Organizations participate daily in search of projects to implement. This is usually motivated by various reasons. One motivation could be the need to make more profit that will in the end spur development or growth of the organization. In other cases, the motivation could be a way of staving off dwindling returns or even stifling domination of other competing firms. However, there are cases where some projects are initiated for social responsibility. This, therefore, means that an organization may come up with a project intended to give back to society. This report will outline a recommendation which will serve as a guideline for improving sound management and effectiveness of the same.
Project managers have to make sure that their projects are completed within the required set conditions. For this to happen, best management practices have to be considered. Projects are challenging. They deal with resources. It is the responsibility of the project manager to make sure that resources such as time, human, and even financial resources are well managed to achieve an acceptable project.
A marine emergency is an emergency program that organizations have established to respond to emergencies that may befall people engaged in offshore activities. These activities can invoke actions of evacuation, rescue, or escape. By embracing the activities and practices of project management, this paper sets to investigate, review, and make recommendations on how services at Marine Emergencies can be improved.
Aim of the project
The general aim of this project is to review and makes recommendations for improvement in marine emergencies.
This report aims to
- Assess Emergence strategy and planning about marine emergencies
- Identify Emergency management practices about marine emergencies
- Assessing Communication skills about marine emergencies
- Analyze the risks involved in project management. about marine emergencies
- Assess project management decisions about marine emergencies
It is usually important for the people the project is intended to be convinced that the project is useful. It is therefore important that all the benefits that will arise from the project are clearly explained to the audience. The benefits of this project will therefore useful in helping marine emergency organizations have adequate skills and knowledge in strategically responding to emergencies. Besides, the project will provide reliable guidance to the management in strategy formulation and measures which can be applied in risk mitigation.
This includes all the total of what the whole project will consume. Though projects may end up taking more than earlier expected, it is however important for the project managers to provide a near accurate cost of the project before giving any authority as to its initiation. This could be done at different stages a long way into making sure that everything is catered for. The cost of the Marine project will be as follows;
|Project Director||1 year||30,000|
|Assistant Project Director||1 “||25,000|
|Team Leaders||9 “||10,000|
|Labor costs||1 Year||47000|
The business case in this project is Marine Emergencies. A business case serves as a background or platform from which a project is initiated or not. In other words, there have to be credible reasons as to why an organization may set to start a project. This includes various issues such as; the market capacity and even the motivation for the project. In the business case, issues such as; costs, timescales, and other resources.
In this project, the team will be delegated with job responsibilities about capability and what should be done. Where an individual is capable of handling more than one task, he or she will be allowed to help in other duties. The duties given to each staff s will be recorded as a guideline. The task timetable should embrace the following format:
|2||Writing Project Initiation Document||Project Team|
|3||Vacancy advertisements||Human Resource|
|5||Risk Plans||Human Resource Department|
|6||Acquire construction material||Purchasing and Supply|
The precedent chart is a chart that displays the formulation of tasks corresponding to the estimated time taken to complete it. The diagram below shows a precedent chart recorded in weeks and months. The chart was used during project planning.
Human resource management or the manager will ensure that adequate staffs are available. Staff responsibilities and duties should be given basing on qualifications and experience. Other factors such as integrity and good communication skills should be emphasized as well. Senior leadership should be vetted to ensure that they can deliver the original objectives of the project.
Risk Management Plan
A Risk can be defined as a probability of an unforeseen catastrophe and its consequences. For established businesses, risk can bring a devastating disaster if left unchecked (Lam 2003, 231). A risk manager is a necessity to ensure risk management forms part and a core aspect of the business. The need for systematic risk management grows with an increase in organizational size.
Systematic risk management when applied will help safeguard Marine emergencies against any threat to the organization’s operations. A Risk manager will play an essential role in Marine emergencies, as they will coordinate daily risk management functions in the organization. A risk manager will be responsible for monitoring, capturing, and analyzing risks related information (Lam 2003, 121). The capacity to monitor, capture, and analyze risk-related information makes the risk manager better positioned as a spokesperson for the organization. A risk manager has a duty of being a spokesman for an organization or program where major reviews and reporting is of essence (Lam 2003, 127).
Moreover, the risk manager has to ably apply his or her expertise and implement systems that ensure organizational or operational safety. This involves, working closely with other departmental heads to ensure that all systems are working to the required standards and where there is a problem the risk manager applies expertise and models to devise remedies (Lam 2003, 231).
The risk manager has to ensure awareness about risks is enhanced in an organization. These can be done through formal training or organizing meetings at which risks are discussed. Such measures help to ensure that there is continuous improvement of safety measures in an organization. Furthermore, it also ensures all employees are involved in risk management thus yielding good results in the organization.
The purpose of the document
The purpose of this report is to incorporate project management principles and practices given by making recommendations for the improvement of marine emergency.
Complex problem-solving theories
Major problems occur in an organization or team thus affecting productivity and human relations. Campbell (2009, 122) alleges that organization which possesses weak systems of addressing problems, regular conflicts are common. Unsettled conflicts can lead to legal suits or hamper effective communication along the line of command within the organization.
