Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand teacher perceptions about what factors influenced or held them from adopting and integrating new media technologies into their curriculum. The researcher interviewed twenty-five educators to record their views during focus group discussions and took field notes to collect data for this study. Based on collected data analysis this qualitative study revealed the new media technologies that are used, and what factors may have influenced or limited high school teachers from adopting new media technologies in modern teaching. The study aimed to provide educators’ insight into planning a new standards-based curriculum with technology.
While the use of new media technologies is helpful when deployed in classrooms to support classroom instruction, a substantial number of teachers still find it quite challenging to adopt and integrate new media technologies in teaching. Therefore, it is reasonably important to establish the mechanisms of determining the level at which new media technologies can be integrated into a learning environment and whether it can improve the teaching abilities of the teachers because new media technologies are finding elaborate use in education. The study looks at factors playing a central role in influencing the adoption of new media technologies in high school teaching. The research is based on the case study of a school district located in the central valley, California.
The research uses a case study methodology, which is critical in providing evidence-based outcomes on the modalities of adopting new media technology in high schools (Yin, 1994). Yin (1994) suggests that case studies can be used to explain, describe or explore events or phenomena in the everyday contexts in which they occur. The case study approach lends itself well to capturing information on ‘how‘, ‘what’ and ‘why‘ questions. The use of multiple sources of data (data triangulation) has been advocated as a way of increasing the internal validity of a study.
Denzin and Lincoln (2011) and Thomas (2011) suggest that a case study is an increasingly popular approach among experienced qualitative researchers. Case study research has a level of flexibility that is not readily offered by other qualitative approaches such as grounded theory or phenomenology. This research provides findings in line with Snider’s (2010), where numbers impress; yet they also conceal far more than they disclose. This study follows Davis’s (2007) observation that good qualitative research equaled, if not exceeding, quantitative research in status, significance, and procedural rigor” (p. 574).
A case study research design was chosen for the proposed study based on the observation by Cohen, Manion, and Morrison (2011), who noted that case studies help educational evaluators to make empirical evaluations based on other visible attributes in research, which increase the range of data collection. The investigation of new media technology adoption in the research revolves around three research questions, one overarching question, and ten interview questions and focus group questions (see appendix) that fall under the three research questions. The overarching question is to explore what factors motivate or limit teachers from adopting new media technologies in high school teaching.
- R1. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how are they integrated into daily instruction?
- R2. How do teachers report how training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?
- R3. How do teachers designate new media technologies and existing relationships to Common Core State Standards (CCSS)?
The first research question investigates the perceptions of the teachers about new technology deployment in daily instruction. The second research question investigates how training and administrative support, motivate or hold teachers in incapacitating challenges of new media technology adoption in the modern learning environment. The third research question finds out how teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core Standards. This question digs deeper into the different attributes of new media and the way they can influence modern learning based on common core standards from the perspective of instructing and acquiring instructions. Of greater essence in the first research, the question is the unearthing of the challenges of new media technology adoption teachers may be facing in the high school learning environment.
This section of the study is quite important in the research as it carries out the synthesis of the data collected and presents the outcomes of the research. This part of the research presents a summary and an additional analysis of the data following research methods and the sampling techniques deployed in the research to derive outcomes that answers to the research questions. In summary, the chapter describes the data collected by categorizing the data into distinct groups for the ease of analysis and understanding. A description of the school district offers general insight into the diverse aspects of new media technology adoption and integration in some California high schools. The description is in terms of the real school set up and the tendencies of new media technology adoption in high schools. Different categories of qualitative data, collected through interviews, focus group discussion and help in deriving the results of the study.
This section provides a narrative summary of the population characteristics and demographics of the participants in the study. It establishes the number of subjects, education level, a subject they teach, and some other sample characteristics. The use of graphic organizers, such as tables to provide further clarification and promote readability is utilized to organize and present coded data.
This research study was conducted based on Ajzen’s (1988) theory of planned behavior (TPB) which in this study identifies teachers’ deliberate behavior and also the behavior they can plan to adopt or limit adoption of new media technologies in teaching. One of the major strengths of the theory of planned behavior is that it is widely applicable to a variety of behaviors in different contexts, including diverse areas such as health communications, environmental concerns, and, more recently, technology adoption (Ajzen, 2011). The relation of Ajzen’s (1987) TPB to this study is evident as the research question one (R1) addresses the teacher perceptions towards the adoption of new media technologies in educational settings.
The study was conducted in one phase. Twenty-five participating administrators and teachers were interviewed to investigate their perceptions on the adoption and integration of new media technologies at four high schools in a school district in Central Valley, California. Face to face, interviews, focus group discussion and field notes helped in finding some factors limiting or facilitating the adoption of new media technologies. All participants provided in-depth information.
All the participants provided information in the supportive aspect, where they provided information about the factors that support the adoption of new media technologies in high school teaching. The teachers also shared their perspective, ideas, experiences, and information about the factors that possibly limit them from adopting new media. The study shows that new media technology adoption in four high schools has reached a satisfying level or if there are still limitations and technical hitches when it comes to new media technology adoption and its integration in common core state standards-based curriculum, teaching technologies in high school teaching. The next section presents the findings of this study.
Description of the school district in Central Valley, California
The school district used in the study was established in the year 1997 in the Central Valley, California with elementary schools, middle schools and high schools with a mission to provide K-12 education to all the students. Since its establishment, the school district has been proactive in responding to the learning and teaching needs of the students and teachers by introducing new courses and programs of study that target the felt needs of state and federal standards of education. Associated with this approach has been flexibility in trying out new things, of which computer technologies and tools are employed. The discussion covers technology adoption in education institutions. It is also a pointer to new media technology integration in high school teaching.
The school district took a leading role in introducing and adopting new technologies for the teachers during its early stages of operation. Owing to increased support through state and federal funds, a substantial number of schools in the central valley, California, were provided with more efficient computer devices and other technological tools to support modern K-12 teaching and learning. A new laptop or computer was issued to all the teachers, as well as most administrators in the school district. Before this development, some teachers and staff shared or used the library or office computers and printers for internet access and printing.
From the year 2006, internet provision was extended to the classrooms. Wireless internet technology installed in the offices, as well as classrooms, has improved the network speed. This is how participating administrators and the district technology report describe the electronic technology’s progress at the district office and schools. From the year 1999, schools started with a dial-up connection and they did not have a complete Local Area Network. In 2004-05 technology improved and the district extended the local area network to the classrooms. In 2006, the district upgraded the downlink bandwidth to one Meg and the network too was extended to wireless in some schools.
In 2006, most schools received computers for the teachers and students depending on the school’s budget. Bigger and more developed high schools could afford more computers and other technologies. Then the main problem was the performance of computers. According to responses, all the computers became outdated and slow within two years (A2, 2014). Some teachers used Internet resources and PowerPoint presentations for teaching. The following is an integrated report of the results of the data collection procedure. This report section describes participants and then discusses findings related to the research questions used in this exploration.
Description of interviewed participants
In seeking to draw data that described participants, several questions were asked requiring them to indicate their gender, age category, the highest degree they had attained, and what subjects they taught. Other descriptive information included several years they had taught at school or worked at the district, courses they taught in a semester or year, average student population they taught, and most importantly the level of experience in using technology.
Gender: All the participants used technology but some teachers used more new media technologies than other teachers.
Data analysis procedures:
Age: 22 teachers and 3 administrators participated in the interview. There were 68% of females and 32% males. Most participants were in the 36 to 45 and 46-55 age category. The rest of the participants were in the 56-65 age category.
Highest degree held: All the participants responded to this item. All participants had a bachelor’s degree and a teaching credential. Twenty-eight percent of participants had a bachelor’s degree. Some teachers taught more than one subject (multiple certifications). Some participants also had a master’s degree (56%) and multiple certifications or administrative credentials. Four participants (16%) had a doctorate.
Position: About the position held, teachers accounted for the largest proportion of the participants at (84.0%) followed by school and district administrators. All teachers hold a bachelor’s degree or higher degree and single and/or a multiple subject teaching credential considered necessary for teaching at high schools, while administrators also need a master’s degree and administration credential. Very few educators (16%) attained doctoral level degrees.
Several years of teaching or working as an administrator: This item asked participants to provide information concerning the number of years they had taught at present High school or worked at an administrative position. All participants provided an answer to this question. Participants who had taught for three to five years were less represented by the participants accounting for 16%, followed by most highly representing 40% those who reported teaching or held administrative positions for six to ten years. Participants who had taught or were administrators for eleven to fifteen years represented the highest percentage in the study’s respondents with a total of 44 percent.
Several teaching hours per week: Participants were asked to indicate the number of classes or work hours they were teaching or working in a week. All participants provided information for this item. All participants were generally teaching except three administrators; they informed that they worked forty hours or more every week.
Students per Class: Respondents indicated the typical number of students they were teaching for every class. There were 22 participants with responses to this item because three participants were involved in administrative duties. Exactly, 49.5% of the participants taught an average of 27-32 students in their classes followed by teachers who taught 20-26 students, 45%, followed by one teacher who taught 10-19 students, 4.5%.
Description of Interviewees
There were 25 participants interviewed. Of these, 22 were teachers and three were administrators. The number of years these participants had spent teaching or administrating ranged from three to 30 years. Two longest-serving participants had served for over thirty years. One of the teachers had served for only three years. This variation helped get a range of perspectives concerning the adoption of technology in the high schools over a wider range of time. Some teachers had served for as long as their schools had been in operation. Teachers came from different departments from four different high schools, and two participants represented the district administration.
