Animal Experimentation: Justification Arguments

Abstract

Animal experimentation has always proven to be a controversial subject. People are having different thoughts and opinions regarding the opposition and favor of animal experimentation. Animal experimentation includes all the methods of testing that are performed by making use of nonhumans. In this paper, we are going to favor the experimentation that is done by making use of animals. Animal experimentation has contributed a lot in testing drugs, introducing new medicines and treatments, and improving knowledge as well as experience. It would not be wrong to say that animal experimentation is majorly being performed for the benefit of human life. Different treatments and medicines are found by animal experimentation that has been used for providing safety and security to human life. In this paper, we have presented several pros that defines the importance of animal experimentation. We have also given many reasons that support the continuation of this procedure. In short, we cannot ignore this kind of experimentation as human life means more to us and it should be secured.

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Introduction to Animal Experimentation

The subject of animal experimentation has always been a controversial one. There are many different reasons for which animal experimentation is performed. Animal experimentation can be defined as the conduct of experiments and tests by making use of nonhuman animals. This experimentation is widely used in scientific researches. The policies and standards that are applied to this kind of experimentation are quite strict so that none of the unethical activity can be performed. It is recommended that this type of experimentation should be done only in circumstances where no other method is available. This experimentation is performed only at the selected location with great care. Universities, medical schools, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology companies, and military defense establishments are allowed to make use of this experimentation (Gilland, 2002). In this paper, we are going to discuss animal experimentation by agreeing with this issue that this method of experimentation is necessary.

Still, many people are not in favor of this kind of experimentation. The reason for this opposition is to prevent nonhumans from sufferings and pains. According to them, there is no use in animal testing and it just hurts the animals. On the other hand, the people who favor this experimentation are with the thought that this experimentation is for the betterment and safety of human life. The results of these tests are used for identifying the treatments for various diseases that can be a risk for human life (Monamy, 2000). We are favoring this kind of experimentation because sometimes there are no other methods available that may allow finding out the treatments for the diseases. We have also provided the readers with the reasons that prove the need for animal experimentation.

Saving human life is precious. Keeping this objective in mind we are going to give reasons, uses, and benefits of supporting the experimentation of animals. We have also provided arguments, which are not in favor of animal experimentation.

Uses of Animal Experimentation

There are several reasons for which animal experimentation is being used. Some products and applications need this type of testing. Most of the medicines and products that we use are previously tested on animals. This testing is being performed to find that is there any hazard associated with using that particular product. In other words, animal experimentation is used for the protection of human life. Almost all of the medical treatments that are being performed today do make use of nonhumans. This involvement is necessary to find out the after-effects of any medication. (Haugen, 2006)

Animal experimentation is also widely used in the various kinds of drug testing like metabolic tests, toxicology tests, and efficacy tests. These drug tests are mostly performed on animals that are also suffering from the same disease. The metabolism, absorption, and excretion of the drugs are then observed over the animals. These tests are also helpful in finding out the toxicity levels of drugs and products. Most of the time, animal experimentation is also used for scientific research works. In this research works the different diseases are induced into the animals and then different treatments are applied to explore the proper cure. The cosmetic products are also tested by making use of these products. This check is performed over the animals to find out the reaction of certain products over the skin and eyes. This is again necessary as sometimes the toxicity level is so high that can harm the skin and eyes of the human. In short, the major uses of animal experimentation are to test the drugs and to introduce the medication. (Schmidt, 2001)

Benefits of Using Animal Experimentation

Animal experimentation has got many reasons that make us favor this method of testing. In this paper we are going to discuss some of the reasons for which this experimentation should be supported:

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Benefits for human life can be one of the major reasons for which animal experimentation has always been supported. This experimentation has helped the scientific research of the groom. The field of medicine has also improved and developed by making use of nonhumans in performing different experiments. Providing people with the guarantee that the medicines are not harmful to them is essential. The testing has allowed the researchers to find out the possible hazardous effects of the medicines (Orlans, 1998).

Without the use of this experimentation, the medical field couldn’t enhance itself. Cures and treatments are now being developed for fatal diseases.

