Illegal immigration is the instance of movement of individuals from one nation to another through a process or modes; that infringe the immigration laws of the country to which these individuals are moving. Another name given to Illegal immigrants is illegal aliens as a move and effort attempting to differentiate them; from the immigrants within the destination country lawfully. Speaking from a political point of view, the same people are considered with more implications as they are associated with the social issues of the economy; education, slavery, lawful protection, labor provision, public welfare, healthcare standards, individual rights, and vices like crime and welfare. The social implications of these Illegal aliens on the different areas of social concern are that, either they affect the administration, provision, or access of services and opportunities either adversely or positively (Haerens 14-29).
Coming to the causes of illegal immigration; it is worth noting that most of the illegal immigration take place as a result of social-related factors like poverty, the search for employment, trade, and market for commodities, family reunification, overpopulation, and the escape from a crisis like the war in the seek for Asylum. Under the area of economic factors and search for employment; it is significantly clear that the majority of the illegal immigration practices that take place involve the movement of people from nations of the lower social-economic establishment. Most of the practice involves the movement of individuals from developing and underdeveloped nations, moving to countries that are developed like the U.S among others. Under this factor as contributing to immigration, we have several aspects that encourage the inflow of illegal immigrants into these destinations. The aspects under this factor include; the high levels of employment and earning associated with working in the developed nations; trade liberalization and globalization that result to the displacement of many unskilled and low-level workers due to the opening of local markets to importation. Another determining factor under this cause is the structural deficiency that creates the need for unskilled labor force to take-up the jobs, which the natives of these developed nations are not willing to perform (Mauk et al. 67-74).
The other factor that fuels the practice of illegal immigration is the poverty and low salaries associated with the labor markets and employment, available in developing and underdeveloped nations. Another characteristic of developing nations and underdeveloped nations that fuels the phenomena of illegal immigration is overpopulation; as it leads to unemployment thus the pursuit for better environments in developed nations. The desire to live with family and relatives who are already living in these developed nations also forms a cause of Illegal immigration. The fear of crisis including natural disasters like earth quakes, social instabilities like war and the search for asylum also form a major cause for illegal immigration (Mauk et al 57-65).
On the area of the dangers that come together with illegal immigration are; labor slavery among other forms of slavery; prostitution and sexual exploitation of and by the immigrants due to lack of access and rights to resources. Other dangers of immigration include the death of immigrants during transit, or due to the adverse conditions that face them in the destination countries (Chomsky 145-149).
The modes and conditions that render individuals acquire the label of illegal immigrants include; border crossing where individuals who do not qualify for the standards on which legal immigration is to be done cross the borders secretly. An example here is the illegal immigration at the U.S-Mexican border. Another form is the overstaying of the time allowed legally by the Visa possessed by an individual, or violation of the terms and conditions under which the visa is granted. The other form of illegal immigration is being subject to the rules and regulations, set on lawful and political status regarding immigrants. One of the major underlying factors under this case is the effort to control terrorism in countries like the U.S (Guskin et al. 48-56).
Coming to the value of illegal immigration; consideration will be given to the economic and social implications among other areas that are impacted upon positively by the inflow of illegal immigrants. As a starting point, it is important to point out the economic implications of illegal immigrants in a nation like the U.S from a recent study. The study indicated that these individuals are the ones who cut lawns among other low-class jobs. The study further indicated that if the services of these individuals were to be done away with, then the economy would lose $ 1.8 trillions in the form of spending to cover for the service expenses related to the work they do. Giving consideration to a state like Texas; 1.2 million workers would be lost and a service expense of $ 220.7 billion to cover for the deficit in service provision. Considering the Gross domestic product of the U.S, $ 652 billion would be lost if the services and value of the illegal immigrants was to be done away with. The study further showed that in a state like Texas these illegal immigrants contribute up to $ 27 billion in meeting the costs of healthcare and education (Swain 248-260).
Illegal immigrants provide low-level employers and lower productivity enterprises with flexible low-cost labor, as these individuals due to their unstable citizenship status don’t require that the employers contribute towards their healthcare and other social provisions. As a result, the inflow of illegal immigrants has the potential of improving and enhancing the growth of minor enterprises; which contribute highly to the common gross national product (Mills 120-134).
The other value of illegal immigration is that some of the people moving into the developed nations like the U.S; are of a high skill level like software engineers and programmers. These individuals posses the potential of being employed by the rapidly expanding technology industries, thus as a result form an important tool in the overall development of these nations. Most of the illegal immigrants beings low-skilled or non-skilled individuals; provide labor force for the food preparation, construction and cleaning services industries, which contribute greatly to the income of these developed nations; but in which the citizens of these developed nations are not ready to work in (Swain 248-260).
From studies carried out recently, it was established that another value of illegal immigration is that it responds positively to the market forces of the destination countries. The logic contained in this contention is that; illegal immigrants tend to increase in number when the economy is booming. An example here is the illegal immigration that takes place between the U.S –Mexican border, when the U.S economy is in its high seasons (Mills 120-134).
The other value of illegal immigration labor is that it is flexible and is available to the enterprises and businesses in developed countries at the time of need; which could on temporary terms at the time when the workers are needed. This means that it allows for a constant availability of labor; and availability at the different locations where the workers are required. By this it is evident that due to the flexibility of this labor sources; the levels of enterprising and investment increase therefore posing a direct positive impact on the economy of the destination nations (Mills 120-134).
Another value of the illegal immigrant population is that; it forms a source of market for the goods and services provided within the destination countries. Some of the goods and services whose demand increase due to the inflow of Illegal immigrants include; goods from the food industry; provision of housing and shelter; and the goods and services provided by the clothing and fashion industries (Swain 248-260).
From a recent study, it was also established that up to 75% of the illegal immigrant population pay taxes to the federal and local authorities. The same workers are known to contribute to the payment of social security; which also forms an important part of the income that is calculated as the GDP of these destination countries.
The other value of illegal immigration is that it allows for more mobility of labor thus improving its accessibility. This directly results to increased production due to the improved performance that results from the competitive employment conditions and access to employment (Mills 120-134).
In conclusion it can be noted that despite the negative impacts of illegal immigration; it is a distinctive source of cheap, flexible labor force; an aspect that increases service delivery. To be accounted for also, is the fact that despite the positive impacts of illegal immigration; it is important to give consideration to the long-term effects of its increase, as it will diversely affect the levels of employment and access to social service administration (Hayworth 45-57).
Chomsky, Aviva. “They take our jobs” and 20 other myths about Immigration. Beacon Press. (2007): 145-149
Guskin, Jane. & Wilson, David. “The Politics of Immigration: Questions and answers. Monthly Review Press. (2007): 48-56
Haerens, Margaret. “Illegal Immigration”. Greenhaven Press. (2006): 14-29
Hayworth, J. “Whatever it takes: Illegal immigration, Border Security and the war on Terror”. Regnery Publishing, Inc. (2006): 45-57
Mauk, John. & Metz, John. “Inventing Arguments, Brief. Wadsworth Publishing. (2008): 57-65
Mauk, John. & Metz, John. “Inventing Arguments”. Wadsworth Publishing. (2008): 67-74
Mills, Nicolaus. “Arguing Immigration: The debate over the changing face of America”. Touchstone Press. (2007): 120-134
Swain, Carol. “Debating Immigration”. Cambridge University Press. (2007): 248-260