Waste Management: Plastic and Metal Debris

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Introduction

Waste management is among the subjects making news headlines everyday. It is a subject of heated debated today and a source of conflict in many regions. It is done to recover resources, to minimize health effects and reduce the negative effects on the environment. Waste can either be liquids, solids or gas. As more technological inventions are made, radioactive substances are today accountable for a big percentage of waste materials. Different methods of waste management are utilized for different substances and in different countries. Landfills and incineration are among the most commonly used methods for solid waste. Biological reprocessing is still commonly used for organic wastes.

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A good waste management method is one that must create sustainability. Each country today is encouraged to improve its environmental efficiency (Hinrichsen, 2010). One way of achieving this objective is through recycling. Recycling is among the most viable and effective ways of managing gas, liquid and solid waste. It involves collection and utilization of already used materials. In a world where most resources may be depleted soon, recycling proves a good alternative to ensure a more secure future in terms of resources.

This paper is a research project on how to manage plastic and metal trash generated mainly in households. The paper analyzes a ten week waste collection project, its management, storage, cost and lessons learnt from the project. The paper will also look at what our social and ethical responsibilities are towards ensuring environmentally friendly habits. The paper will analyze the cost factor of managing the amount of waste collected in the ten week period and research on a potential business enterprise arising from the situation. Finally the paper will highlight lessons learnt during the project and how the information gathered can be used locally as a contribution to the global developments on waste management.

Project description

For a period of ten weeks I collected all recyclable plastic and metal trash generated in my household. My collection included bottles, cups, plastic plates and any other form of containers. I come from a family of five, all who leave the house in the morning for different activities in weekdays and come home in the evening. Water and milk bottles accounted for most of the items collected followed by aluminium cans. Plastic plates and cups were also part of the collection.

For a family of five, my collection and selling price is summarized in the table below:

Item Number of collected items Pounds Cost
Plastic bottles 350 78.75 $22.05
Aluminium Cans 300 67.5 $33.75
Plastic plates 100 22.5 $3.375
Plastic cups and other containers 150 33.75 $8.1

During this project, my intention was to understand more than waste management. It was intended at helping me understand recycling as a waste management method, inventory management and the legal aspects of the topic. It was also intended at helping me understanding different waste management solutions, their benefits and challenges. Solutions researched on during the project include recycling, landfills, incineration and decomposition. The project was to educate myself on how recycling plastics and metals at home will reduce the amount of garbage countries have to deal with as claimed by environmentalists.

In the process I discovered that used plastics can be used in homes for storage purposes and are becoming a favorite for other purposes such as making toys and decor. I realized that the biggest challenges in dealing with waste so far has been consumer education as the few people I talked to during the research process were not very well informed on issues regarding waste management. Consumers are also not advised when buying products packaged in different materials.

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Through this project, I learnt how several shops and business are ensuring customers manage their waste wisely and return most of the packaging bottles and containers. Some now deduct a certain amount of money for products in large plastic and metal containers refundable as soon as customers return them to the shops. This has resulted in a minimized amount of waste accumulated in homes and municipal damp sites. Beverage and alcohol producing companies have been on the forefront in implementing this strategy.

During this research project, I aimed at learning about how as an individual I can manage the environment around me. I researched about carbon footprints and how they can be used to measure the amount of carbon emissions to the atmosphere as a result of our activities and waste management at home. I also wanted to learn how to measure and be aware of my carbon emissions. The process was aimed at understanding how as an individual I can be able to minimize waste effects and educate the people around me about the same. At the end of the project, I realized that being cautious of carbon emissions includes being able to ask oneself questions any time there is an environmental concern over any decision we make.

Research methods used

Other than collection of waste materials, this project also included learning how to store and handle waste material. Research included my state’s regulations on how to store plastic and metal waste materials. Issues of interest to me included hazards that may be caused by improper storage and risk factors of having accumulated volumes in the house. I talked to responsible authorities on how I should store my collection and how to sell them finally. I also sought advice on how I can reuse some of the materials I had collected. The internet proved most useful for much of the information I gathered.