This section presents the findings of the study as they relate to the three research questions. Research questions were read to all the participants first, followed by a short description of how their response and experience would help teachers in adopting or not limiting new media technologies in teaching. In this case study, the presentation of results from the interviews, focus group discussion, and field notes were noted and transcribed. Data collection used individual interviews and focus group discussions of teachers and administrators from sampled high schools.
Based on the findings of the research by Kohlbacher (2006), the analysis of the data in this qualitative research is based more on the content of the responses, rather than the quantity of the data. In a similar sense, the model of analysis in this study is based on the works of Zucker (2009) on qualitative research, which reiterates research questions in the study as the reference point for the synthesis of the data that is collected. The study concentrates on identifying how the data that is observed and collected influences outcomes and contributes to theory. As such, meaning from the vast amount of qualitative data can only be derived through the sampling of responses according to the questions that guide the research. As a result, data from this research represent links, explains, questions and highlight theoretical and observed phenomena of the teachers studied, the tools described and their relation to the theory of planned behavior.
R1. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how they are integrated into daily instruction?
The first research question sought to determine educator perceptions about new technologies adopted and integrated into teaching. It was noted, during interviews and from focus group discussions with the teachers in all the four sample high schools, that they had desktop computers and laptops connected to school district internet network. Technology is a major contributing factor in modern education. For this reason, all twenty-two teachers and the administrators had at least one computer or laptop in their room connected to the Internet. The administrator had this to say concerning some old computers with Windows XP or those computers that did not have enough hard drive and memory to work with Windows 8.1 new media software, printers, and wireless LCD projectors:
- Most dated computers have been either updated or e-wasted.
- California has adopted Common Core State Standards so state and federal governments have allotted money to all the school districts, starting the 2012 school year. Hence, this school district has set aside some money for technology upgrades and new devices for teachers and students.
- New laptops and tablets have been purchased and issued to all educators.
- New laptops have also been purchased for student use so that they can learn and practice web-based learning and online testing.
- All schools are all getting some major new technology updates and several new devices for some classrooms and computer labs.
- Computer labs in all the schools are being updated and made functional for new devices. The intention is to have teachers and students use new media technologies for teaching and testing.
Sixteen participating teachers said they use one or more new media technologies. These include Edmodo, Dropbox, OneNote, Wikis, sites used for online research in teaching from time to time. Four teachers said they have tried some new technologies sometimes in their teaching, and two veteran teachers with over 15 years of teaching experience said they are not very interested in trying any more new technology in teaching because they are comfortable with their existing lesson plans. These teachers wanted to continue to use PowerPoint and whiteboard and did not want to redo their lesson plans and labs for teaching classes.
Group discussions and the answer to research question one (R1) will enable teachers to learn and understand the importance and effective uses of new media technologies. The answer will also suggest ideas on how teachers plan curriculum based on Common Core Standards and integrate new media technologies into teaching. The discussion and data may motivate participants to better understand and align the current curriculum to Common Core Standards, which is a shift from teacher-centered learning to real life, more hands-on student-centered learning.
The high number of participating teachers who clarified that they were using the tools provided for teaching because of technological updates provides evidence for Common Core Standards. Another example comes from the mention of a district-wide allocation of funds to schools for the upgrade of computer equipment. This is another indication of a standardized approach to presenting education gains to stakeholders. Moreover, teachers appear to have embraced the new technology because of their ability to deliver the results that they want. On the other hand, those expressing reservations about using new tools explain that they are comfortable with their existing PowerPoint tools and lesson plans. This example serves as an indication of the need to provide an appropriate incentive for teachers to catch up with technology rather than just assume that presence will influence behavior change. In this case, teachers adopting the new technologies and equipment end up fulfilling the intention of Common Core Standards because they intend to deliver the best education to students. Meanwhile, those who do not already see themselves as providing the best education with current tools. Thus, going with the theory of planned behavior, the teacher’s attitudes help to predict their behavior towards the introduction of new teaching technology and equipment.
R2. How do teachers report training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?
Literature and research findings and participants’ answers to research question two (R2) suggest possible examples and solutions to the training opportunities and administrative support influence the integration of new media technologies into their teaching. The discussion and data may motivate administrators to schedule training to help teachers understand and align new curriculum to Common Core Standards, which is a shift from teacher-centered learning to real life, more hands-on student-centered learning. The training, research, and teacher’s perceptions and focus group discussion answers may also help teachers to learn how to collaborate to learn to integrate new media technologies and use them in teaching.
The theory of planned behavior assumes that a person’s intention will help predict the behavior pattern with greater accuracy (Ajzen, 1991). The researcher found some behavioral intentions through structured open-ended face-to-face individual interviews and focus group discussions with the participants and by taking field notes. Therefore, interview answers suggest how professional training and administrative support and collaboration support influence or limit the adoption of new media technologies in teaching. An example of the questions used by the researcher was to ask teachers their take on the introduction of new technologies and upgrade of old computers in their schools. The researcher sought to find out whether the teachers harbored any attitude towards the changes and how that affected their behavior. Results revealed that many of the teachers who took up the new technologies or opportunities for teaching that were provided by new technologies are the ones that had good intentions about improving their teaching experience. They were open to changes created by the upgrading of computer systems and the connection of schools to the district internet.
R3. How do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core Standards?
The third research question investigated to what extent high schools can use new media technologies to support common core standards. The interview protocol for the teachers, questions through focus group discussion two addressed this research question. An overview of results from the interviews indicated that most teachers had adopted one or more new media technologies such as Edmodo, Dropbox, OneNote, and sites for online research at all four high schools. Some teachers used new media technologies at a greater frequency than the rest. In soliciting data that responded to the third research question, participating teachers were asked to indicate their experience with any new media technologies using the descriptive range of new-user, novice, and average. Fourteen participating teachers described themselves as having high average proficiency, followed by those who described themselves as average as far as adoption and integration of new media technologies was concerned. Six participants described themselves as novice as far as new media technology proficiency was concerned.
Two participants, one male and one female veteran teacher with over 15 years of teaching were the least users of new media technologies. Interview results shared similarities with those obtained from the focus group discussions. Of the ten teachers who participated in the focus group discussion, five reported having low to average proficiency in using the new technology devices. Five participants indicated that they had high proficiency. Mostly the average or novice users had basic to average computer skills, like exploring the Internet, using PowerPoint, document camera, TV, online videos, e-mails, texting, and some Microsoft Office applications.
The collected data also provided ideas about administrators’ collaboration with teachers to adopt, integrate and use new media technologies in Common Core State Standards-based curricula. The three research questions were appropriately framed to narrow the gap in the literature and learn teacher perceptions of what factors limited or motivated them to adopt new media technologies in some California high schools. The three research questions also found some added information about different new media technologies already used in modern teaching daily.
The literature on high school teachers has explored their beliefs about teaching and learning, their attitudes toward technology, and the obstacles they perceive in integrating technology. Some teachers claimed that their educational beliefs about teaching and learning, about students, about pedagogy, and the role of technology strongly influenced their decision to integrate new media technologies. Some teachers perceived that new media technology integrated learning made students’ learning more dynamic and active. All participants also believed that the technological environment and new standards had inspired and required them to change their role from knowledge dispensers to facilitators.
Although most participating teachers emphasized the benefits of technology, the attitudes of a math teacher and an English teacher were different because initially, they feared that using new devices and new media technologies would make their students more dependent on technology and limit basic math concepts. Soon these teachers found that students were more excited to use new devices and new media technologies for quick results. Teachers also observed that new media technologies inspire students to learn.
Technical and resource limitations
During interviews and focus group discussions, all participating teachers complained that some computers were slow and they would like to have access to use some software like Google Docs and Skype in class. Teachers needed permission for accessing and using many new media tools. this added another step in planning to teach. With new devices, some teachers found it difficult to integrate technology into the common core curriculum and teaching because they needed more hands-on training in using new media technologies in teaching. High schools had only one supervisory and technical staff that were available on certain days and therefore many teachers were techno-phobic and anxious about dealing with technical errors and hands-on training in real classroom teaching. Teachers needed more in-class technology and CCSS related training.
Teachers perceived that using new media technology tools made students’ learning more self-motivated and active. The participating teachers also experienced new tools motivated students and promote interaction and communication among students and between students and teachers. Four teachers flipped classes and found their role changed from knowledge dispensers to facilitators in class. These teachers were able to give more one on one attention to English learners and students with other learning limitations and needs. All participating teachers said that the use of technology had and will have a significant effect on their intentions to integrate new media technologies in modern teaching.
The teachers who reported high levels of personal use more likely used new media technologies in teaching and grading student work. More teachers with four to ten years of teaching experience were inclined to think new media technologies are useful, therefore were eager and excited to integrate new technologies in the curriculum with training. Participating teachers also said that although they appreciated the rich resources and the increased accessibility of information provided by the new media technologies, some teachers used technology only for attendance; email, power-point and online video use in class. Teachers need more hands-on training in integrating new technologies into the new curriculum and class.
Some participants commented that they often use new technologies like Edmodo, Dropbox, Evernote, and OneNote in teaching. Math and science teachers also said that they share ideas from other websites and presentations from Share slide and Khan Academy, for projects and labs and new strategies with other teachers from other schools, school districts, and even colleges. Some teachers found it difficult to work through the technical glitches, sometimes slow internet and Wi-Fi access, and other new technology-related problems.