Theories that help mitigate conflicts have been introduced by many authors. One of the theories in common use is the “Theory of Constraints”. The theory of Constrain is a management principle aimed at helping organizations focus on their strengths, goals, and achieve set targets. TOC is derived from the argument that any controllable structure is reserved in achieving its goals with a limited number of challenges.
The TOC method aims at identifying constraints and providing measures that reflect the rest of the organization. Lam (2003, 231) says that TOC is accomplished in five major steps. The five steps involve includes; identifying the constraint, making a decision on how to deal with it, subordinating some processes to support the above decision, elevating the constraints and if the constraint has been restrained, the first step is revisited. This theory proves useful for organizations, which have larger teams or employees.
Marine Emergency Operation Project plan
The functioning of the Marine Emergency Rescue Operation
Diagram: IV presents Marine Emergency and Operation Plan. The Marine emergence has distinct units and functions and thus comprises of different personnel with varied job responsibilities.
Marine Emergence Administration Unit
The central administration is located at the periphery. This area acts as a base for management decision making to govern the whole organization. the central administrative unit is responsible for; overall functioning of the center, organizing resources, strategizing on contingency plans, liaising with similar firms to enhance mutual working relations, and acting as a standby instrument in case an alert is relayed at the center.
Human Resource Management
Human resource management ensures that there is adequate staff in the organization. It is in charge of job advertisement, recruitment, training, and ensuring the welfare of staff is well looked after.
The strategic administration unit handles the strategy section. It formulates both short term and long term strategic options for the organization. Besides, the unit carries out emergency decisions in case a need arises. There is also strategy and performance management (PM). Performance management will incorporate the goals and objectives of Marine Emergence.PM will ensure that the organization consistently achieves its goals. It will work closely with other units such as communication and risk management to facilitate quality service delivery.
Marine communication Unit
Marine Emergence has a communication unit. This unit is important because it interacts with its organization’s environment i.e. the customers, suppliers, and other forms of activities. The communication unit consists of a response mechanism, which ensures that timely response in case of alarm alert is relayed to the relevant unit in the organization.
These units form the core guideline of Marine Emergence. Once implemented, Marine Emergence will increase its service delivery, enhance efficiency in operation, and provide a competitive edge to its competitors.
The marine has a risk management unit. This unit is important for setting up standards for risk mitigation and also providing contingency plans before actual risk happen.
Critical path analysis
Critical Path Analysis (CPA) is useful in project planning and management. Critical Path Analysis is sometimes known as; Critical Path Method. CPA assists project managers in effecting plans that are necessary a priority for completion during every stage of project management. They aid in project planning and resource forecasting. In the course of project planning, they help monitor the achievement of project objectives and goals. This tool therefore will be useful in ensuring the Marine emergence plan and executed its activities on schedule.
Many projects project managers consider the tool effective in developing and testing a plan before it is executed. This is to ensure planning is robust and meets the core objective of the project. CPA identifies critical tasks that without obligations need to be complete on time and provide space for other activities. It also identifies tasks that are not a priority because of limited resources.
Stages in Using CPA
.To recognizes CPA and its usage, basic principles, definitions, and procedures are important. This ensures that the project manager or team leading projects can understand precisely what has to be done and in which way.
The first step in using CPA is listing down major tasks. Outlining known or a task to be executed in planning and managing project is critical during this stage. The degree of the finiteness of tasks will largely depend on managers or project team leaders and the urgency in completing the planning and management. The second step will involve sequencing critical tasks. In this stage, each activity is sequenced in a coherent format centered on time and when it is likely to occur.
The third stage is constructing an activity flow diagram. A chart or diagram detailing the sequence of tasks scheduled for general planning efforts for the project is stated at this stage. The fourth stage, which needs an accurate estimation of time for each activity, is important. Time is shown using days or weeks. Finally, the last part is determining the Critical Path. A path of tasks to be accomplished within indicated times can now be displayed and be determined. CPA can have symbols, perpendicular lined, or hash marks.
Critical Analysis Path
The diagram above shows activities in a CPA. The arrows show the connection of actions, the arrows symbolize replica activities and hence defines the resource which needs less resource allocation or less time
The Gantt chart
Gnatt charts are important tools especially in planning and scheduling challenging projects. They allow the project management plan and allocate resources about the complexity of the project. Besides forming a source for effective scheduling when activities are affected. The diagram below shows the Gnatt Chart with scheduled activities.
The diagram above outlines the activities, which need to be carried out. The activities are labeled from numbers 1 to 6 in correspondence to activity on the Gantt chart. Activities have to be completed concerning the time allocated
Application of academic theory to the practice of project management
Project management is a term commonly applied in business concepts. It involves aspects of planning, organizing, and managing resources i.e. Human expertise to complete precise project objectives as noted by Lock (2007, 45). Guiding principles such as space-time and technology are important for the project team to ensure all processes are carried out as outlined.
Time is significant for finite projects where precise start and completion duration is a requirement to be allocated to a project undertaken to generate a distinctive product. That is a product which can bring valuable shift or extra value. Lock (2007, 45) notes that the predetermined features of projects are divergent to procedures, nevertheless, or processes which are perennial or semi-permanent practical work to continually produce a similar product or service.