My research also included books on inventory management and storage management. Other topics that I researched on include social and ethical responsibilities towards the environment. To do a cost analysis, I found several sites on the internet, which had up-to-date buying and selling prices of different waste materials.

Inventory management

My inventory management was done by using research to identify the proper products for each market and their prices. As a consumer, I learnt that it is wise to buy products with packaging that can be sold off easily. Plastic bottles and cups have many collection and buying points. Other beverage bottles can be easily returned to the distributors while some paper packaging material can be easily burnt or decompose. By so doing, a customer only buys goods with packages that will not be a burden during disposal. For regions that lack proper waste collection methods, these are important points to consider before buying a product.

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I learnt how to manage stock, purchases, sales and even payments. It was my duty to collect every waste plastic or metal waste in my home. To keep track of how many I had collected, I kept records of every entry into my store. Inventory management calls for creation of receiving and dispatch lists, and payment receipts. It also entails quality management, assortment, managing defective products and balancing the competing requirements. It includes researching and comparing different buying prices in the market to get the best offers for your products.

On a business level, an important part of inventory management is having enough market information. This enables companies package their products for different markets in consideration to their disposal and recycling capabilities. The different businesses buying waste bottles have to manage their inventories, transportation and sells. Keeping an inventory for the products enables them manage time, uncertainties and the different economies of scale.

Different inventory technologies available today allow business have an easier time when managing inventories. Such technologies inter-link products information and data to the synchronizing managers, who are able ensure an efficient product flow management. Different departments, such as the procurement department, customer care, billing department, planning, service assurance and the reporting department, are then able to all inter-link and create one information path. The products, suppliers and buyers then have a channel to return feedback to the information model manager, who can pass it on to the rest of the chain.

I learnt that flexibility is very fundamental in inventory management. It is a critical part in ensuring that the business has a future-proof inventory management system. Different products may be available in different days as I learnt from my research project. For example, I collected different types of containers in different days. Some were more available on a Monday than they were in other days of the week. Flexibility is important to ensure that the business is able to easily integrate new technologies in their system. By so doing, it is then possible to adapt to the growing and changing markets, meet customers changing demands and have a cost effective distribution system.

Storage management

Waste storage may differ with different types of waste and a region’s regulations. Usually, waste is many times collected and stored near the points of generation. These areas are constructed and run according to different environmental laws. For more hazardous or life threatening waste, different federal regulations dictate how it is collected, stored and transported to disposal or recycle points.

For easy storage, all the waste I collected was assorted and stored in different labeled containers. I also ensured that the storage containers were compatible with the waste I put in it. The containers were closed at all times to avoid interruption with the project. It was also to ensure safety since plastics are highly flammable when exposed to heat. The Environmental, Health and Safety policies give proper guidelines on how different types of waste should be stored.

Ethical and social responsibilities

Environmentalists have been on the forefront fighting against any waste management method that leaves a burden to the environment. It is everyone’s responsibility to shape the future and ensure sustainable development for upcoming generations. Extracting value from all the waste that we create before disposing it, ensures that the environment is protected and enhanced. As individuals we can take responsibility by increasing recycling, creating safer disposal methods, using renewable energy more, sharing information learnt with the community and investing in better technology to reduce waste.

Packaging is a major concern if plastic waste has to be addressed. A big percentage of plastic waste comes from packaging materials. In my research, a big percentage of waste collected comprised of water bottles and aluminium cans. These are foods packaging materials, which every household is likely to use by the end of the day. Companies’ social and ethical responsibilities include investing in research and technology to come up with better packaging methods. One of the most viable options is to use packaging that can be easily recycled. Washable and refillable containers can be used to encourage customers carry their own packaging bottles from home.

Plastic and metal waste effects to the environment

Ground water supplies are adversely affected by plastic and metal manufacture and use. The results of their production in a region include lowered water levels due to the high volumes of water used during production. Infiltration and percolation of dirt and raw materials during manufacture have adverse effects on water bodies. Landfills interfere with land use and overburdens the land. It reduced the lands fertility and minimizes available land for agricultural practices. Different methods of dumping and too much burden on land is of particular significance to both humans and wildlife. Large mammals and humans are particularly affected by the reduced amount of land space. The result are a less carrying capacity and overcrowded regions. Most significant effects include those that result from high levels of air pollution and pollution of streams that may be reaching animals and people in a far distance.

