E-learning is commonly utilised in disseminating knowledge to students in institutions of higher learning. Several tertiary educational centres are shifting focus on e-learning mainly because of its flexibility and ease of access. A number of studies conducted globally suggest that e-learning influences the academic sector to a great extent because it facilitates teaching and preparing students in handling challenges in the labour market. Even though many definitions are offered on e-learning, a consensus has never been reached, but a majority of scholars tend to agree that it entails the application of complex technologies in the process of learning and teaching. This research proposal presents a literature review that focuses on the factors responsible for the growth of e-learning in the education industry.
The most applied technologies in e-learning include the internet, intranet, email communication, utilisation of satellite broadcasts, and audio/video tapes (Maidment, 2006). Additionally, e-learning is compatible with various learning situations, including web-based learning, computer-based teaching, and virtual classes. Students applying e-learning strategies are likely to experience improvement in levels of written communication as well as enhancement in professional careers.
As many institutions adopt e-learning strategies, questions are often asked about the effectiveness of such strategies in enhancing the academic sector. In this article, a study is conducted to establish the relevance of e-learning in the academic sector. In other words, the paper is focused on establishing the importance of e-learning in institutions of higher learning. For many analysts, the following questions are inevitable:
- Does e-learning have the capacity to revolutionise the academic industry in any significant way?
- Do governments and other stakeholders, such as the institutions of higher learning, have a role to play in ensuring e-learning is adopted successfully?
This article engages in the process of reviewing the ideas of various scholars and theorists on e-learning through revisiting the existing literature. It is noted that much has been written on e-learning and any attempt to understand its relevance in the academic industry must first evaluate the findings of other writers. A review of literature is based on the idea that knowledge is cumulative, given the fact nothing new will ever be researched as information on any issue or concept exists. What the paper will be focused on in the literature review section is analysing the validity of the findings of other scholars.
Collection of data will then follow whereby information will be collected using the standardised data collection tool, commonly referred to as a questionnaire. Questions will be prepared and sent to respondents via mail because the researcher will not have sufficient time to interact face-to-face with respondents. The outcome will then be analysed using a statistical package for social scientists (SPSS), whereby the variance will be analysed (ANOVA) to establish whether any statistical relationship exists between e-learning and the quality of education is offered.
Studies on e-learning indicate that some people are prepared to apply new technologies while others are yet to appreciate the contributions. In this paper, people’s preparedness towards the application of e-learning strategies will be captured. Additionally, the research will look at the role of university administrators in facilitating e-learning in institutions. Whenever a new technology is introduced in academics, resistance is always unavoidable, meaning that the attitude and experiences of students should be understood before introducing something new. Academic levels are very high in developed countries that apply e-learning, something suggesting that change should be initiated to pave way for quality education and effective dissemination of knowledge.
E-learning is known for its benefits as far as meeting the needs of the learners is concerned. One of its advantages is convenience and portability, given the fact that online courses are often accessed on the learner’s schedule. Again, online learning does not call on the learner to attend the classes physically and learning in this type of environment is self-paced, meaning it is neither too slow nor too fast. Initially, learners were expected to keep time when it comes to attending classes, but the case is different under the new arrangements, as students are not bound by time and place (Kelly, Gale, Wheeler, & Tucker, 2007).
The courses are accessible 24/7 and the place of study is not specific because students are provided with an opportunity to study either at home or place of work. The second benefit of e-learning is related to costs and selection because students can perhaps choose the course they are interested in from amongst a wide range. In fact, e-learning is costless to students wishing to continue education while pursuing careers in various organisations. In this article, the views of students and other stakeholders regarding attitudes towards e-learning are analysed.
This study aims to identify the factors influencing the increasing acceptance of e-learning and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based teaching. The proposed study aims at answering the following research question:
What are the reasons behind the popularity of the e-learning system of education among Australian educational institutions?
The works of Bates (2001) on e-learning are very important because the scholar is considered the pioneer of online learning. Many consider him the world authority on e-learning because of his various publications that have inspired other researchers interested in the topic. Bates concern inclined understanding the situations in which e-learning took place as compared to offering definitions. In this regard, the author developed an e-learning continuum whereby ‘no online learning’ is at one end while ‘fully online’ is at the other. Bates wanted to make it easy for students to comprehend the benefits of e-learning. As a helping aid, Bates proposed a mixed learning method. The following chart shows the e-learning continuum as suggested by Bates.
In the continuum (figure 1), Bates suggests that the instructor interacts with learners in a classroom setting under the second mode referred to as the technology enhanced. Harasim termed this situation as the adjunct mode whereby the teacher meets students face-to-face and presents the course content electronically. Under this model, a teacher may create the course web page together with links to important sites for students to access course materials. In some situations, the instructor may choose to employ PowerPoint presentations in the classroom whereby the slides might be sent to the official website for students to access.
The second mode encourages students to interact online through discussion forums. Harasim (1995) observed that e-learning is an important component of academics in modern society because it adds something to the conventional teaching and learning process. Instructors to explore new capacities of technology in academics are advised to apply the second mode, especially those in tertiary education.
