Immigration and terrorism are sovereign social event curtailing from desparate causes and with fundamentally various goals. Immigration and global terrorism have grown enormously in the past several centuries.The process of immigration can relate with the theory of Liberalism. It is considered as one of the most prominent state level theory of of international relation. Here the exponents of this theory argue that cooperation is essential for the world.
Illegal immigration and terrorism has often been observed as a serious problem that affects a nation in many ways. Some people regard it as an issue that drains the vitality of a nation and the rehabilitation of illegal immigrants is often a matter of squabble. Different studies have identified a number of illegal immigrants in the US and other western countries. Their right for health care, education and job facilities cause for several questions among the general public as well as on the government.
Many factors, such as economic, political, social, cultural, geographical and demographic, affect the process of illegal immigration in the United States. Majority of Latin American countries have suffered from political instability and the feelings of national insecurity. But, others who are engaged in illegal immigration have their own special or personal interests and goals. This kind of minority group constitutes terrorism and other anti-social activities to the international community. Studies show that terrorists have practiced every ways possible to enter the nations including the United States for earning legitimate passports and visas. The online article entitled Europe’s Mujahideen Where Mass Immigration Meets Global Terrorism gives helpful comments about the relation between immigration and global terrorism. It remarks; “Meanwhile, in Western Europe, the two trends of mass immigration and global terrorism intersect visibly and dangerously.” (Leiken para 5).
Recent studies show that nearly twelve million illegal immigrants are living in the United States. As the government follow the principles of Liberalism absolute prevention of immigration is impossible. The journal article entitled ‘Illegal Immigration Popular Publications’ by Center for immigration Studies gives exact information about the illegal immigrants in the United States. “In our analysis of the March 2007 Current Population Survey, we estimate that there are approximately 11.3 million illegal aliens living in the United States.” (Illegal Immigration: Popular Publications para 1).
The event of September 11
The September 11 Attack is considered as a massive terrorist attack, resulting the destruction of World Trade Center’s twin towers. It was a devastating, noxious attack on the United States through crashing airplanes in to the World Trade Center, killing thousands of people. The September 11 attack is an absolutely complicated event with abundant players and purposes. The reason and major motives of the attack is a clear one and have been discussed earlier. The foreign policy of Bush administration which helps Israel is considered as one of the most significant reasons behind the September 11 terrorist attacks. Violation of immigration laws has constituted massive terrorist attacks and other anti-social activities. Janice L. Kephart notices that; “This report covers the immigration histories of 94 terrorists who operated in the United States between the early 1990s and 2004, including six of the September 11th hijackers.” (Kephart para 1).One can find many reasons like political, religious, ideological and race behind the attack; no one can avoid the remaining connection between immigration and global terrorism. More than this, the attack paved the way for a common notion that even the United States is under the shadow of hi-tech terrorist attacks. The news article entitled Terrorism and Immigration remarks; “The terrorist attack exposed frightening weaknesses in immigration practices, as it did with airport security and intelligence-gathering.” (Opinion: Terrorism and Immigration para 1). As a result of Liberalism the government of the United States couldn’t give emphasis on policy making against immigration. The exponents of Liberalism argue that cooperation is the best strategy for international peace. But the event of september11 reveals the truth it has a chance of misuse.
Impacts and causes of immigration
Illegal immigration in the United States and other European countries create some problems to the native people. One of the major issues is that majority of illegal immigrants in Western countries are from Latin America, Middle East nations and Afro Asian countries. These immigrants compete with the native citizens of the United States and Western nations in various fields such as job vacancies, higher education and health care. It paves the way for unemployment among the native people. Terrorists settled in European nations can speak European languages, operate computers, use the internet, and exchange e-mail messages and other modern technical facilities. A large number of immigrants are specialized and skilled workers and the government has the problem to make a substitution for this. Based on the theory the government of the United States encourages the coming of immigrants to America. Julie Farnam states; “The Challenge that the U.S faces currently is how to balance the need to keep the country safe from internal terrorists and how to welcome those who have legitimate reasons for coming to the country.” (Farnam 1).
Through allowing illegal immigrants to enter the nation, the governments have some economic benefits. Cooperation in economics, trade, oil transmission, are significant areas in international relation.Competition for specialized jobs, low scale of wages and low state of rehabilitation expenditure forced most of the European nations to withdraw from making laws against immigration. Beside this common group of immigrants, a minority has concentrated on some illegal activities. In his work named Immigration and Insecurity:Post-9/11 Fear in the United States John Tirman gives valuable comments about the attitudes of the government towards immigrants. The author says;
“While the overall impact of immigration, including unauthorized workers, is a net positive for the U.S. economy, the localized effects can be difficult for border states, particularly as government support for social services has declined over time.” (Tirman 2).
Relation between illegal immigration and terrorism
Defective system of immigration law and other security measures are important causes for increasing illegal immigration and global terrorism in different parts of the world. Effective implementation is essential for preventing all kinds of immigration. Liberalism promotes loosening of immigration laws and security measures of a country.News reports notice that the hijackers of the September 11 attack have entered in the United States without fulfilling legal procedure. Mr. Kris W. Kobach remarks; “Enforcing our nation?s immigration laws is one federal government.” (Kobach para 1).