Also, the different products are tested by making use of nonhumans. This testing provides the guarantee that the products are not harmful to the skin, eyes, and other organs of human beings. These products may include pesticides, cosmetics, cleaners, herbicides, and other household products (Hayhurst, 2000). The testing is performed to know the after-effects of the products on human life. This experimentation satisfies the people and then they can use the products without any hesitation or fear. In the period when animal testing was not much supported; accidents were the only way to get to know the dangers of certain products. The testing has also proved to be informative for many professionals like doctors, researchers, emergency managers, poison controllers, and many other field workers. They get to know about the various dangers and benefits of using certain products and chemicals. This has also allowed exploring the usage of different chemicals in different areas. (Hayhurst, 2000)

Other benefits of using animal experimentation are that it has also helped to reduce human suffering. If these tests were applied to human beings then it would have been much difficult to perform the experiments. Animal experimentation has also allowed finding out the level of toxicity of any substance. This examination has made people careful while using such products that are containing toxic substances. (Yarri, 2005)

Another benefit of doing animal experimentation is that animals are the most trustworthy source to examine the medicines and other products. In foreign countries, all the drugs are tested on animals earlier than these are all set to sale in the market (Preece, 1993). If animal experiments are banned then it would be very difficult to find out the reactions of medicines and it will create problems for human beings. Animal experimentation has also proved to be cost-effective yet efficient. The fields of genetic engineering and transgenic have also been raised by the use of animal experimentation. Animal testing is also useful for veterinary medicines. These medicines are for the animals themselves (Fox, 1986). In other words, it would not be wrong to say that animal experimentation has proved to be beneficial for both humans as well as for animals.

Reasons for supporting the Animal Experimentation

In this paper, we are favoring the use of nonhumans to provide benefits to human beings. Animal experimentation is not only useful for human beings but it has also proven to be useful for the animals as well (Lee, 1996). It is very essential to provide the reasons for favoring this way of experimentation as many people are having misconceptions and they consider this activity as unnecessary one. We should focus on the uses of this experimentation and its benefits rather than focusing on animal suffering and pain. Focus on animal suffering just presents the distorted image of animal experimentation (Lee, 1996).

Following are the reasons for which we can say that the act of animal experimentation should be supported.

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  • Benefits of Human Beings: The major reason for which animal experimentation should be supported is the benefit of human life. No other justification can be as strong as this one. This experimentation is being used for preventing human beings from deadly diseases. The conditions of life have proven to be very improved by the use of animal experimentation. By performing experiments on the animals; sometimes new treatments are introduced which then help in curing the people. Most people do not get agreed with this usage of animals. As they consider that this method is making the animals to get suffered and then human life is being provided with the ease and cure. But it should be kept in mind that securing and protecting human life is of the primary importance if it is compared with the protection of animals (The joys of animal research, testing, and experimentation, 2010). The new medicines or treatments are introduced are first tested over the animals to find out the after-effects of the treatment. Sometimes, the diseases that are occurring in human beings are induced into the animals to find out the cure. Such experiments have allowed finding out the cure of many diseases. An example of successful animal experimentation is the development of the Polio vaccine which was a very devastating disease for the human body and was spreading rapidly (The joys of animal research, testing, and experimentation, 2010). Even real-world medical knowledge is given to practitioners and students by making use of animal experimentation. Rats and other animals are used for performing experiments like dissections. Although we should take care of the animals but suing them for the safety of human life is not an unethical practice as human life is very precious and should be valued.
  • Progresses the Scientific Research Works: Animal experimentation should also be favored as it has helped a lot in improving the standards of scientific research works. The scientists and researchers are now allowed to test any new method or treatment over the animals which has made them understand the pros and cons of that treatment. It has also allowed finding out new ways of curing the diseases by examining the results. The field of scientific and medical research has enhanced a lot as it is not possible to test the new treatments over human beings directly (Hayhurst, 2000). Hence the animal experimentation cannot be ignored to provide continuous development in the areas of research, science, and medicine. Animal experimentation is getting a necessity for the research fields. This experimentation has also allowed exploring the behavioral and psychological research areas (Hayhurst, 2000). If this method of experimentation was not available then scientists were never able to make experiments for developing new treatments and cures. The reason for this inability is quite obvious as experimentation over human beings would not be allowed. Dramatic improvements can be seen in the areas of research by making use of this method of experimentation (Hayhurst, 2000). The researchers have developed cures and medicines for many diseases and it is observed that if animals are not used for this purpose then both humans, as well as animals, would have to suffer.
  • Improving Knowledge: The testing and progress also provide researchers and scientists with a huge amount of related information. The practitioners and the doctors may also take benefit from this information (Paul, 2001). Obviously when an experiment is performed then the effects of the experiment provide several outcomes. These outcomes are very beneficial for the professionals of this field. This knowledge can be used as it is best to improve the health and life of human beings. Also, animal experimentation is being used practically in medical education which has allowed the students to know performing different essential practices (Paul, 2001). The researchers who perform these experiments also then present their findings in some written form which is then used by any other practitioner for improving his knowledge and for understanding the use of certain treatment or medicine. For the students of medical, it has been made compulsory to perform all the practical work like performing dissection and so on which has also improved the level of practical knowledge and experience (Paul, 2001). The practical activities no doubt provide more understanding and information. On the other hand, the information that is provided by the researchers is also very useful for others especially when they are going to use those medications or treatments.
  • Testing the Drugs: Another reason which supports the usage of this kind of experimentation is that it is better to test any drug or product over the animals before using it over human beings. Sometimes the products may have very adverse effects and may harm the skin or any other human organ. If the testing is not done over the animals then only accidents will indicate the effects of any drug or product. This testing of drugs has enhanced the field of medicines to the large extent. Testing the drugs is very important before making use of them as different chemicals may react differently. If these drugs are used without making previous tests that these may severely harm the people (Fox, 1986). Knowing the adverse effects after making use of the drugs is useless. As it might harm the people very brutally. Different chemicals may affect the various organs of the human body. Most of the time people may get eye infections, skin reactions, and also some internal reactions which may even get dangerous to human life. For securing human life it is necessary to test the drugs over the animals before making them available into the markets. When the effects are observed then the drugs are made available along with the necessary precautions. It can make it easier for people to use drugs with care. (Fox, 1986)