All teachers declared that changes were necessary to change traditional ways of teaching and learning. It is a big instructional shift from number two pencils to technology-based teaching. Teachers need a deep understanding of the content, the corresponding pedagogical knowledge and new media technologies (Mishra & Koehler 2006; Harris, 2008). Most teachers, except four teachers, called for frequent use of new media technology tools and more advanced technologies in all K-12 grades to enable students to master required technology skills.
Participants felt more teachers would use new media technology, but some old machines, limited training and limited time to revise and plan new curriculum minimize their chances. Teachers also need training in online testing and the way to access online resources and integrate new media technologies in teaching. Participants also felt that the technology used at home is invaluable, but not all the students have internet access at home. In this regard, the school library or class computers should be available to the student for use after school hours.
Eight participants said that new technologies played a vital role in their classroom teaching, especially when they wanted their students to collaborate and share their knowledge with other students and teachers and do online research. Students used new media technologies to research online articles, current events and some other assignments that were initially hard to visualize. Teachers found online articles, animations, and demonstrations a very helpful, effective and innovative way of learning for their students. New media technologies also helped teachers and students to visualize with models, videos, examples, and simulations.
In her interview, Teacher 11 (T11, May 2, 2014) who has incorporated new media technologies in CCSS based new curricula states:
We have a four-member science and technology team. We are always open to trying new ideas …. Therefore, when any one of us tries a new software or application, I mean something new …. This is an example of having a technology team willing to try, share and collaborates our experience with other teachers willing to try. We support each other throughout the school district. I think that is good.
Three science teachers said that new media technologies had made it possible for them to use virtual dissection, animations, and lab simulations to help students understand, replay and learn the craft and skills they need to learn before going to college. Science, Math, and Engineering teachers also conferred that the world has become so technologically advanced; it was important to integrate new media technologies in teaching and let students practice new technologies that they will need in college learning and jobs.
Teacher 19 (T19, May 1, 2014), in his interview, stated:
Two-three years ago, as a new teacher, I did not know what resources were available for high school teachers. Sometimes I wished we just had a list somewhere on the district portal or school website or department website where all this information was posted.
Math teachers had attended as many as ten hands-on training sessions and piloted new media integrated curriculum courses based on new standards and experienced that they devoted more one on one time to students who needed personal time in understanding math concepts and use new technologies to practice math. Participating Math teachers’ echoed technology is imperative for education because it is an integral part of the modern world and new media technologies are designed to prepare, test, and challenge the students with right grade-level standards and advanced thought-provoking and challenging problems.
Some teachers believed technology helped make the content more accessible. For example, teacher eighteen a science (T18, May 1, 2014), stated, “Physics, Chemistry, and other science subjects are kind of, subjects so you can show how the concepts teachers talk about relationships too everyday things, technology I feel bridges that gap, especially for high school level students.”
The administrators described that some common tried web links were accessible on the district Instructional Media Services (IMC) website. They had scheduled special technology training sessions, common core adoption training sessions, and district steering committees to help teachers in lesson planning; but it would take time, patience, understating and will to learn and use new media technologies, standards and successfully apply them in teaching. The administrators were confident that the training would help teachers better understand, prepare, and design curriculum with the integration of new media technologies.
Another very high technology self-efficacy teacher stated that I use OneNote, Google Docs and my website to save all my work, just to be safe and have access anytime, anywhere. I can also use the SmartBoard, but unfortunately, we do not have access to GoogleDocs in our schools.
Teacher 14 (T13, May 8, 2014) stated, “I think new media technologies offer a lot of choices. I just think many of us do not take advantage of it. I am sure many of us want to learn how we can use technology for physical education, art, and some other quality activities at school. We should be able to take advantage of all that is available.”
Participating teachers believed that the use of new media technologies demanded time and certain skills that all the students needed were different from textbook-based learning where students used pen and paper to write, solve and derive problems. Three teachers said they believe some teachers and students more than they believe others needed to focus on the practice of basic skills before they could try new media technologies. Teachers mentioned the use of new media technologies as support teaching forced them to change their teaching practices lessons. Therefore, due to some initial technical hiccups, all participating teachers accepted that they were apprehensive about adopting new media technologies in teaching and sometimes, went back to traditional pen and paper.
One factor that contributed to the teachers’ willingness to integrate technology was their comfort level with new media technologies and the subjects they were teaching. Eighteen teachers said that they were more comfortable using new media technology when they taught familiar topics than where they had to try new technology integrated new lesson plans. Sixteen teachers were practicing and mastering new media technologies, more than others master because new devices, new standards, new technologies, and new lesson plans are time-consuming. All participants found new media technologies important and interesting however all the teachers reiterated that they needed more training and time to refine their newly learned skills, revise lesson plans, fine-tuning and practice with new media technologies and devices.
Another teacher who had a high technology self-efficacy believed she is techy and innovative stated:
“I am constantly updating my lesson plans, not because they do not work well but especially with new standards CCSS and due to a high number of English Learners, some differentiated instructions and strategies work better than others in narrowing the learning gap in my classes. Outside of the class, I am a risk-taker. I try new technologies and ideas. It is just my personality. If something does not work, then I collaborate, reach out to other teachers, go online and try how to make it work” (T16, May 6, 2014).
Teacher 12 said, “Convenience of technology has influenced my attitude towards technology, I remember when I first got a smartphone, I did not use it as much, but now I use it way more …. You know it is so convenient to synchronize it with other tools and I just like it. We must try technology more, just play with it and they will be surprised that it is very convenient.”
Although some new teachers were more conversant with new technologies and could gain root, their problems were new standards-based lesson plans while practicing teaching and performing secondary duties that they felt overwhelmed them at this time. New teachers had to juggle between their classes, lesson planning, teaching and understanding student needs, helping students while they were still learning to teach the new standards-based curriculum and some new media technologies.
Focus group discussion
During the focus group discussion, nine teachers also expressed that new media technologies had made their teaching more interesting and equipped. Some teachers suggested that modern technologies provided the flexibility to enhance student learning because now students can learn at their own pace. All participating teachers iterated that they integrated hands-on assignments, projects, online research and group work in their teaching that improved student confidence, work ethics, writing and collaboration.
In a focus group, discussion six teachers said their focus was to integrate new media technologies into a new curriculum based on Common Core Standards. Teachers also shared that all school districts in California had received special grants, especially to upgrade new technologies, new technology devices for the teachers and students, professional development for the teachers, books for the students, because new media technology is an integral part of Common Core standards. New technology devices are lightweight, have more memory, latest software, required ports so that teachers and students can use wireless in class.
Seven teachers also discussed how their students shared knowledge and ideas online with other groups in the class and with the teacher. Teachers indicated that using new media technologies allowed students to go beyond basic tasks, such as advanced writing, complicated number operations, and online research. This, in turn, had enabled teachers to focus more time on English learners and students who needed extra help and a little motivation to do their work.
Four teachers said that they were more comfortable teaching on the board than using new media technologies. Teachers said new standards, curriculum, and integration of new media technologies were slowing their planning and teaching. Teachers further said they wanted to plan, try and revise what lessons and technologies worked well and change what did not work well in their class. Teachers also indicated that they wanted to survive through new standards-based lesson planning, integrating new media technologies and making sure that their students could learn new skills. Teachers conferred it was more important for the students to understand, learn and also practice using new technologies.
Eight teachers shared that they were afraid to use technology more often because they were possibly far from being proficient. These teachers said they needed training and help regularly and wanted to be more comfortable planning and teaching technology-integrated lessons. One administrator said “Oversold and underused” as described in Cuban’s work (2001), is fading away with adoption of Common Core Standards in California. Relatively teachers had started integrating and trying new media technologies in high school teaching.
Four English teachers said they used new media technologies to import articles, types of writing, assignments, and worksheets. Fourteen teachers said they used an excellent online collaboration source Edmodo to share ideas, resources, and lesson plans with teachers even from other schools and states who have already adopted new media technologies and common core standards. Three teachers said they were going to try ‘Edmodo’ during summer and share their ideas with other teachers. Teachers exchanged ideas that worked well or not so well and what changes and modifications gave better results. Some teachers also shared their class demographics and discussed how collaboration among teachers was an important component that helped teachers across different grade levels, schools, and subjects. Teachers said new media technologies often inspired and overwhelmed students, as well as them.
During group discussions eight teachers also iterated that the integration of new media technologies had not only improved student efficiency, exploring and writing but also their pedagogical approaches, and better lesson preparation in using new technologies in teaching. When teachers were asked to comment on their ideas about using new technology in teaching, focusing on the labs and presentation tools, it was indicated that they had a lot of curriculum to cover. All participants including administrators said that teachers need time and hands-on experience in class. Teachers integrated new media technologies in teaching when necessary because they need more training and time to integrate new media technologies into a new standards-based curriculum. Some Science, Math, English and Social Studies teachers shared ideas on how new technologies have helped their students to visualize abstract ideas, explore, do online research, refer online information and write.
One senior teacher said that most teachers did not have a problem with technology. The problem that they had was a pedagogical issue that was holding them from adopting new media technologies (T3, 2014). Reaching the teachers and professional training helped teachers understand that new media technologies will not and cannot replace teachers, but with the adoption of common core standards, integration of new media technologies was essential to provide tools that enable and prepare students for the colleges and the global market.
