Learning a language is an interactive process, which can be accomplished through various strategies. The pushed output is one of the approaches that can be applied to teaching a foreign language. According to the comprehension technique, speaking should only be encouraged when there is enough understanding of the language scheme.
Conversely, some language experts contend that the skills required to talk cannot be developed if students are not “pushed” to talk. The pushed out strategy is based on the assumption that knowledge of verbal communication does not transfer instinctively from reception to articulation of words. When pushed out, the strategy is not applied in teaching a language, learners understand basic language skills that are important for communication.
The following factors should be taken into consideration when teaching a language using the pushing out technique. First, learners should be motivated to talk about various themes to enable them to learn different vocabulary since each topic has unique words.
The second factor to be considered is called text type. It involves subjecting learners to various types of written or spoken forms of communication such as narrative, persuasion, imaginative, and argumentative.
Learners can carry out speaking activities under various circumstances. However, it is highly recommended to plan a speaking activity. Planning facilitates language production since it makes it possible for some work to be carried out before the actual speaking activity takes place. Time pressure is another important aspect of the performance condition.
Allocating learners adequate time to carry out a speaking assignment enables them to use both explicit and tacit grammatical skills; hence, they can speak properly.
Amount of support given to learners facilitates speaking activities. Learners can be guided to enable them to leaner comfortably. Standard of performance should also be observed since it influences the ability of learners to talk properly. For example, if the speaking skills of learners are supposed to be evaluated, they should be pressurized to speak well.
Informal dialogue characteristically entails activities in which transmission of information is less significant than sustaining friendly relationships. Interactional dialogue can be encouraged through the following mechanisms. First, learners should have techniques to sustain a conversation. For instance, a question should be answered precisely, and additional information can be given to sustain a conversation.
Second, learners should be encouraged to be supportive during conversations. For example, a leaner can be encouraged to complete utterances made by an orator. Third, the repetition of activities is a good mechanism for providing support. Fourth, learners should be encouraged to prepare for informal dialogues. Last, learners should try to master common words and sentences because they facilitate the mastering of a language.
Formal speaking facilitates the mastering of language in many ways. A formal conversation makes a language learner to pay attention to grammatical concepts. Formal speaking entails presentation of findings or participation in public debates. This type of speaking is transactional and requires continuous speaking without interruption.
Teaching Formal speaking
Formal speaking demands proper transmission of information. Official speaking requires proper preparation of the content to be presented orally. For example, a leaner can prepare some notes that will guide his or her talk.
Another important factor that should be taken into account is the identification of the targeted audience because it influences the type of information to be prepared. Although public speaking may be difficult for many learners, it enables them to communicate properly..