Moreover, Space is equally important in executing project roles and objectives. Space can be in terms of cybernetic or actual space. In a circumstance relating to space, measures should be embraced like in any other management principle.
Various authors have stressed the value of technology in planning, organizing, and implementing projects. Lock (2007, 58) for examples gives a detailed illustration of how technological tools such as the use of project simulation software’s, Gnatt Charts, CPA, and Activity on nodes ensures that accuracy and timely decisions are made besides providing instant feedback on actions which deem useful for guiding project planners and implementers.
According to Lock (2007, 45), effective management of time, space, and technology systems is sometimes found to be different hence needs a change of discrete methodological skills and espousal of detached organizational theories. Kerzner (2009, 56) suggest that PM may encounter challenges in fully achieving project goals and aims whereas embracing project constraint procedures. These constraints are; volume, budget constraints, and time.
Effective communication skills are an essential portfolio for any efficacious professional. Being in a position to eloquent vision and strategies facilitate, inspire, and revitalizes a team. According to Ellis (2009, 58), project managers act as a liaison between the project and the stakeholders. Moreover, through his leadership, he or she has to update both parties at a given interval. Communication skills will aid Marine Emergence in implementing emergency strategies effectively.
Strong presentation skills, eloquence, confidence, and team player are all needed by project leaders. To attain these skills, project managers should embrace active listening. Lam (2003, 231) illustrates that our ability to actively listen and understand others is of vital value. Keen listening to words and their underlying meaning, asking questions to gauge understanding, and noting non-verbal signs ensure understanding of what is being said hence this plays an important role in decision-making (Ellis 2009, 98).
Upholding healthy relationships anchored on trust and respect goes a long way in enhancing communication among the group. Trust and respect build personal relationships. These ethics are developed through honesty, expertise, integrity, and experience (Ellis 2009, 144).
The project manager encounters challenges while leading projects. However, by instituting an effective problem-solving system in project management, fewer problems occur and measures are taken promptly (Ellis 2009, 116). Besides, simplify in matters of tracking and identifying problems and be in a position to handle as they occur. One of the methods of solving the problem encountered in project management is encouraging team members to forward their concerns. Team members may experience a problem in which a project may be unaware of or have a solution that can help solve the same problem (Ellis 2009, 125).
Besides team problem solving, the project itself has tools that facilitated motoring and assessing any potential threats. One of the analytical methods which have been proved useful is the SWOT Analysis. SWOT Analysis is designated as, Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats. Campbell (2009, 133) points out that, it is a common tool which most organization embrace in auditing its environment. It is a tool that is used in initial project planning and helps the project team to identify threats, weaknesses, and strengths, which can have adverse effects during project planning and execution.
Most importantly, many projects embrace Critical Success Factors. This entails identifying priorities that matter in achieving success. CSFs are a simple tool that can guide the project team in prioritizing important matters which need attention and leave less urgent issues to be solved later (Campbell 2009,69). This tool creates a record that helps in directing and measuring the success of projects. Besides, the tool helps everyone in the team to precisely understand what is urgent.
Recommendations Plans for Marine Emergency
To improve management practices and enhance quality services at Marine Emergence, the management has to embrace various management practices in its daily operations. One of the management practices to be instituted is appropriate and sound human resources. Human resources are key to the survival of any organization. The quality of service and organization prosperity largely depends on how competent and skills the human resource possesses.
The selection and recruitment of human resources in Marine emergence should therefore be anchored on experience, skills, and organization’s culture. The second recommendation is having a strong strategic team that can aid in formulating policies for the organization. Organizations that have strong management in strategizing both short and long-term goals for an organization aid organizations in achieving its business objectives.
The strategic team will therefore help in formulating decisions that can help the organization prepared a response at any moment. The third recommendation is having effective and reliable communication strategies. Communication is important in relaying information during emergencies. Have strategies in communications skills and methods for its distribution will help Marine emergency in providing quality services and ready prepared for emergencies.
Lastly, instruments for managing risks and strategies to foresee before they happen will be an important recommendation for marine Emergency to factor. Having contingency plans in place can before a risk occur saves time, life, and other tangible resources.
Project management can be a daunting task for every project manager or organization. by incorporating Marine Emergency, sound project management practices are essential for any project success. They are helpful tools for ensuring; project initiation, planning, organization, and execution are done in the right way. In many projects, we have learned that effective team leadership, project management team, and problem-solving skills among other critical components should take a leading role in project management.
Campbell, G., M., 2009. Communications Skills for Project Managers, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, New York.
Ellis, R., 2009. Communication Skills: Stepladders to Success For The Professional, Intellect Books, Bristol.
Kerzner, H., 2009. Project Management: A Systems Approach To Planning, Scheduling, And Controlling, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Lam, J., 2003. Enterprise Risk Management: From Incentives to Controls, John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey.
Lock, D., 2007. Project Management, Gower Publishing, Ltd., New Delhi.