In today’s world, every organisation aspires to be ahead of the competition in terms of performance, profitability, and customer satisfaction. To achieve this, technology systems are developed to meet the various needs and goals of the business. An organisation undertakes this to remain ahead of its rivals. Information systems affect various firms in different sectors (Alter, 2013). Such sectors include farming, pharmaceutical, and information and technology.
In this paper, the author will analyse how system development and project administration affect the management of information technology systems in a firm. A critical analysis of this issue reveals that system development and project management have a significant impact on information technology systems. To this end, the author will analyse the role of information systems technology in business entities.
The topic addressed in this paper is justified, given that technology is one of the requirements that should be met for an organisation to operate effectively. Consequently, computers and their numerous functions are a key component with regards to the productivity and competitiveness of an entity (Alter, 2013). Many tasks in the modern world are undertaken with the help of technological advancements. With regards to this, the role of these technologies and their contributions in the business arena are discussed in this paper.
The Impacts of Systems Development and Project Management on Information Systems Technology Administration
Systems Development and Information Technology Management
Technology is influenced by the software designed to support it. Each of these networks has its purposes. The technology enhances innovation that takes place over time. As a result, organisations are able to solve various problems affecting their operations. In addition, they create job opportunities for large numbers of people working for them. The systems should meet the needs of both organisations and employees.
To this end, they should comprehensively address the business and societal demands (Guana & Correal, 2013). An example is the case of technology in banking. Here, the software used should be fast enough to enable the cashier to record transactions and view the accounts of the customer in a timely manner. The same software may also assist customers to make cash payments and withdrawals without delays. As such, the systems are expected to support the functions of the organisation. At the same time, they should solve the problems experienced (Boonstra, 2013).
Systems development takes place in stages. The first is planning. It involves the establishment of the intended project and its life cycle. Analysis of the software’s compatibility and its merits and demerits follows. The third is the design stage. Here, the properties of the software are mapped out (Boonstra, 2013). Development of the actual software then follows. The other stage is testing. It consists of piloting the software to determine its response to the task provided. Testing is followed by implementation. The last stage is maintenance (Boonstra, 2013).
In today’s world, managers need fast and efficient systems to execute internal and external levels of production. However, this is not always the case given the complex nature of the structure adopted by many firms (Baltzan, Detlor & Welsh, 2012). The sale price should be taken into consideration when developing a system. To this end, the management should ensure that the costs incurred in the process are reduced in order to increase profits.
A report by the Standish Group highlights the importance of small-sized software and systems (Baltzan et al., 2012). According to the report, a small project has higher chances of succeeding compared to a large one. An iterative approach is recommended for such undertakings. It mainly consists of a series of small projects that form multiple agile methodology approaches. The latter include Crystal and XP [Extreme Programming] (Jessup & Valacich, 2008). The methodology aims for customer satisfaction and high-quality software.
Rapid application is another model for systems development. It uses a prototype designed for a small scale representation (Jessup & Valacich, 2008). An example includes designing software that enables customers to pay for swimming lessons online instead of physically filling in the form at the school. Such software is convenient for the school administration as it reduces congestion. It is also an efficient way of recordkeeping. The students are able to access the payment and registration details at the convenience of their homes.
The rational unified methodology is another strategy. It is owned by IBM. It breaks down the development of software into stages. The phases are referred to as gates. Each consists of executable iterations of the software being developed. It stays in the given gate until the stakeholders are satisfied. After that, it moves to the next stage or gets cancelled if it is not satisfactory (Jessup & Valacich, 2008).
An organisation may outsource software development. It may also decide to develop it in-house. When this happens, the end-users develop their technology. The end product performs multiple tasks, which saves the organisation time. As such, it promotes efficiency in the work environment. Some of the advantages associated with in-house development include a sense of ownership and fast actualisation of the project since the developer is the end-user (Boonstra, 2013). The major disadvantages include possible lack of expertise among employees, distractions, and the absence of alternative analysis.
For self-sourcing to succeed, the developers should eliminate any software that does not meet the expectations of the business. The process is referred to as triage. The requirements should be kept to a minimum. The aim is to regulate scope and feature creep. The former occurs when the scope of the software increases. The latter is noted when extra features are included (Jessup & Valacich, 2008).
The software developed helps businesses in the advertisement, sales, and recordkeeping. Transparency and security are taken into consideration for confidentiality purposes. In cases where accuracy at the development stage is not attained, losses may occur. In addition, the company may lose the goodwill of stakeholders, risk dissolution of partnerships, and damage its brand (Guana & Correal, 2013).
Project Management and Information Systems Technology
Project management entails making intelligent decisions. It strikes a balance between time, scope, and costs of projects. It involves the management of resources, changes, communication, and technology (Jessup & Valacich, 2008). It also entails systems development and management of organisational transformations. When selecting projects to work on, organisations should engage in prioritisation and elimination at the initial stage. At times, the management may opt to venture into a project with high risks and low returns. In such cases, capital structure may be compromised. Low earnings will also be experienced.
Project management is closely linked to information systems technology. To this end, the development of the technology may be taken as a project that needs to be managed. After the initial stages, a plan is selected, and a project manager identified.
Each plan involves two key components. They include a project charter and plan. The former authorises the existence of an investment. It gives the project manager authority to use the organisational resources to execute the tasks identified (Baltzan et al., 2012). A plan, on the other hand, approves execution, handling, and control of the undertaking. Its main objectives are to facilitate communication, manage cost, and support decision making (Jyhjong, 2010).
The project manager utilises such resources as people, money, time and machinery. Communication should be properly handled as it supports the establishment of a hospitable working environment. It may include the exchange of emails between the management and employees (Guana & Correal, 2013). To this end, effective project management enhances the quality of technology systems in the firm. Change occurs regularly, and organisations should be flexible enough to accommodate it (Boonstra, 2013). Such changes include the adoption of technology systems. Project management can be used to handle the situation effectively (Jyhjong, 2010).
The worth of a given project should be evaluated. The assessment takes into consideration risks and returns in the short term and long term. If the need arises, outsourcing should also be taken into consideration (Alter, 2013). It may include using expertise from other organisations and factoring in the costs incurred and the duration taken to accomplish the task. Businesses use basic computer systems to determine pay rates. Recordkeeping and inventory of resources are updated using accessible files edited in information systems. The files are then backed up for retrieval in the future.
Development and management of systems and project support administration of information technology in an organisation. Businesses need to select their software developers and their systems properly to promote efficient and effective production processes. The changes implemented should be flexible enough to meet the evolving needs of the business. Studies show that systems technology contributes significantly to the growth and management of organisations. As such, the technology can be used to solve the challenges facing modern businesses.
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Jessup, L., & Valacich, J. (2008). Information systems today (3rd ed.). London: Pearson Publishing.
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