Teachers five, seven, eight, eleven, thirteen, fifteen, sixteen, twenty, Administrators one, two and three described their views and experiences about available professional development opportunities at their department, schools and also at the district level. T13 said, “Yeah, professional development opportunities are there. I would say our school and school district does a good job of providing lots of different opportunities for different professional development.” Most participants shared this same belief and felt that multiple opportunities to learn about new media technologies are offered, but the subject matter, CCSS based ideas and more time would be better.
Teachers insisted that it is important to train teachers with a ‘hands-on’ approach as opposed to other approaches. Some teachers also felt it was hard to find time to learn or practice as a result of being pulled in different directions for other work-related things. T17 also stated, “I am guilty of, the problem. We got our teaching, and then need to find time to grade and attend professional training and plan for the next day. We need professional development opportunities focused on new media technologies aligned with CCSS because, when it is not mandatory, all teachers cannot be on the same page and therefore attend another training and feel left out. I will say we need training. We also need practice in something that we can practice in our classes” (May 6, 2014).
All teachers said they needed a consistent training and ideas on how new media technologies transform lesson planning and teaching. This supports Levin and Wadmany’s (2008) findings. The findings highlight that training programs for teachers embracing educational practices and strategies to address beliefs, skills, and knowledge, improve teachers’ awareness and insights. This is about transformations in modern teaching.
At the same time, with training that is consistent and in line with current teaching programs by the teachers, it will be possible to ensure that attitudes and uptake of introduced teaching technology are beneficial. Otherwise, many teachers are likely to drop out of the program as they respond to other pressing needs such as curriculum performance. This is in line with the expectation from the theory of planned behavior where intentions precede outcome, but the action taken by an individual towards the desired outcome will only arise when conditions are right. Continuous contextual training provided the right conditions for behavior change, according to most teachers interviewed.
Focus group discussion
During the focus group, discussion teachers suggested that the administrators should design a technology-enhanced environment so that it serves the goals of educators. Future research is necessary on how to design such technology-enhanced educational systems that enable harmony and, “the realization of a vision of the future society using systems design” (Banathy & Jenlink, 2004, p. 50). All the teachers said that new media technology and standards-based curriculum, training and busy workdays push teachers to the limit and, in some cases, beyond. That causes delays in the adoption of new media technologies in high school teaching.
According to all teachers, professional development remains a key factor in integrating new media technologies into teaching. Teachers also explained how their time committed to teaching, the amount of technical training and curriculum changes, and designing based on common core standards were reliable factors of technology use in modern teaching.
Limitations of new media technologies
All participants also reiterated that many students did not have an internet connection at home, and so teachers give those students more time and let them use school computers during class and before and after school hours so that they can complete the assignments. Initially, most teachers were planning limited technology related assignments and projects so that students could use new media technologies during or after school hours. Some teachers said they had a difficult time using new technologies. This happened in the use of simulations and 3D modeling, virtual dissections, science labs, Mathematics Analysis Software, Computer Algebra Systems, statistical, geometry packages and taking online tests. Their reason was that the tests were timed and users were still learning testing skills using new media technologies, using online resources, access a new chapter or standard only after the student had mastered the previous one. Participating administrators said that they were planning based on teachers’ ideas and needs.
Focus group discussion
During focus group discussions twenty teachers conferred that they had observed mixed responses from their students about using new media technologies. Eight teachers preferred paper and pen because they felt they were more reliable and easier to use. All teachers said that both infrastructure and technical support was imperative. They cited a lack of technical support as restrictions for adopting and integrating new media technologies in teaching.
During the focus group discussion, teachers shared their experiences and ideas about new media technologies, how they use or why they do not use technology as much. For example, Teacher 3 (T3, May 8, 2014) said, she has seen her students get bored despite the colorful, multi-media presentations. Classroom dynamics are indeed different especially when she throws some surprise questions. She feels it is vital to integrate new technology, encourage group discussions, surprise questions, and notes in teaching to increase student focus and attention in class.
In response teacher six (T6) said, in her opinion, it is also important that all teachers use new technologies in teaching based on student needs, subject of the topic, learning time, and teaching skills. Teachers need time to plan lessons and how much technology may be important for any subject (T6, May 8, 2014).
Another English teacher (T4) said, for online research, student attention and discussion in class, we also require some strategies, skills and new media technologies support just as much is required for the content (T4, May 8, 2014). This was an indication of the teachers needed reinforcements to sustain their positive attitudes towards the technologies that they were embracing. Meeting the conditions highlighted by the group discussion responses would be a way to affect the normal working conditions for teachers, and therefore affect their attitude towards the use of technology in teaching.
Another teacher (T17, May 8, 2014) stated, technology, well utilized, can enhance instruction, but when it’s imposed on teachers who are not yet competent in the how’s and whys of its use and CCSS, it can only harm instructional effectiveness. Somehow, technology and I are not best of friends and possibly many other teachers may be also finding it difficult to adopt, integrate and implement technology skills in modern teaching.
A science teacher (T15) said the effectiveness of teaching is primarily limited by the content knowledge and teaching skill of the teacher. If a teacher is competent in the use of suggested technology, it can enhance instructional effectiveness. However, imposing the use of a suggested technology on a teacher who is not skilled and comfortable using technology, it can reduce the effectiveness of the instruction (T15, May 8, 2014). As an example of the statement, when asking the research question 1 of this study, two veteran teachers said they preferred to use PowerPoint and their current lesson plans. The two teachers saw no need for the use of new technologies because they had everything covered. Besides, the new technologies would derail them from their work according to their expressed opinion.
Therefore, it may not be the best thing to do said T19. T19 believes limiting students from using technology in classroom learning is not right either. T19 also said that she has had some bad experiences but now she is trying and implementing technology in her daily teaching (T19, May 8, 2014).
Teacher 12 (T12) who is also a physical education coach said, technology use is very important in the teaching and learning process. For example, physical education or sports and science courses, all need technology during the teaching and learning process. Just so that the students can read, see, use and understand better, we should use technology in the classroom. With new CCSS, NGSS and Physical Education Standards we should use new media technologies, teaching skills, ideas and strategies to acquaint our students with the latest (T12, May 8, 2014).
Yet another teacher (T4) said, depending on the learning styles of my students and their interests I use to determine and plan what medium would capture most attention in class. This year I have tried to change my style of delivery that is more teacher-directed, I am more whiteboard, notes and lecture type of teacher. I have also tried experiential teaching with new technologies and reorganized my classroom to facilitate technology-based learning (T4, May 7, 2014).
A veteran teacher (T3) said technology is for enhancement of learning. New media technology is an aid in modern teaching and learning. Therefore, it should be used as a helping hand not as a mandatory condition. I think teachers should skillfully lead teaching aid and blend lectures, hands-on work, projects, and technology use in class (T3, May 7, 2014).
Teacher (T1) sitting next to him said, my goal is to reach all my students. I plan small technology-based modules for each day teaching. I have a sound framework, and use evidence-based assessment of my effectiveness and think about how technology enhances my approach. I believe that if teachers are not skilled in technology use, it can make things worse (T1, May 7, 2014).
Administrator 3 (A3) intervened backing this teacher and said delivering a lecture using modern technology is more effective when the teacher is skilled and has subject knowledge required to teach. Some teachers believe that technology-centered teaching is not as effective as paper-pencil and lecture-style teaching. But it is time to adopt new technologies and teach the millennials the modern way. Smile! (A3, May 7, 2014).
Teacher 7 (T7) questioned what teaching style Albert Einstein would have favored in his modern math and physics classes? (T7, May 8, 2014).
Teacher 8 (T8) said Einstein would have adopted various new media technologies and used paper-pencil in his math and physics classes. Because Einstein wanted to learn new things and he did not type of teacher, who do not accept new technology as a transformative tool in teaching. I believe it is important to learn, adapt and use new technologies in teaching. Although planned technology may not always equate to good teaching or pedagogy, technology has been very effective in promoting student engagement and enhancing learning in my teaching (T8, May 8, 2014).
Teacher 6 (T6) said it is critical to understand how the digital ecosystem is shaping modern learning. Technology use in schooling for me has been very valuable and exciting; it engages students in new ways. It is important not to overdo it. Technology for me has improved my teaching in so many ways, when I use it properly” (T6, May 8, 2014).
Administrator 2 (A2) stated, new media technology tools enhance learning but cannot replace quality teaching. Some teachers are technology ready than their counterparts. Some teachers embrace new media tools thinking that access to technology in the classroom may instantly improve students’ learning. Therefore, teachers must collaborate, plan lessons based on CCSS and integrate new media technologies alongside a strong pedagogical foundation” (A2, May 8, 2014).
Based on the theory of planned behavior-Perceived behavior control where control is experienced over the behavior, a positive attitude reinforces the desired behavior and subjective norm that the desired behavior is accepted. The focus group discussion and this study finding lead the teacher’s intent to do something this finally leads to the behavior being carried out. This can be applied to any behavior, for example, the teacher’s intent to adopt the use of new media technologies in teaching.