Acid rain is a major concern when discussing plastic and metal disposal effects on water. These types of waste also have adverse effects on wildlife as a result of emissions during their manufacture. When streams and rivers are drained for water used during manufacture, aquatic life is destroyed. When all the land and water animals are destroyed, predators then suffer a food shortage and some species may not survive. In some cases, displacements could mean extinction of some important species. Since many animals are dependent on vegetation in natural habitats for food and other important survival tactics, any activity which destroys vegetation and water bodies reduces their quality of life and as a result their population.

Combustion of plastics has extremely adverse effects on the environment. As expressed by this paper which researches on waste management, local perceptions and environmental concerns of pollution, plastics lead to high levels of air pollution from carbon dioxide emissions. Plastics and some metal substances contain high levels of carbon and other components such as oxygen, sulfur and hydrogen. Their reactions with the surrounding produces high levels of damaging gases such as oxides as they react with oxygen in the atmosphere. “There are emissions of carbon oxides such as carbon monoxide which may occur when there is an incomplete combustion but the highest percentage is carbon dioxide, an important greenhouse gas” (Hinrichsen, 2010).

Plastic and metal manufacturing is estimated to be the third highest domestic user of water after agriculture and energy production. In plastic and metal plants, water is also used to clean and process the end products. After its use, it may not be possible to treat the water to a level where it is useful. This is not only worrying due to reduced water levels that the plants may cause, but also for the fact that this water is pumped back to water bodies after treatment. Since it is not possible to achieve its original level of pureness, the water may contaminate other water bodies and with time accumulated impurities will start to show effects.

Potential business enterprise

Recycling and other waste management methods offer a big business opportunity to investors today. Metal waste is cleaned and sold for recycling. Due to its light weight and availability, plastic can be recycled or processed to make different products. Plastics can be recovered on a primary or secondary level. Primary recovery is made up of clean wastes in the factories such as side materials while secondary recovery is the collection of used plastics (Hinrichsen, 2010).

A viable business enterprise would include “setting up a plant that can regenerate plastics through compounding with fresh raw materials in suitable ratios” (Hinrichsen, 2010). The product can then be used in low-grade products such as plastic bags, safety helmets, knives and forks among others. The process includes steps such as sorting, crushing, washing, dehydration, drying and finally processing to final products. Cost factors in this investment include machinery, manpower, raw material and utilities.

Al Khobar City in Saudi Arabia

Al Khobar City in Saudi Arabia is one of the cities in the leading in the fight against unfriendly environmental habits. Last month, the local government of Al Khobar began a very aggressive environmental solid waste management campaign. Part of the campaign is the installation of coded waste bins along all streets. These bins are intended at helping the region segregate biodegradable materials from non-biodegradable (Mason, 2009). Different colors are used to differentiate the bins.

In this region, waste management business has proven a lucrative business opportunity for many businesses. In Al Khobar, Al Zamil Operations is among the biggest names in the industry. The company has made a fortune from what may other investors have chosen to ignore. The company buys, recycles and sells waste products. Its operations include daily garbage removal, low-level chemical cleanup and recycle. The company has signed a contract with Al Khobar municipality to collect garbage from homes and dispose or recycle it to appropriate products. It also buys waste bottles and other scrap materials from residents for reprocessing.

Viable solutions

Recycling is a better way of handling with waste problems than burning or burring it. Plastic producing plants are responsible for more than one-third of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions. Scientists have in the past used their research to educate people on what kind of information is required to have a clear information on the extent of damage done on the environment by different practices. Technologies used to convert manufacture plastics and metals have intense negative climate effects. It is approximated that using these technologies have 100% more damage on climate than using petroleum based fuels. They also produce more than 100% of greenhouse emissions compared to other emissions produced by use of petroleum on the roads. Manufacturing and burning of plastics is the biggest contributor of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

Hinrichsen (2010), argues that elimination of plastic dependency for packaging could help reduce global warming by 80%. The argument is that plastics products reserve more carbon dioxide percentages than even oil reserves. Secondly, plastics are the most carbon intense of all packaging materials producing more than 100% more amount of carbon dioxide during production than metal and other packaging materials. Even with all the damaging effects, plastics accounts for half the packaging material available in America and many other developed countries.

