Stress Management Methods and Their Effectiveness


Managing job stress at the workplace poses challenges to the employees and their employers in the current places of work. The employees undergoing job stress are not likely to perform their tasks effectively thereby lowering the total output of the organization. The poor working conditions, too much workload on an employee, and even the risks associated with the decision-making processes in a given organization are some of the factors that lead to job stress. The level of satisfaction that an employee derives from the job affects the performance of the employee (Rehman & Waheed, 2011, p.6). In effect, certain procedures have been applied to help in managing job stress and depression. One of the methods that can be used is psychotherapy by a clinical and counseling psychologist.. Another approach could be to have the employees share their experiences. The research is intended to investigate the effectiveness of these methods of managing stress. It investigates the various approaches that have been applied by many employees in managing job stress and depression and the identification of the most appropriate approach to be used.

An experimental design refers to how a set of data on some facts is collected for the experiment (Miller, 2006, p.3). The experimental designs are used by researchers in various research organizations and learning institutions to study the behavior of individuals in certain situations, the emotional developments among individuals, as well as how these behaviors affect the relationship an individual develops with the others in the society. In experimental designs, a researcher subjects the objects under study to different kinds of treatment and observes the effects of the different treatments. The same analogy applies to the study of psychology. The different environments that shape the behavior of an individual are similar to the different kinds of treatment given to these groups of individuals.

Sample description and method of selection

The sample consists of thirty employees that are to be drawn from different sectors of the economy. The experiment is to be conducted with the assistance of the respective line managers in the selected organizations. Five different types of organizations were chosen for the experiment. Six employees were selected from the employees in various organizations. The selection was done with the information from the managers on the suggestions that the individuals in the sample were undergoing some stress at the respective places of work.

The chosen experimental design and reason for choosing it

Different kinds of experimental designs can be used in studying the effects of different kinds of treatment. The simplest one consists of dividing the subjects of an experiment into two different groups and subjecting one group to some experimental treatment and leaving the other group as a control experiment. These are termed as experimental and control conditions respectively (Sani, Todman, & Todman, 2006, p.12). This is simple and investigates the effect between the groups. Another design will involve examining the effects that arise within the individual groups that have been given the same treatment. Also, another design would include yet a third grouping category. There are other experimental designs like the Quasi-experimental design that investigates the effects of various combinations of treatments (Sani, Todman, & Todman, 2006, p.16). It is important to note that the more information we seek to obtain through forming treatment groups, blocks, rows, or columns, the more expensive and time consuming an experimental design will be.

In designing an experiment, the researcher needs to have an underlying theory whose validity he wishes to establish (Sani, Todman & Todman, 2006, p.3). Two variables, independent and dependent variables, will be used followed by the development of a test hypothesis. There are, however, sources of biasness that need to be considered in performing the experiments and that may be solved through effective experimental design. Some differences are observed between the experimental groups. The experimenter can eliminate this bias through randomization whereby the subjects are selected based on chance. The subjects under study may also have a clue on the study and influence the results. Manipulation can also be performed by the experimenter. These are avoided by covering the purpose of the research to the experimenter and the subject. Besides, the single experimental results may not be valid. It is, therefore, necessary to replicate the experimental treatment several times to obtain a valid result.

The simplest experimental design of a treatment category and control group was used for this experiment. To improve the validity and consistency of the result, the experiment was replicated fifteen times, that is, each of the groups had fifteen individuals subjected to the same treatment. The design was chosen because of its simplicity and cost-effectiveness. The subjects in this experiment are divided into two different categories A, and B with fifteen individuals each. The individuals in the first category will not be subjected to any corrective measure for managing stress. They will act as the control of the experiment. The individuals in the second group will be subjected to group involvement with a psychotherapist. This first phase of the experiment will be continued for one month.

Dependent measures and other variables that are to be measured in the study

The frequency with which these employees accomplish their tasks, frequency of occurrences of discomfort symptoms like fatigue or insomnia, and how they relate with the others shall be recorded at the beginning of the experiment. After one month, a report shall be sought from the line managers concerning some of the effects that have been experienced in employee behavior and performance. In particular, the question shall seek to obtain the number of tasks that are now completed on time by the employees and the change in social life.

An experiment has to be associated with a formal statement of a hypothesis (Sani, Todman & Todman, 2006, p.6). As has been stated, the experiment shall be attempting to validate a theory that psychotherapy can help manage stress. This shall be stated as the hypothesis of the study.

Theoretical reasons for the measures

The symptoms of job stress in individuals can be seen in different ways. The individuals experience headaches, hypertension, and lack of concentration (Williams, 2003, para.20). They exhibit a general state of mental unrest. Lack of concentration and a constant feeling of bad bodily conditions reflects on the performance of the individual at the work place. It also negatively impacts an individual’s social life. In this respect, the performance of an individual performance especially when compared with the previous performance is a good indication of stress at the workplace. An unexplained sudden change in an individual’s social life is also an indication of stress or stress management.

Expected outcomes of the research

Managing stress and depression is a challenge for many individuals in their work places. However, through the use of psychotherapy, stress can effectively be managed. The experiment is expected to ascertain that the use of a psychologist is an effective way of managing the job stress and depression that are witnessed in the workplace. It is expected that the employees that are subjected the psychological treatment shall demonstrate an improvement in their ability to accomplish the tasks in time. They will be expected to have an improved social life. On the other hand, their counterparts in the control group are expected to have the worse performance at work. Their social life at the workplace and even within the family is expected to worsen.


Miller, S. (2006). Experimental Design and Statistics. Second edition. London: Routledge. Web.

Rehman, M., and Waheed, A. (2011). An Empirical Study of Impact of Job Satisfaction on Job Performance in the Public Sector Organizations. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(9), 167-181. Web.

Sani, F., Todman, J., and Todman, J. (2006). Experimental design and statistics for psychology: a first course. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell. Web.

Williams, N. (2003). Occupational Stress. Practice Nurse, 26(7), 21-24. Web.

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