones.

Manifest Destiny – is a term first used by John L. O’Sullivan, which implied that the United States should expand across the North American continent. Many agreed with that God foreordained the US to cover the entire continent. The significance of this term can be seen through the actions that refer to it prior and post the introduction of that term, such as the acquisition of Texas, New Mexico and California as well as the purchase of Louisiana from France, and Florida from Spain along with the use of trickery to gain Native Americans’ land.

Works Cited

McKay, John P. A History of World Societies. 8th Ed. ed. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2008.

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