In order to manage plastic and metal waste, focus should be place on solutions with minimum effects to the environment. Recycling plastics and metals at home will reduce the amount of garbage the municipality has to deal with. Used plastics can be used at home for storage purposes, decor and many other purposes. Consumers should also be advised to buy products packaged in recycled plastics and metal products. Shops can deduct a certain amount of money for products in large plastic and metal containers refundable as soon as customers return them to the shops. The results will be a minimized amount of waste accumulated in homes and municipal damp sites.

Environmental organizations and movements must be fully involved in implementing environmental solutions such as recycling. Among the most important obligations of these movements is to teach people the three most important environmental principals which are reuse, recycle and repair. Another important principle is sharing of products and resources especially those whose continuous manufacture could pose as a threat to the environment. Reuse includes using old shopping bags, plastic containers and metallic materials instead of buying new ones every time there is a need. It also involves using old plastic containers for other purposes instead of disposing them each time they are used. This reduces the amount of plastic bags disposed all over including in farms which would interfere with growth of trees and other environmental developments. Recycling of plastic and solid products instead of throwing them away can reduce the amount of new products manufactured. The result will be a reduced demand for plastic raw materials and a decreased energy use.

Another solution is investing on research and development of degradable plastics. These plastics are estimated to break down faster when buried in landfills and have minimum green gas emissions. By using improved technologies, incineration is a god option for getting rid of plastic waste. Locally, environmental education must be increased to help people make informed decisions in their homes when managing waste.

The legal perspective of waste management

The U.S and other nations have now established several bodies and regulations in an attempt to minimize effects resulting from over-exploitation of natural resources and environmental concerns. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is one such body established with an aim of enhancing the environment. “One of its responsibilities include preparing Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements which contain statements of the environmental effects of proposed federal agency actions” (National Environmental Policy Act, 2010).

“Its essential purpose is to ensure that all environmental factors are weighed equally when compared with other factors in the decision making process undertaken by federal agencies” (National Environmental Policy Act, 2010). All federal environmental actions are required to meet NEPA guidelines before any financing of the project can be done. Its process consists of three processes; “preparation of a categorical exclusion, preparation of an environmental assessment and finding of no significant impacts” (National Environmental Policy Act, 2010). The first process ensures that activities being undertaken do not have significant effects on quality of human environment. “The second and last steps determine the significance of the environmental effects and evaluates the environmental effects when compared to what is expected in the environmental assessment procedures respectively” (National Environmental Policy Act, 2010). Carbon tax is another measure taken by the government to increase competitiveness on non-carbon technologies thus helping protect the environment. “It is an environmental tax levied on carbon content of fuels and the taxes have been implemented in response to commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change” (Hinrichsen, 2010).

“Concern for waste management runs high in Saudi Arabia and the World Bank estimates that tens of billions of dollars will be invested in waste management and environmental sectors in the Middle East over the next 10 years” (Mason, 2009). Saudi Arabia is among the countries expected to benefit from the new waste management technologies coming up each day. The area’s industrialization levels are on the rise and so is its urban growth. As a result, pollution is of a major concern and waste management is a growing challenge.

There is need for Domestic Environmental Legislation in the country. There is also need for a well able judicial institution to ensure implementation of environmental regulations. In the Saudi Arabian constitution, Article 32 of the document states that “the state works for the preservation, protection, and improvement of the environment, and for the prevention of pollution” (Mason, 2009). The need for environmental laws in Saudi Arabia is justified by the fact that population in the area is growing at a fast rate and so are the levels of waste collected from the area.