The responses in this section that provide an interpretation of the use of technology according to a teacher’s action and observation in the classroom represent individual attitudes. For example, when teacher three says she has witnessed her students being bored, she relays her attitude. Individual attitude also appears in statements that explicitly say that that they are referring to a teacher’s opinion. For example, when teacher six says it is her opinion that teachers need time to plan, she represents her attitude. When teachers are giving a general view of technology and its introduction or impact on teacher’s work, they are presenting information about the subjective norm. An example of a subjective norm presentation is by a veteran teacher three that “technology is for enhancement of learning”. This is an indication of what the teachers collectively expect from education, and it does not touch on their experience with it. Meanwhile perceived behavioral controls appear from statements that teachers make implying what they are supposed to do, or why they have problems with the technologies. These statements show that there is an intended behavioral response, which the teachers are seeking. However, they are having different outcomes or attitudes, and their reaction highlights the behavioral controls in place. Examples of perceived behavioral controls include the following.
Administrator 2 (A2) responded that media technology tools enhance learning yet they cannot replace quality teaching. This is an implication of the role of technology in teachers’ teaching behavior. Part of the response from administrator two also says that teachers should collaborate and plan lessons based on CCSS. Their integration of new media technologies to teaching should only come as part of their pedagogical foundation. The administrator referred to perceived behavior controls when administrator three said that it was time for adopting new technologies and time to teach the millennial generation the modern way. According to the statement, teachers ought to be updated with their use of technology and the generational demands of their students.
The focus on the individual attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavior controls highlight the relevance of the responses to specific research questions. Research question one concentrated on individual attitudes, answered by teacher’s references to their classroom experience. The second research question focused on subjective norms and the way teachers highlight opportunities and administrative support they get or ought to get. The third research question helps to bring out perceived behavioral controls as it captures the connection of new media technology’s introduction and usage by teachings in line with Common State Standards. With this structure of analyzing the data, the research can build a relationship of the TPB, research questions and CCSS form the responses provided.
Themes and patterns used to understand data
The study relied on the three research questions to group responses from the research in both the individual interviews and group discussions. Some words helped the research identify the context of the responses from any participant. The researcher relied on the first-person reference to identify statements that would have information related to the individual attitudes of the responder. Second person and third person statements presented subjective norms or perceived behavioral controls. Moreover, the references made by the responders also highlighted the category that the response would fit in or the main research question that the responder was answering. For example, when a responder referred to his or her students in the classroom during a lesson, the responder was presenting an individual attitude or observation. On the other hand, when an administrator referred to conditions in a school, or the technological links with a school and the education body in California, the response would be providing the context of teaching. In the same way, references to technology that was abstract and could apply to any teacher or school were subjective norms. However, when the same responses highlighted the link of the technology and the expected outcome, then they brought out perceived behavioral controls. Teacher references to standards of teaching or curriculums and evaluation of their teaching methods were also cues used in the data analysis to represent perceived behavioral controls.
The results, based on the study’s three research questions, are presented below.
R1: How do teachers describe new media technologies and how they are integrated into daily instruction?
The findings of this study reveal that although the participating teachers spoke highly about new technologies they were all not very content with the current media technologies that they use. The responses denote some level of discontent with the hands-on training, time to practice and infrastructure that supports new media technology adoption and usage in the high schools. The findings further point to certain developments overtime when it comes to the development of an environment in the schools that supports new media adoption.
R2: How do teachers report training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?
The findings of the study reveal that there are numerous challenges as far as the adoption and use of new media technologies in learning are concerned. To begin with, the needed infrastructure, internet, Wi-Fi, new computer devices and access to new media technologies need technical and hands-on support, enough time and training for good planning. From the study, teachers do not get enough time to acquire and practice skills learned.
Teachers also manage large classes, with a limited number of computers available for student use. There also seems a lack of technical and pedagogical support, training and collaboration among teachers and with the administrators. Also, the findings reveal that new media technology supports the ease with which the teachers access information.
R3: How do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core Standards?
The findings of the study indicate that the use of the Internet, computers and new media technologies are an important step towards the full adoption and utilization of new media technologies for teaching and communication and collaboration among the teachers and with the students. The findings of the study reveal that several schools from the sample have made progress in teachers’ embrace of technology use. The responses in the interviews and focus group discussions show that teachers need and have attended training and collaborating with other teachers to learn how to adapt and use the new media technologies in teaching.
The study findings reveal that the new media technology adoption in the high schools is a required thoughtful idea, although inadequate infrastructure, an effective policy for year-round adequate professional development for the teachers and administrators need to be established to support the development of the grounds that support new media technology adoption and use in learning. Similar to Buabeng-Andoh’s (2012) study, which pointed to the limitations in terms of technology adoption in education improvement, the results of this study show that these limitations may be inherent in most high schools in the central valley, California and other states.
The studies by Demirci (2009), as well as Chigona and Chigona’s (2010), agree with the findings of this study. In response to what role leadership played in technology adoption, teachers responded that when school and district administrators encouraged and dedicated collaboration and training time for teachers to plan student-centered learning, it influenced effective technology transformation.
The proposed study finds that there have been progressive efforts to use new media technologies in the high schools in the central valley, California. The findings of the study further point to the fact that new media technology adoption in all the high schools has not reached a satisfying level. It is because there are still a lot of difficulties and technical hitches when it comes to the adoption and use of new technologies in the schools and its full integration in new standards-based teaching.
Based on research question one (R1), most of the respondents in the research, according to the data presented, reveal the desire to adopt and use new media. However, the level of optimism about new media technology adoption in participating high schools is reduced by what can be termed as the prevalence of the above-discussed challenges. Some of them include understanding new standards and the role and technical needs of new media technologies, while others are based on the limited level of support and hands-on training for new media technology adoption in high schools.
These findings agree with the findings by Demirci (2009) and Chigona and Chigona (2010), who sought to examine the decisions of the teachers appertaining to technology adoption in learning. Just like in the present study, the results of the study by Chigona and Chigona (2010) pointed to the mixed feelings of teachers about the best way to adopt technology in high school teaching as highlighted by research question two (R2).
The results of the study point to the fact that there are numerous preliminary challenges when it comes to new media technology integration in teaching in high schools. The challenges can be classified into hands-on practice, technical, financial, and infrastructure. Based on the data collected from the participants in the sample schools, it is evident that the efficient internet connection has been a problem for some time. Even in the present times, with the latest software, the Internet supply is not always too efficient to support the full deployment of new media technology in CCSS based learning.
Sometimes the internet and the Wi-Fi are slow during school hours and it disrupts the lesson planning for the day or sometimes student work, research or test is lost or freezes because of the slow internet connection. Financial challenges can be linked to the aspects of funding and the limited capacity of all the schools to acquire enough modern and effective computers for the students, the administrators, and the teachers. According to the responses given by the participants, the technology infrastructure in some schools should be improved to effectively to support new media technology adoption and application by teachers.
The data that relates to research question 3 (R3) denotes the potential of high schools to adopt and use new media technologies in the high schools, provided that the technology environment in the schools is crafted so that it can be fully receptive to new media technology deployment in teaching and learning. The data shows that there is a considerable level, though minimal, at which new media technologies have been developed in high schools in Central Valley, California.
However, there is a pointer to the full adoption and development of the infrastructure that some instructors will always resist new media adoption, especially the deployment of new media in interactive learning. There is a need for a gradual procedure when introducing new media technologies. Administrators and teachers require a common platform for collaboration. Since they can be at different levels in their skills and capacity to adopt new technologies, it is better to have a graduated approach to the use of new media technologies. The emphasis on technology introduction and usage should be on collaboration and communication. This should also be the approach adopted for the students and teacher use of technologies in all high schools.
The following is a description of the sources of data used for this research and the outcome obtained from all of them. First, the study relied on a sample of teachers from California district high school. Also, all the participants selected for the study had to be involved in the use of technology in their teaching in at least one way. Moreover, the study also wanted to highlight the attitudes of teachers towards technology in three different ways. There was the reporting of individual attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral controls. These were informed by the study’s interpretation of the theory of planned behavior. In this regard, there were three questions formulated to help answer the study’s overarching question, which was to find out the overall perception of high school teachers on new media technologies as tools for ending the education of high school students.
The preferred methods of data collection for the study were individual interviews with selected teachers and administrators of schools. There was also the use of group discussions. The individual interviews provide an ample environment for respondents to provide personalized responses about their attitude to technology. This was also an opportunity for the researcher to find out any limitations that the respondents faced in their expression of the appropriate behavior towards the use of new media technologies. The individual interviewees were aware of the intentions of the study and were encouraged by open-ended questions to provide as much information as possible regarding the main research query or the specific research questions. In addition to that, there were group discussions. They provided the researcher with a collective response, but an additional advantage of the research was that group discussion provided respondents with cues on ideas that would be relevant for the research. Discussions allowed the teachers and administrators interviewed in the research to build on each other’s responses. They also provided the researcher with an opportunity to get a better understanding of the given information or concept provided by a respondent. For example, when teachers explained that they faced difficulties in using new media technologies due to slow Wi-Fi connections, administrators added that technology was supposed to aid the existing pedagogical framework and not replace it. Such responses provide a contextual basis for understanding attitudes and other responses such that it is possible to interpret and attach them to various aspects of the theory of planned behavior.
In the data analysis part of the research, a qualitative methodology was adopted. Given that the research questions and the data collection procedures were contextual and open-ended, it was appropriate for the research to use an analysis method that would capture as much information as possible about the observed and investigated phenomena. This study was explorative in that it intended to find out the existence of particular perceptions by teachers in their teaching environment, about technology usage. Before the actual data analysis part, the researcher relied on existing literature on the subject of TPB and technology usage in teaching. Attitudes of teachers on technology use were also a parameter followed by the researcher when seeking relevant literature on the subject. The exploration started with the researcher only having research questions to answer. The method chosen was appropriate in developing evidence to support the conclusions of the research.
