It is notable that blacks faced extreme discrimination in the historical America. During the period, the freed “blacks” of 1840s were encountering various challenges while trying to integrate in a society that racially segregated them. Previous political regimes had enacted legislation that led to institutionalisation of racism. American leaders’ assertion that the country stood for freedom was a sham, as blacks were lacked access to basic social and civil rights. This led to the formation of movements through prearranged public meetings, demonstrations, matches and boycotts as they campaigned against this social vice. Moreover, various action groups fought for the civil and social rights of Black people, which they termed “Civil Rights Era”
The “civil rights era” was amid 1955 and 1968 when the social movement was extremely vocal. “Civil right movement” is sum of all activities undertaken by various activists in the fight against segregation. The southern states had used slaves as their source of labour in their plantations, meaning that the leading population of blacks was in the south. The whites profoundly ingrained bigotry in this region. Following the large population, the movement was very vocal in the southern states. The era is guesstimated to have lasted fifteen years. During the era, various leaders enacted different legislations to avert a looming social and civil crisis. The movement activity reduced greatly after the elimination of its enigmatic principal Martin Luther. Fortified with exceptional oratory skills, Martin King led this movement by holding rallies, boycotts and peaceful demonstration. His leadership was highly applauded for being non-violent in a struggle that most expected to be bloody. However, some incidences were violent.
It is certain that racism was rampant in the historical America; however, the rise of “Civil Rights Movement” normalized the situation thus leading to the enjoyment of various services buy all citizens. During such time, associations vouched to champion for the rights of the blacks. Despite abolition of slavery, the freed people continued to live in bondages owing to neglect by the White dominated government. Although this community constituted a significant part of the population, they had no congressional representation. This in effect meant that the lacked representation arms of the state that formulated laws that they adhered. Existing laws did not give voting rights to the African Americans. Due to such issues, most members of this community felt they had been neglected; “Second class citizens” On the social arena black people had no okay to utilize the same facilities as whites. Black students could not attend educational institution set aside for white counterparts from the elementary to the tertiary level. Employment in government institution was skewed and this led to majority of black people being unemployed.
Some of the revolution leaders include Rosa Parks who was an Alabaman seamstress who entered a “Montgomery bus” on her way home. As passengers augmented, the driver ordered Rosa to offer her seat to a white. Rosa displayed bravery when she failed to give it up her seat despite subsequent arrest. Her experience resulted in more than a year and a half embargo of the “Montgomery buses”. Thurgood Marshal is another personality who made noteworthy input to this struggle. His input came via multiple civil litigations that he filled. His competence in the legal field was evident as he only lost in one case that he filed at the time. In one case where he challenged the school system, resulting in an overall transformation as the Supreme Court ordered that all schools should be open to all races. This outcome was in line with the law that provided equal education for all. As stated above Martin Luther was the leader of all movements. President Johnson who took over leadership after the elimination of JF Kennedy led to the enactment of affirmative action that King and other activists negotiated. Martin faced assassination in 1968 while in a Memphis hotel.
In the civil era, multiple changes were achieved that assisted the Black people integrate into the American society. Thurgood’s case was the first to bring changes. The movement was fighting for Black students who were able to attend the same school as Caucasian students. This case brought equality into the education sector. During the mind 1960s, Johnson, the president, rallied the Congress in enacting civil rights bill and the voting act. This legislation ensured that African Americans had representation in the different governing structure like local authorities and Congress. The Civil right bill was to remedy for the racism abuses that they underwent. These movements prompted the congress to pass various acts thus preventing the country from plunging into chaos.