The above are the major reasons which support the usage of animal experimentation. We believe that human life is the most important asset and it should be saved at any cost. We do not mean to harm the animals as well. We strictly suggest that the animals should be kept at places which are hygienically clean and sound (Frey, 2002). The animals should be kept with great care and the scientists should also try to recover them as well.

Contra Argument

The people who are not in favor of this kind of testing are having sympathy in their hearts for the animals. They do not want to make the animals suffer for this testing procedure. In this regard, animal welfare organizations and people always fight for animal rights (Day, 1994). Although they are right to some extent as animals are also living beings and nobody would like to hurt them. Still, the question is that ‘is animal life more than the human life?’ Animal experimentation is being performed only for the sake of saving human life. It is a fact that human life has got much more value than the life of any other species so it should be saved and protected. When no other alternative method is available for testing the drugs and exploring the treatments then it gets necessary to use the nonhumans for this sake (Day, 1994). So, the best solution for this argument is that animal experimentation should be used only when no other method of testing is available. Also, the animals should be provided with sound conditions. The argument that is given by the opposition minds does not hold much weight.

Conclusion

After performing this analysis of animal experimentation and its benefits we have concluded that in some cases this kind of experimentation is necessary. Animal experimentation includes any test that makes use of a nonhuman for the experiment. The result of the experiment can be positive as well as negative. Some people strictly oppose this kind of experimentation but again some people do favor this testing system. In this paper, we have favored animal testing. We have provided the readers with several strong reasons and have tried our best to convince the people for favoring this experimentation. These reasons may include the benefits that are being provided by this testing to human beings, a large amount of knowledge is obtained, the effects of the drugs can be known and scientific research has been improved. These reasons are enough for making the readers get convinced as nothing holds much more value than human life. Along with the reasons we have also been given many benefits of animal experimentation. Saving a human life holds very much importance and no conflicting reason can make us ignore this one. The standards and rules should be implemented so that only essential experiments are done. Animal experimentation should be supported and encouraged as it also helps in boosting up the areas of medicine, research, and science. To progress and develop more it is necessary to continue performing this kind of experimentation. In a nutshell, we are in favor of animal experimentation to provide human life with benefits and ease.

References

Day, N. (1994). Animal experimentation: Cruelty or science? New Jersey: Enslow Publishers.

Frey, R. G. (2002). Justifying animal experimentation. Society journal, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 37-47.

Fox, M. A. (1986). The case for animal experimentation: an evolutionary and ethical perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gilland, T. (2002). Animal experimentation: good or bad? London: Hodder and Stoughton.

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Haugen, D. M. (2006). Animal experimentation. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Hayhurst, C. (2000). Animal testing: the animal rights debate. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group.

Lee, R. (1996). Death rites: Law and ethics at the end of life. London: Routledge.

Magalhaes, H. (1974). Environmental variables in animal experimentation. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press.

Monamy, V. (2000). Animal experimentation: a guide to the issues. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Orlans, F. B. (1998). The human use of animals: case studies in ethical choice. London: Oxford University Press.

Paul, E. F. (2001). Why animal experimentation matters: the use of animals in medical research. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

Preece, R. (1993). Animal welfare and human values. Cananda: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

The joys of animal research, testing and experimentation (2010). Web.

Schmidt, A. (2001). Animal testing in infectiology. Switzerland: Karger Publishers.

Yarri, D. (2005). The ethics of animal experimentation: a critical analysis and constructive Christian proposal. New York: Oxford University Press US.

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