The data analysis part was descriptive. First, the researcher provides the demographic basics for respondents used in the study and the student population that was being targeted in the high schools where the teachers taught. The descriptive statistics followed the 22 respondents’ core answers about their teaching environment. From the descriptions, the researcher provides an overview of the study population and the immersion of teachers into the usage of technology. This is important because it highlights the structure that would influence perceived behavioral controls that teachers have concerning the use of new media technologies. After the presentation of descriptive statistics, the study goes on to respond to each research question. This was a summarized format used for the research given that there were several interviews and group discussion questions used. In this regard, the research question provides the three main themes being investigated by the study. The use of the three questions as the basis for classifying the responses of the study is also a way to make a congruent confirmation of theoretical influence on the study findings and to link them to reported findings from other studies. Although the study is seeking to provide attitudes of teachers to use of new media technologies, it also brings out the responses from administrators of high schools selected for the study to provide a contextual understanding of the teacher’s responses. These administrator responses are presented in the same way that the researcher responses are represented.
The reported data was already interpreted by the research regarding its relevance to the research question. However, as a means of increasing the emphasis on particular responses to research questions, the study also highlights specific teacher or administrator responses. These are the responses, which appear to provide a true relationship between the individual attitude or subjective norm of the observed population and the research questions. Moreover, the use of a few verbatim responses as part of the study increases the validity of the research.
Limitations that emerged based on the data analysis
The use of a qualitative data analysis method limited the research by providing a quantitative estimate of the perception of teachers on using new media technologies in teaching. Therefore, it would not be easy to find out the extent of similarities or differences of this study’s findings to the results from other studies on the same phenomena or study population. Moreover, the study only used respondents from the same locality to present their findings. While there is a high likelihood that the results of teacher’s perceptions also point out to overall teachers’ perceptions of new media technologies in a bigger population, it is also possible that the reliance on only one locality will present biases in perceptions highlighted by the research. Another limitation is that a qualitative data analysis relying only on interviews and group discussions presents numerous possibilities for the researcher to introduce personal biases to the research findings. The researcher may also encounter language problems. For example, many of the teachers may have used professional jargon when presenting facts and the research may mistake the jargon words for other meanings. However, the likelihood of such error occurring in this study was low because participants and researchers were conversant in written and spoken English, which was the language used throughout the study.
Summary, Implications, and Recommendations
Overview of the study
The opinion of teachers as the facilitators of education is a critical indicator of the success or the failure of any development that is introduced in the field of education. Therefore, the use of new media technologies in teaching cannot be successful when teachers are not fully involved in bringing new tools of learning in the classroom. As such, this research is critical in policy regarding the deployment of new media technologies in teaching. It is important to observe that the latest research suggests and indicate the need to integrate new technology tools in learning.
The study brings out the purpose of the theory of planned behavior as a guide to introducing technology advanced to teaching methods in high schools. It presents a real-life scenario for applying the theory. From the study approach and its findings, insights emerge on how attitudes and intentions are influencing the overall use of new media technology. On the other hand, the context of applying new behavior is also affecting eventual adoption as presented by expected teaching standards and overall investments in the infrastructure to support new technologies. The study shows that there is a way to follow suggestions of TPB to come up with a high uptake of new media technologies among teachers in high schools. The theory used in the study is helping in the interpretation of the result and serves as the standard that study findings would support or deviate from to validate the research.
Yeung, Taylor, Hui, Lam-Chiang, and Low (2012), observed that the government of Singapore has developed a policy that is supposed to require teachers in the country to integrate new media technologies in teaching. Going as per this observation, it is worth reiterating the fact that the use of new media technologies in teaching is something that can no longer be resisted, especially considering the level at which the world has been digitized. Another highlight is that the benefits of technology adoption in education are recorded throughout the academic literature. These are researches involving the adoption of information and communication technology in learning.
According to Badilla-Quintana, Cortada-Pujol, and Riera-Romaní (2012), the only way through which the perceptions of new media technology adopted and in learning by teachers can be changed is when there is an adequate commitment on the side of the administrators and stakeholders in the field of education. This involves putting in place structures that can help teachers adapt and integrate new media technologies in teaching. However, the overarching question on the adoption of new media technologies in looks at what teachers see as the paybacks of technology. In similar terms, Harris and Hofer, (2006) and Harris, (2008) suggest that teachers need awareness of the range of possible learning activity types with a particular content area and process goal for a lesson and what technology tool would best work in a high school learning setting. The other thing that comes out of literature is the fact that a lot of gaps prevail in the realms of education, especially when it comes to the use of new media technologies by teachers in modern teaching across the country and the globe. For teachers to use technology and, perhaps, value the integration of new media technologies in modern education, they must first be on the forefront as far as the adoption of technology is concerned.
The study’s main problem is that a lot remains unknown about the existing motivations for teachers in high school to take up new media technologies in their teaching. The purpose of the study is to bring out the perceptions of teachers in high schools on the use of new media technologies in teaching. In this regard, the study used three research questions, which are as follows. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how are they integrated into daily instruction, how do teachers report how training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching and how do teachers describe new media technologies and their connection to the Common Core State Standards. Also, the main issues being researched at individual attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral controls of teachers’ use of new media technologies in high school teaching.
The rest of the content in this chapter discusses the study’s methodology, which highlights the main issues regarding data collection and analysis. This section also presents a summary of the study and a summary of the study’s findings and conclusion. It provides the reader with a brief overview of the study in a way to bring out its relevance and relationship to the existing literature on the subject of teacher’s perceptions of the use of new media technologies as teaching tools. The study was conducted with participants being teachers from California State high schools. There were also administrators in the study that provided contextual information about the infrastructure available for teachers to use new media technologies. The study used personal interviews and group discussions with participants using a qualitative methodology.
Overview of study design
The other important observation to make at this point is how this study was designed. From the outset, the study narrowed down to the research topic by way of selecting several high schools in a school district in Central Valley, California. Getting the experiences and ideas of teachers in these schools was vital in providing in-depth information, which is also an indicator of how the teachers perceive the deployment of new media technologies in learning in schools in California and the United States. Perhaps, the other critical observation to make here is the design of the case study, involving researching within school settings. This in itself gives a clear overview of the real school surroundings and how that environment supports the use of new media technologies in teaching and learning.
In their study, Rodííguez, Nussbaum, López, and Sepúlveda (2010) sought to gather the opinions of students concerning the use of new media technologies in effecting learning processes in schools and the practice of new media technologies in public schools across the United States. This is also used in this research in the manner in which the study is conducted seeks to justify the perceptions of teachers on new media technology adoption in teaching and learning. It not only relies on the information that is gathered from interviewing teachers, but it is also based on the information that is derived from focus group discussion and some administrators as the key architects of the programs and standards (e.g. CCSS) that require new technology adoption in teaching.
The experiences and perceptions of teachers are highly shaped by the technology infrastructure available in the schools. As such, the fact that the research paid attention to the entire school environment in the selected high schools denotes that the research is elaborate in scope. This is a plus for this research and makes the researcher gather enough information for synthesis and the subsequent production of elaborate information on new technology adoption and use in learning as viewed by high school teachers.
Also, research conducted by Badilla-Quintana, Cortada-Pujol, and Riera-Romaní (2012) indicates the relevance of enhancing the capacity of children to use technology. When children learn new media skills, it becomes easy for educators to adopt those and similar media technologies in teaching. For the reason that in that way, students already have the required skills and the teachers as facilitators find it convenient teaching using the new media technology integrated platform. Based on the study, it is apparent that the opinion of teachers on the adoption of web-based technologies is shaped by the level at which schools embrace the development of structures that shape the adoption
Summary of the study
The research sought to answer three sub-questions and the overarching question of what is the perception of teachers on the use of new media technologies in teaching. These were geared at establishing the perceptions of teachers about the use of new media technologies in teaching in schools across the United States.
The overarching question is to explore what factors motivate or limit teachers from adopting new media technologies in high school teaching. Here are the research questions:
- R1. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how they are integrated into daily instruction?
- R2. How do teachers report training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?
- R3. How do teachers pronounce new media technologies and their link to the Common Core Standards?
Research question one (R1) attempts to ascertain the level at which new media technologies can be integrated into learning. Of the greater essence of the question is the ascertainment of the level at which the new media technology tools can be integrated with the means of teaching that are used in modern teaching. As such, this question guides in the ascertainment of the opinion of teachers based on the compatibility of new media technology tools with the instructional methods and standards that are used in schools. This question raises several other issues about technology use in learning, especially because this is a new development that might not effectively integrate with the systems of delivery in education that have been embraced by teachers for an extended period.
The response to research question one (R1) from the findings of the research is that there are a lot of developments in the education that are indicators of the fact that a lot is being done in terms of promoting the ability of teachers to adopt and use new media technologies in learning in Central Valley, California. Among the responses that point at the observation is the finding that some 25 teachers in high schools covered in the research study are getting familiar with new media technologies because of how they are embracing the adoption and use of new media technologies in teaching and collaboration. The other finding is that the administrators in the field of education have been active in terms of promoting an environment that is adaptive to new media technologies and new learning standards (CCSS), which also points at a positive look at technology adoption in learning by teachers in Central Valley, California.
