The relationship between the rise of human security and the rise of human rights plays an important role in the creation of safe international and interpersonal relations. There are many profit and non-profit organizations, the goal of which is to underline the importance of human security and rights and involve as many world leaders to this discussion as possible. Such concepts as peacekeeping and peacebuilding are defined as the components of human security at the national and international levels that challenge the existing system and recognize the role of authority or great powers. The Responsibility to Protect report defined humanitarian interventions as responsibilities rather than rights to prevent abuse, establish clear rules, and define criteria (Tadjbakhsh and Chenoy 191). This essay investigates the role of peacekeeping, peacebuilding, and humanitarian interventions to prove the connection between human security and human rights in modern society through the promotion of trustful relationships, respect, and determination.
The Rise of Human Security and Human Rights
The rise of human security concepts was observed at the end of the Cold War when certain political changes occurred around the globe and defined evidence leaders and great powers. To predict violation of freedoms and rights, Newman defined human security as normative with “an ethical responsibility to re-orient security around the individual in line with internationally recognised standards of human rights and governance” (78). In addition, the human rights-based approach was recognized as one of the conceptions in human security (Behringer 13). International institutions played a critical role in the establishment of national standards and practices of human security at global and regional levels. It was expected that reformed legal systems would harmonize human rights and institutionalize law (Behringer 13). The relationship between these two terms was clear, and states had to create forces and institutions to help people build their interests and promote safety.
Peacekeeping, Peacebuilding, and Humanitarian Intervention
The evaluation of the relationships between human security and human rights is based on the analysis of peacebuilding and peacekeeping activities. The international community focuses much attention on the risks of humanitarian crisis or terrorism (Tadjbakhsh and Chenoy 160). Unfortunately, not all countries have access to the necessary resources, and the assistance of rich countries is required. The main efforts are directed to the protection of human rights, epidemics’ prevention, and avoidance of disasters. Tadjbakhsh and Chenoy call these efforts as peacebuilding ones and define them as a “long-term process that occurs after a violent conflict has slowed down or come to a halt” (160). A number of groups are created with specific diplomatic purposes to resolve a conflict between parties and organize a dialogue in terms of which a peace agreement is reached.
As soon as the first steps to building peace are made, parties should think about how to keep safe relationships. Peacekeeping is required to “assist transition from violence to peace by separating the fighting parties and keeping them apart” (Tadjbakhsh and Chenoy 161). According to Behringer, peacekeeping origins have nothing in common with the activities of the United Nations (UN) (30). However, the definitions offered by this organization helps to recognize a true essence of peacekeeping as “an operation involving military personnel, but without enforcement powers…to help maintain or restore international peace and security in areas of conflict” (as cited in Behringer 30). Peacekeeping operations, as well as different humanitarian interventions, maintain security without military forces (Andersen-Rodgers and Crawford 146). Respect for human rights, justice, and progress might account for trends toward peacebuilding and peacekeeping.
Humanitarian intervention is another important concept for keeping a balance between human security, human rights, and peacekeeping without military forces. The UN representatives use humanitarian intervention as a type of military operation with the purpose of revealing “ongoing human suffering of people living in conflict zones or areas affected by natural disasters” (Andersen-Rodgers and Crawford 100). It is important to underline the word “intervention” as it explains the nature of interference when no consent of conflict parties is obtained, and sovereign norms are not followed.
To find an excuse for humanitarian intervention and justify the chosen grounds, international organizations develop several doctrines and approaches. Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is an intervention that imposes obligations to protect citizens against a certain group of crimes like genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity (Andersen-Rodgers and Crawford 103). There are two more pillars of this doctrine that proves the importance of human rights in human security. They include the responsibilities of the international community to assist others in their intentions to protect citizens and to take action when a state refuses or cannot fulfill its protection responsibility (Andersen-Rodgers and Crawford 104). The R2T intervention shows that human security promotes safety and peace not as a matter of state interests but a common interest of the international community (great power) in the modern context of international politics.
The Role of States in Seeking Justice
At the same time, it is wrong to believe that state interests have nothing in common with humanitarian interests. Peou supported realists who believed that national governments may spend fewer resources on humanitarian needs but far more on citizens’ needs (110). Therefore, by identifying and protecting vulnerable people, states realize how helpful peacekeeping or justice could be in creating forces to help and support people. If there are serious violations of human rights, governments address great powers and investigate all types of threats to come up with a working alternative. Although it is not easy to seek justice, respect human rights, and promote human security, national governments and state demonstrate their readiness to cooperate with the UN, use R2T doctrines, and keep the peace.
In general, states and the international community face many challenges in their intentions to recognize the relations between human rights and human security. Many researchers and theories contributed to the development of strong concepts and doctrines like peacekeeping, peacebuilding, and human interventions. However, the impossibility to make all the countries accept the same standards and values cannot be ignored. There will always be weak countries and great powers, and it is a unique responsibility of every person to keep peace, support justice, and respect the world around.
Andersen-Rodgers, David, and Kerry F. Crawford. Human Security: Theory and Action. Rowman and Littlefield, 2018.
Behringer, Ronald. The Human Security Agenda: How Middle Power Leadership Defied US Hegemony. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2012.
Newman, Edward. “Critical Human Security Studies.” Review of International Studies, vol. 36, no. 1, 2010, pp. 77-94.
Peou, Sorpong. Human Security Studies: Theories, Methods and Themes. World Scientific Publishing, 2014.
Tadjbakhsh, Shahrbanou, and Anuradha Chenoy. Human Security: Concepts and Implications. Routledge, 2007.