Uncollected plastic and metal waste poses as a health challenges to the residents of the middle east region. The waste is slowly washed away to water bodies and has heavy emissions as it slowly degrades causing air pollution. As a result of such high levels of air pollution, residents are exposed to high risks of contracting diseases such as cancer, kidney problems and respiratory complications such as asthma and bronchitis. People living in such areas are also at a high risk of contracting skin complications and other organs toxicity. Reproductive toxicity is high and cardiovascular complications may arise if people live in such conditions for a long time. Compounds such as the nitrates and ammonia from plastics are also known to cause birth defects and developmental problems if expectant mothers are exposed to such conditions for a long period. The county definitely needs to reconsider their environmental policies and implementation criteria to ensure the residents are not exposed to such high risks of health complications.

Waste management in campus

There are many areas where we notice collection bins for recyclable items today. Such initiatives have been put in place to encourage recycling and reuse of some used products. Most regions have bins market in different colors to help people know where to damp their waste. There are bins for foods, plastics, and metals, just to mention a few. The initiative was a good step towards enlightening people on the importance of separating waste. It is also a big step towards helping companies save on the assortment costs.

In a campus setup, the most common wastes are plastic water bottles, aluminum cans and plastic plates used to carry lunch and other snacks. Setting up waste bins has to be done through the environmental club with the approval of the administration. The process includes an application letter to put up dust bins, explaining the costs and benefits of implementing such a project. The involved departments would also have to be involved.

Conclusion

In times when there are very unpredictable weather patterns and a fast growing population, sustainable development is continually gaining fame and calls for use of resources in a way that human needs are met while the environment is preserved. This will ensure that today’s needs are met and the future generations’ needs are protected. Large percentages of populations in different regions or countries are today undernourished. As a result, death by starvation is becoming more common in different regions. This is all due to over-exploitation of natural resources. “Energy demand has gone high and large scale drilling and extraction of other energy sources threatens to create a crisis in future” (Hinrichsen, 2010).

Uncollected plastic and metal waste poses as a health challenges to the world. The waste is slowly washed away to water bodies and has heavy emissions as it slowly degrades causing air pollution. As a result of such high levels of air pollution, residents are exposed to high risks of contracting diseases. People living in such areas are also at a high risk of contracting skin complications and other organs toxicity. Reproductive toxicity is high and cardiovascular complications may arise if people live in such conditions for a long time. Compounds such as oxides from plastics are also known to cause birth defects and developmental problems for children.

Environmentalists have been on the forefront fighting against any waste management method that leaves a burden to the environment. It is everyone’s responsibility to shape the future and ensure sustainable development for upcoming generations. Extracting value from all the waste that we create before disposing it, ensures that the environment is protected and enhanced. As individuals we can take responsibility by increasing recycling, creating safer disposal methods, using renewable energy more, sharing information learnt with the community and investing in better technology to reduce waste.

Packaging is a major concern if plastic waste has to be addressed. A big percentage of plastic waste comes from packaging materials. In my research, a big percentage of waste collected comprised of water bottles and aluminium cans. These are foods packaging materials, which every household is likely to use by the end of the day. Companies’ social and ethical responsibilities include investing in research and technology to come up with better packaging methods. One of the most viable options is to use packaging that can be easily recycled. Washable and refillable containers can be used to encourage customers carry their own packaging bottles from home.

Recycling is considered the most environmentally friendly option for managing waste. This is because a good waste management method is one that must create sustainability. Each country today is doing all they can to ensure environmental efficiency is achieved. Recycling is also a viable and effective way of managing different types of waste for such as gas, liquid and solid waste. It involves collection and reuse of already used materials. The result is a minimized volume of waste at the municipal level.

It is estimated that if radical measures are not taken, many resources will be depleted in the future. Recycling proves a good alternative to ensure a more secure future in terms of resources. Recycling has allowed many nations reduce their energy consumption by reducing demand for new plastic and metal products. It has also helped minimize the number of landfills and incineration facilities, methods that have damaging effects to the environment.

This research project has helped me understand recycling as a waste management method, inventory management and the legal aspects of the topic. It has also been helpful in understanding different waste management solutions, their benefits and challenges. These solutions include recycling, landfills, incineration and decomposition. Recycling plastics and metals at home will reduce the amount of garbage countries have to deal with. Used plastics are now used in homes for storage purposes and are becoming a favorite for many decor specialists. The biggest challenges in dealing with waste so far has been consumer education. Consumers should also be advised to buy products packaged in recycled plastics and metal products. Through this project, I learnt that several shops now deduct a certain amount of money for products in large plastic and metal containers refundable as soon as customers return them to the shops. This has resulted in a minimized amount of waste accumulated in homes and municipal damp sites. Beverage and alcohol producing companies have been on the forefront in implementing this strategy.