The second research question (R2) seeks to establish the essence of integrating efforts to ensure that there is success in terms of the adoption and use of new media tools in learning in schools. Of greater essence in this question is the fact that new media technologies cannot be fully adopted by teachers in teaching in schools when there is limited collaboration, communication, and cooperation between the teachers and the educational administrators as far as the adoption and integration of these tools in learning and the achievement of positive results are concerned. Research question (R2) guides the research towards establishing the need for promoting a collaborative environment in schools when it comes to the adoption and integration of new media technologies in teaching in schools. It brings out the current expectations of technology that various programs have when they are championing for its usage by teachers (Yang, Wang, & Chiu, 2015). Through the teachers’ collective response, the answers to the research question (R2) highlight the subjective norm of technology as a teaching or learning tool.
Teachers cannot work in an isolated environment because their ability to deliver is dependent on the need and structures that are set by all the other stakeholders in the education environment. This means that the opinions of teachers can be effectively established when the teachers are placed within the education environment where each support element as far as the adoption of technology is assessed in the research is concerned. From the individual interview and group discussion responses, it was evident that teachers rely on the infrastructure provided by their schools to use new media technologies. They also rely on their students’ access to computers and their access and knowledge of new media technologies to be able to use the technologies in classrooms. In this regard, the study concluded that teachers could not work in isolated environments as their ability relies on the present structures of delivering education. Therefore, teachers’ opinions can be effectively established when the teachers are in an education environment with appropriate support elements in regards to the adoption of technology and their perceptions of the technology. The support elements in question would be well-equipped computers and computer facilities that allow students to have sufficient access to media technologies, a continuous contextual teaching program for teachers on how to use new media technologies and sufficient power and an internet connection to support teaching. A supporting assessment program and the introduction of the technologies to current pedagogical structures are also supportive elements.
The findings of the second research question show that the integration of new media technologies in learning still faces several challenges. This assertion comes from the outcomes of the research, which point out that teachers are impeded by the level of technology adoption among them and the fact that the Common Core State Standards-based curriculum that has been put in place to aid in new media technology adoption in learning has not been fully accepted and embraced by all teachers. In other words, there are still a lot of gaps as far as the practice of education based on new media technologies is concerned. Based on the findings of this research, it is apparent that the system of administration in some schools has not fully put in place structures that can see the delivery of teaching using new media technologies.
The third research question (R3) points at the fact that high school teachers in Central Valley, California are working hard to align with the Core Common Standards that have been set in this sampled study area in the research. The findings indicate mixed results in the sense that a high proficiency was recorded for some teachers, while the level of proficiency was quite limited for other teachers. However, the overall finding pointed at the fact that the level of proficiency was likely to rise as more measures were put in place to aid in increasing the competency of teachers and students in new media technology usage.
The findings also pointed at the need for teachers and education administrators to increase the level of collaboration and support from each other to enhance the capacity and the ability to fully adopt new technologies in teaching and learning. Through the structured open-ended questions that were posed to the participants during interviews and focus group discussions, it became apparent that there are a lot of suggestions on the means through which the administrators can foster the adoption of new media technologies by teachers and the subsequent planning and integration of new media technologies in modern teaching.
The suggestions presented by the interviewed teachers and administrators were as follows. There was a need to have broadband and reliable internet connections in schools. The broadband should be available through wireless technologies that allow both students and teachers to use portable computing devices to access the internet and collaborate with other teachers. Schools should also ensure that following Common Core State Standards does not force teachers to embrace media technologies that they are not yet able to use well. Therefore, upgrading of technologies and the technological infrastructure should not be the only basis of improving the use of technology tools in teaching. The overall intention of the current technology should also advise frameworks or motivations by the school or the state program on having teachers use technologies. Teachers expressed concern that they may be forced to use technologies in teaching only because that is the trend even when existing methods were sufficient to enhance the educational objectives of their curricula. They suggested that technology use should follow the current curricula such that teachers can only use parts of the technology that are appropriate. This response also brought another concern where teachers expressed their intention to use technology in batches based on the content they were teaching. These suggestions conform to the role of the environment for implanting change as a factor in influencing behavior change in regards to the theory of planned behavior.
This also points to the fact that there is a gap in terms of the way some teachers perceive the adoption of new media technologies in learning, with the variation being necessitated by the wide gap in opinion about new media technology adoption and use among the teachers. Participants’ answers to the research questions answer and redirect the research into the main issues being investigated in the paper. This entails how the teachers perceive the adoption and use of new media technologies in teaching and learning in schools.
Summary of Findings and Conclusion
The main aim of this study was to ascertain the view of high school teachers concerning the adoption of new media technologies in teaching. One of the reasons for conducting this study is that the insights of the educators are vital as far as gaining the required momentum in the adoption of new media technologies in teaching is concerned. Based on the three research questions that were used in the research, the following can be noted from the research. It is important to list the research questions to bring out a summary of the findings regarding what the research sought to achieve.
Research question one (R1) stated that:
R1. How do teachers describe new media technologies and how they are integrated into daily instruction?
The findings in the research regarding research question 1 denote that a substantial number of teachers and administrators across high schools appreciate the value of new media technologies and, in one way or another, embrace the use of technologies in teaching and learning. As such, it is imperative to observe that most educators value the adoption of new media technologies in teaching because of what they see as the worthiness of using these technologies in enhancing the delivery of education in high schools and higher studies. Another important point to bring out here is the willingness of administrators to support the development of the infrastructure in schools that support new media technology adoption and use by both the students and the teachers in modern teaching.
It is encouraging to note that all the participants use new media technology, meaning that technology is something that is embraced by all educators. Also, as long as the administrators support the development of adequate technological infrastructure, it is easy to train and convince the teachers to integrate new media technologies into a new standards-based curriculum.
The theory of Planned Behavior explains that a person’s attitudes may enable or limit their intention to change. The attitude here refers to the teachers’ belief towards adoption and use of new media technology in teaching in addition to knowing the educational value and identifying with the transformative potential of the technology. The theory of planned behavior attaches meaning to participating teachers’ responses to research question one (R1), as it offers a teacher’s positive attitude. This acted as an initial inspiration to individual teachers’ to change. Their attitudes could continue changing due to ongoing experience. The teachers’ attitudes cover the effect that they perceive this change may have on CCSS-based teaching routines.
R2. How do teachers report training opportunities and administrative support influence their adoption of new media technologies into their teaching?
The findings in the research study show that the schools in the Central Valley, California were active in terms of the introduction and the subsequent adoption of the new media technologies. This is quite encouraging in the sense that it denotes easiness with which teachers in the schools can access and use new technology in teaching. Moreover, it is important to point out that the school administration in the sampled schools in Central Valley, California was committed to the development of new media technology infrastructure.
Contrary to the early times when students in schools took turns or shared computers in the library in some of the schools, the study findings showed that each of the teachers in the schools had been supplied with a laptop or a desktop computer. Some new laptops and desktops are also available in computer labs and school libraries for student use. This encourages teachers to use technology to enhance learning efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore, it is imperative to conclude that most teachers embrace the initiative of ensuring that they are supplied with the relevant new media technology tools, the computers, the Internet and Wi-Fi because these tools make it easier to come up with initiatives of teaching using new media technologies.
The second determinant of behavioral intent is the social factor, which, according to the TPB captures subjective norms and its relevance to this study, is presented by Coffland and Strickland (2004) where teacher use of technology in secondary geometry class depend on the school principal’s attitude. Similarly, participant’s answers to research question two (R2) in this study point out a teacher’s intention to change their teaching practice relies on the perception of using technology as it fits into the CCSS standards-based teaching culture. It is important to note that both the administrators and teachers think teaching with new media technologies is a good idea. Therefore, based on the TPB predictions more teachers may adopt new media technologies in teaching.
R3. How do teachers pronounce new media technologies and their link to the Common Core Standards?
The results of the study show that many high school teachers had adopted and were using more than one new media technology in teaching and for communicating with other educators. This is a positive result that showed the willingness of teachers to adopt more technologies given the support received from the school and district administration. The other finding reported in the study is about the need for a lot of technical training and assistance for the teachers from the administration, which can see the embrace of the Common Core State Standards by the teachers. This follows the observation that the administration should ensure that they create a supportive environment in schools that can see all the teachers adopt, integrate and use new media technologies in teaching.
Thus, it is imperative to conclude that the complete implementation of the Common Core State Standards begins with the administration, which has to first ensure that all the teachers are adopting, planning and integrating new media technologies in their teaching curriculum. This makes it suitable and convenient for educators to integrate and use new media technologies based on certain standards of teaching or learning in school.
R3 responses capture participants’ perceptions of behavioral controls. The answers also focus on school factors such as a positive attitude to use technology by the school principal that affects teacher’s perceived behavioral control. TPB explains an individual’s perceived behavioral controls as its third segment in the intention to change and it is here that a person’s subjective view of limitations may motivate or prevent the person from acting. The action would be about the following: Using technology in modern teaching, teachers’ perceptions of their knowledge, experience and technology skills. The extra time needed by teachers to learn adequate technology skills. The extra expense of purchasing technology and other external constraints will be critical in determining their intention to change their teaching practice.
This research was aimed at increasing the level of knowledge about the potential of integrating and using new media technologies in teaching in schools. Based on the three research questions, data were collected to ascertain the current school environment and whether the school environment can support the use of new media technologies by the teachers in teaching. This research could spur the development and implementation of several critical strategies that will promote the efficiency and effectiveness of new media technology deployment in teaching by teachers.