One of the major reasons for illegal immigration is economic depression and poverty. Large number of immigrants from Mexico and Latin American countries are landless, blocked access to legal jobs, suffered with fixed income, and failed to submit legal documents for their jobs or business. When these immigrants reached another nation they are forced to engage in immoral activities such as drug usage, substance abuse, robbery, terrorism and other anti-social activities. These people resort to immoral activities as an easy way to make financial stability.
Another striking fact is that immigrants know the strength and weakness of immigration laws and they are familiar with the existing system of border security. Studies show that temporary visas are a popular means of entering into the country. Fake identification, such as, driver’s licenses, birth certificates, immigration certificates and Social Security cards are the common means for illegal immigrants who are engaged in terrorist activities.
Economic globalization is another important reason for increasing illegal immigration and global terrorism. Globalization allows the loosening or elimination of national and international borders for trade. This is another step of implementing Liberalist ideology to a nation.
In Australia, immigration has become a controversial topic and the immigrants from Middle East countries cause severe problems to the government. Today, the identity formation for Iranian youth in Australia will be more crucial and problematic one. This group has their own personal or private goals which make trouble to the society. Majority receive these kinds of immigration as a means of strengthening international relation. Studies reveal that majority of Iranian youths in Australia have some specific goals related with education, job facilities, financial stability and establishment of better living condition. At the same time, a minority of Iranian youths have concentrated on terrorist activities, substance abuse and other anti social activities. Masood Zangeneh et al. remarks; “The acculturation stress that individuals and families go through when they resettle in a new country may lead to parent-child and marital conflicts, children’s behavioral and school problems, financial hardship, substance abuse, depression, and loss of status.” (Zangeneh, Nouroozifar and Kantini para 8).
Immigration and global terrorism is a growing threat for international community. Establishment of a powerful and effective system to prevent this global curse is not a simple task. Diana Miller helps the reader to understand something about the preventive measures taken by the United States against immigration and global terrorism. The author says; “Congress may wish to consider tightening or otherwise modifying the legal standards that pertain to each step of the immigration/deportation process.” (Miller 157).
After the terrorist attack of September 11, the governments of all nations take immediate measures for preventing illegal immigration and terrorist attacks. Strengthening of the immigration laws is the first and most significant step to solve this global threat. Albert Baldeo & Annan Boodram comment that “Under the new rules, immigration authorities can bar members of political or social groups that endorse terrorist activities.” (Baldeo and Boodram para 4).
Governments of all the nations should form a monitoring agency to co-ordinate anti-terrorist activities and the international agency can control the activities of regional departments. Terrorist attacks are not wars and it is intended and politically motivated violence. So, establishment of an effective prevention system is difficult for nations. Governments of all nations should track the movements of foreigners inside their nations and control financial dealings of foreigners and other immigrant people who lived inside the nations. Another important step is to tighten the borders to track illegal entries of all foreign visitors. Implementation of an international identification system is also another serious step in the process of preventing illegal immigration and global terrorism. Regionalism, racial discrimination, fanaticism and religious extremism are different factors which cause terrorism in many countries. So, prevention/control of these factors is essential for international security and peace. After the event of September 11 terrorist attack, majority of western countries give more emphasis on policy making for the prevention of illegal immigration and terrorism.
The ideology of Liberalism has its own positive and negative impacts. It promotes international cooperation and growth in various fields such as trade, education, military and information technology. But the horror of terrorism constitutes negative impacts. Regionalism and terrorism promote violence and terrorists misuse the theory for their private goals. Immigration has positive and negative impacts.
Baldeo, Albert. and Boodram, Annan. Immigration & Terrorism: The US Responds to Attacks: Crackdown. Caribbean Voice. 2001. Web.
Farnam, Julie. U.S. Immigration Laws Under the Threat of Terrorism. Algora Publishing, 2005.
Illegal Immigration: Popular Publications: Overview. Center for Immigration Studies. Web.
Kephart, Janice L. Immigration and Terrorism: Moving Beyond the 9/11 Staff Report on Terrorist Travel. Center for Immigration Studies. 2005. Web.
Kobach, Kris W. State and Local Authority to Enforce Immigration Law: A Unified Approach for Stopping Terrorists. Center for Immigration Studies. 2004. Web.
Leiken, Robert S. Europe’s Mujahideen: Where Mass Immigration Meets Global Terrorism. Center for Immigration Studies. 2005. Web.
Miller, Diana. Terrorism: Are We Ready?. Nova Publishers, 2002.
“Opinion: Terrorism and Immigration.” The New York Times. 2001. Web.
Tirman, John. Immigration and Insecurity: Post-9/11 Fear in the United States. MIT Center for International Studies. 2006. Web.
Zangeneh, Masood, Nouroozifar, Mona and Kantini, Ebrahim. “Acculturation Stress and Drug Use among Iranian Youth: Introduction.” Shiraz E-Medical Journal 5. 3 (2004). Web.