During this research project, I also learnt about how as an individual I can manage the environment around me. I learnt about carbon footprints, which can be used to measure the amount of carbon emissions to the atmosphere as a result of our activities and waste management at home. By measuring and being aware of my carbon emissions, I am not only able to minimize it but am also able to educate the people around me about the same. Being cautious of carbon emissions includes being able to ask oneself questions any time there is an environmental concern over any decision. Simple examples include evaluating whether it is really important to buy a new water tank when the current one is leaking instead of repairing it.

When offloading or loading a truck of all the waste we collect at home, it is amazing how much carbon gases are emitted to the environment in such a short duration of time. At the same time, the energy wasted has an effect on natural resources where energy is from. It is by taking note of such actions and being constantly aware of how much difference my actions can make that I will be able to make my contributions to the environment.

To achieve this, it starts with small steps such as taking a pen and paper and noting the areas of my life directly affecting the environment. My project was an eye opener of how much waste we collect in one homestead and country, and how we can minimize that by recycling. Each one of us can make a contribution in their own simple ways and by sharing the information, I will be able to influence more people to care about the environment which is a contribution on its own.

Waste collection activities offer a big business opportunity for the world today. Recycling and other waste management methods offer a big business opportunity to investors today. Metal waste is cleaned and sold for recycling. Due to its light weight and availability, plastic can be recycled or processed to make different products. Plastics can be recovered on a primary or secondary level. Primary recovery is made up of clean wastes in the factories such as side materials while secondary recovery is the collection of used plastics (Hinrichsen, 2010).

Research and development of degradable plastics is taking shape in many countries across the globe. Degradable plastics will minimize demand for landfills and incineration services. The most important and urgent step right now is environmental education. Many people don’t know where to take their waste and end up damping it in their gardens or burning it. In cities where waste collection measures are not in place, littering and burning is common. The results are huge volumes of gas emissions to the atmosphere and waste of materials that should have been recycled.

Many countries such as the United States have put in place measures to ensure that environmentally friendly waste management methods such as recycling are implemented. It is for these reason that more than half of plastic and metal waste in developed countries is recycled today. As the fight for sustainable development continues, so does research on how more waste can be reused to minimize waste of resources. New technological innovations today also make it easy to recycle and reuse plastic and metal waste to make other products.

Watching the trends of energy consumption and demands today, it is obvious that the world needs to think in the renewable direction if sustainable development has to be achieved. Recycling is one such alternative and although we cannot recycle everything, we can recycle as much as is possible and make a difference. Environmental movements must be fully engaged in introducing people to environmental concerns at the grassroots level if options such as recycling have to work. Recycling takes less energy and resources than making new products.

Recycling will save many regions other negative effects that arise from plastic and metal waste. Plastic and metal production processes also come with major negative effects such as use of large volumes of water, acid rains and exposure to harmful raw materials. Other practical ideas towards protecting the environment from plastic and metal waste include increased local participation in environmental projects like community litter collection activities. Participating in local education programs and other environmentally friendly activities creates avenues for the locals to share ideas and motivate each other on keeping away from destructive practices that easily destroy the environment.

On a national and industrial level, the above mentioned practices can be easily adopted and grassroots environmental movements should be directly involved in ensuring that necessary rules are put in place to see companies behaving responsibly towards the environment to save locals from the negative effects. At the same time recycling and other waste management practices should be implemented by putting pressure on the government to put in place enough regulations that allow for compulsory company audits and processes. Enough should be done to sensitize companies and organizations on the need to preserve and diligently take care of the environment by recycling.

Reference list

Hinrichsen, D. (2010). Population and the environment: The global challenge. Web.

Mason, M. (2009). Waste management in the middle east: Enhancing environmental development through regional corporation. Dordrecht: Springer.

National Environmental Policy Act (2010). Federal Agency NEPA procedures. Web.

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