At present, it is imperative to bring in the observation by Lai (2009), who observed that new media technologies have kept coming up and they are helping the teachers and the students to be learners, as well as creators of knowledge. The findings of the study still point at the fact that the creation and synthesis of knowledge by the teachers and students can be easily attained through new media technologies, as long as there is enough commitment by education administrators to help in the development of the critical infrastructure. If there is adequate technology infrastructure in schools and teachers and students are equipped with skills to use new media technologies, teachers are bound to remain committed to teaching using new media technologies.
The main strength of this research is that it focuses on schools, meaning that the results attained are largely applicable across schools in the United States. However, it is also important to note that the research is concentrated in one state – California, meaning that the conditions that prevail in the given state could vary with other states. This limits the findings of the research.
According to Capo and Orellana (2011), new media technologies used in education are supposed to contribute to the creation, modification, and the sharing of knowledge and information. While the research does not focus on the real attributes of new media technology adoption and use by teachers, it points at what the teachers see as the potential of implementing and using new media technologies in teaching.
There is a need to evaluate more aspects of the theory of planned behavior to test the theory’s ability to predict outcomes. In this research, the theory helped to inform the observed behavior of teachers in regards to the use of new media technologies as teaching aids. The theory, however, does not provide specific instances of the behavior of attitude changes. Instead, it offers an overview. In this regard, the research has highlighted the need for a specific theory that would provide a succinct relationship between attitudes and behavior outcomes when both people-relationship frameworks and infrastructure frameworks are in use. In this regard, the research adds to the contextual understanding of the theory of planned behavior that other researchers can quote in future explorations on the theory or its real-life implications.
Case study research is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers (Thomas, 2011). This research takes the explanatory case study approach. Therefore, it is imperative to observe that research questions are used as tools for attaining data. Several hypotheses can be derived based on the research findings, which can again be used to inform future research as far as integrate and use new media technologies used in education is concerned.
Teaching with new media technologies needs a change in behavior for teachers. These would be the ones who teach, have taught, and been taught, in traditional classrooms controlled by working with pen and paper. The rationale informing this assertion is that explanatory case studies, just as this research, do not deploy hypotheses in the search for information, but hypotheses are derived from the findings of the research. On that note, and based on the findings in the paper in line with the research questions, it is worth bringing out the two observations that are reflected in the findings. These include:
- The administration is offering a lot of support as far as the development of infrastructure that supports the adoption of new media technologies in learning.
- Most teachers are adopting new media technologies in their daily chores, a factor that implies support for the use of technology and new media technologies in teaching.
There is a connection between the adoption and use of new media technologies in modern teaching and the implementation of learning through the new curriculum based on Common Core State Standards.
Findings in the paper in line with the research questions, it is also worth bringing out the four hypotheses that are reflected in the findings. These include:
- Most participants are supporting the use of new media technologies in their teaching, and according to the TPB, this is a factor affecting their intentions to change.
- Most teachers are adopting new media technologies in their daily chores, a factor that implies support for the use of technology and new media technologies in teaching.
- The administration is offering a lot of support as far as the development of infrastructure that supports the adoption of new media technologies in learning.
- There is a connection between the adoption and use of new media technologies in modern teaching and the implementation of learning through the new curriculum based on Common Core State Standards.
Based on the study design deployed in the research, it is worth concluding that the findings of this research are indeed indicators of the objectives of the research. The information that comes out in Chapter 2 of the study points at the fact that technology, though with several challenges, is indeed one of the ways to go as far as improvements in terms of modern teaching by teachers are concerning. However, it is important to bring out issues about the strength and weaknesses of this research. One weakness that has not been mentioned in this research is that it simply ignores the opinions of the students, who are part of the subjects in this research. Students as part of the sample could have played a resounding role in determining the opinions of the teachers on the use of new media technologies in teaching.
Nonetheless, it is also important to note the fact that the research takes the initiative of involving teachers and administrators in the study sample. Getting the opinions of the teachers and the administrators gives a clear picture of the way the teachers perceive technology, both the acquisition and the use of technology and new media technologies in teaching. The findings in the study point at the fact that there is a high desire, need and pressure to integrate new media technologies in learning. However, a consideration of the structures of modern technology, which is the enabling factor if all new media technologies can and should be adopted and integrated into the Common Core State Standards-based high school curriculum.
Teachers are the main facilitators of education in the sense that they are at the center of the deployment of new media technologies in teaching. From the research, it is apparent that teachers are an integral part of the revolution and embrace the use of new media technologies in teaching. One intriguing thing is that the application of new media technologies in learning is a policy affair that does not depend on the opinion of teachers per se but also depends on the standards that are put in place to guide the adoption and the continued use of these technologies in teaching.
While teachers are receptive of new media technologies, the deployment of the new media technologies in teaching is another thing altogether because it requires the establishment of the means of moderating the manner and level at which new media technologies are integrated and used by the teachers in teaching. There is a need to involve a high number of stakeholders in the development of school standards and curriculum that can enable the establishment of an environment that adequately supports the adoption, integration, and use of new media technologies in teaching. Looking at the issue of new media technology adoption in teaching and learning calls for researchers to consider the opinions of teachers, most of which point at the willingness to do so, only that some teachers are learning the way to go.
The findings of this research indicate the difficulty in adopting the Common Core Standards amidst the adoption of new media technology tools in learning. There is stress on the need to train the teachers in line with how they should use new media technologies in teaching. The skills and will of teachers as far as technology adoption and deployment in teaching lies in the commitment of the administration to come up with the criteria that can see the moderation of the strategies used in integrating new media technologies in teaching. Future research needs to pay attention to the standards of learning, specifically how learning can be organized in an environment that is supportive of new media technologies in modern teaching.
The other thing that comes out of this research is that the educational administrators are in the course of promoting the use of new media technologies in teaching. In other words, the school and district administrators are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that teachers embrace the adoption, integration, and use of new media technologies in modern teaching. This research stimulates the desire to look into what can be done in terms of the policy to foster the development of a supportive environment and culture of learning that embraces the use of new media technologies.
In the future, the development of Common Core State Standards for education will have to follow a bottom-up approach at some stages to incorporate teachers’ and administrators’ feedback. On the other hand, in cases where schools are already implementing new media technologies before ensuring that teachers have sufficient teaching knowledge, there will be a need to introduce on-the-job teaching sessions for teachers (Mak & Pun, 2014). According to similar research by Underwood (2012), researchers will also have to consider other implications of the theory of planned behavior in the same context, but on a larger study sample to eradicate any shortcomings that this study highlighted. Overall, practitioners will have to consider the relationship and infrastructure context of using media technologies to prevent attitudinal setbacks that teachers expressed about using media technologies in teaching in high schools.
Recommendations for future research
- Future research should focus more on the perception of students towards new media technology tools used by teachers in classroom teaching. This study mainly focused on teachers and the administrators and gave little attention to students, yet they would influence the teachers’ adoption, integration, and use of new media technologies, as they are the direct recipients of the instructions.
- Future research should be a collaborative venture incorporating the views of all stakeholders in the use of new media technologies in modern teaching. The opinion of teachers, students, and education administrators would help policymakers and information technologists who develop the tools, come up with tools that are in line with current standards such as CCSS and have instructions on how teachers can integrate them in their teaching.
- This study was primarily based on one school district in Central Valley, California. Future research should spread to other school districts in another state so that the findings would be more generalizable. As for now, the findings of this study may not be a true representation of the new media uptake and use by the teachers in other states.
- The findings of this study indicate that some teachers still prefer traditional means of instruction and they are hesitant to adopt new media technologies, future studies should seek to establish the best way to integrate both traditional and new media technologies in teaching.
- It is evident that the level at which the use of new media technologies are integrated into teacher training and professional development influences the teachers’ adoption of the new media technologies. As such, future studies should seek to establish the extent to which teacher training colleges in the US blend and implement new media technologies in the curricula in preparing teachers to adopt new media technologies in teaching.
- The introduction of new media technologies of instruction in the future should be preceded with pilot studies in all the states. The studies should be based on new standards and programs before rolling out the programs in school districts in all the states. Researchers in the field of education should take advantage of taking the perceptions of teachers as they would help establish the best way to roll out the new media technologies.
Recommendations for practice
- The findings of this study about the perceptions of teachers about new technology use should be incorporated into teacher training curricula. For instance, new teachers should start practicing the use of new media technologies during their training so that they can easily integrate and use new media technologies in teaching when they start teaching in class.
- The findings suggest that adopting new media technologies in teaching can improve the effectiveness of teaching. This should form a basis for incorporating the findings into practice.
- There is a need for the convening of stakeholders to agree on the clear way forward if the deployment of new media technologies in teaching has to be successful. This is in line with the finding that there is a connection between the embrace of technology and the ability of all the teachers to design and use new curricula according to the Common Core State Standards.
Mak, B., & Pun, S. (2014). Cultivating a teacher community of practice for sustainable professional development: beyond planned efforts. Teachers and Teaching, 21(1), 4-21. Web.
Underwood, P. (2012). Teacher beliefs and intentions regarding the instruction of English grammar under national curriculum reforms: A Theory of Planned Behaviour perspective. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(6), 911-925. Web.
Yang, K., Wang, T., & Chiu, M. (2015). Study the effectiveness of technology-enhanced interactive teaching environment on student learning of junior high school biology. EURASIA J. Math, Sci & Tech Ed, 11(3), 263-275. Web.