The mixed-mode has a limited face-to-face interaction between learners and instructors, but the degree of online learning is enhanced (Hough, Smithey, & Evertson, 2004). Under the mode, the electronic approach has to be fully integrated into the prospectus, as well as be part of the course content and the general syllabus. Distance education is considered the last mode according to Bates where it is meant to offer an option to students who lack time to attend classes on various campuses. Many individuals are always in need of education, but the nature of work and physical addresses does not allow a link up with tutors, hence the mode is designed to meet such needs.
An academic institution that utilises Bates’ continuum is said to be dual, which means a steady transition from disseminating knowledge using printed materials and guides to offering information to learners using online accessed materials. In other words, students have the chance to discuss online, download important materials that support the course, and access tutorials without necessarily visiting lecturers on campuses.
The dual-mode institution discourages face-to-face interaction between learners and tutors, but this does not mean students cannot consult teachers while in offices. The dual-mode is different from the single-mode, which recruits a large number of students and offers the course content online only. In trying to bridge the difference between mixed-method and distance education, Bates proposed disseminated learning, which combines face-to-face lecturing and online teaching. In Australia, the Bates element of distributed learning is applied under the flexible learning mode, something that is often classified as technologically mediated learning. According to Ziguras (2001), this type of learning gives teachers a chance to deliver quality education without straining.
Although the ideas of Bates are valid and useful, the author never engaged in a complete analysis that focuses on the realities of education in contemporary society. The author missed the important concepts that play a critical role in the application of e-learning strategies. A modification (figure 2) of his e-learning continuum would prove critical in enhancing the academic levels. The concept of distance education should be replaced with another concept that talks about virtual learning because the latter refers to offering printed materials via posts while the former refers to an approach that supports e-learning formats. Again, his concept of distributed learning is often replaced with mixed-mode because it cannot be treated as separate. The following chart shows an adjusted e-learning continuum.
Information technology methods are increasingly applied in academics, but the expected benefits are debatable. A report released by PLS Ramboll Management in 2004 in Europe advised governments in the continent to adopt e-learning methods and strategies because they have the capacity of enhancing the education qualities. For this to happen, the report suggested that governments had to form partnerships with all stakeholders, including e-learning experts, universities, and the private sectors, as this would ensure rapid incorporation of IT into erudition and managerial structures in institutions of higher learning.
A different study had earlier been commissioned in Australia through the country’s department of education, science, and training. The findings suggested that universities had to support e-learning strategies in case they wanted to realise the full potentials of such strategies. Irrespective of the continent in which the studies have been conducted and the system of education, studies on e-learning suggest that its benefits are overwhelming and institutions of higher learning should never try to neglect the new system of knowledge dissemination.
Several well-performing companies in the world rely on e-learning in imparting knowledge to employees because of its flexibility and ease of access. Additionally, the best military academies, as well as spy agencies, such as the FBI, Scotland Yard, and the CIA, adopt e-learning methods together with computer simulations in trying to deal with the new crimes, such as terrorism, money laundering, and cybercrime. McLoughlin and Luca (2002) observed that the US government spends a considerable share of the budget in fostering e-learning in the military and spy agencies. They noted that the US government utilised close to three billion dollars in developing advanced distributed learning initiative.
The government set up programs that would ensure collaboration between its agencies and the academia, especially concerning training of its officers. The US government had earlier commissioned a study to find out the costs and the effectiveness of e-learning because the government spent too much on training its security officers. Eames (2000) noted that the US government spent only twelve billion dollars in 2004 in training its officers because it applied e-learning.
The amount is much less in comparison to other years the usage amounted to twenty billion (roughly). Since then, the US military is committed to utilising e-learning and other government departments have also been encouraged to follow suit.
E-learning has a positive impact on learning and teaching. Students’ creativity, independence, and skill are three features that influence the quality of the e-learning and ICT based education (Lowther, Inan, Strahl, & Ross, 2008).
The collaborative learning environment offered by e-learning increases learners’ confidence because it drives them to learn on their own. ICT settings also enable autonomy by helping educators to compose teaching material, therefore offering more control over the module contents than in a conventional classroom environment (Serhan, 2009). In terms of capability, immediately learners gain more confidence in learning procedures; they can grow the ability to utilise and share knowledge while applying new skills with effectiveness and competence. The students will submit a copy of their exercise session to their instructor.
Before learners complete the tasks, they will need to identify the best browser to use, and also choose an internet-based audio wordlist. The task will also improve students’ computer skills since they will need to search for appropriate audio recording software.
Thus, the entire learning procedure increases students’ learning abilities and widens their understanding beyond the knowledge they already have. Students can maximise their creativity through e-learning to achieve it. Students must be able to identify new multimedia systems and generate resources in the designs readily accessible through TV, CDs, and games (Gee, 2011).
Even though a majority of studies observe that e-learning is beneficial to the academic sector, a few tend to oppose the idea terming it an expensive venture that consumes resources without much benefit. Twigg (2002) noted that online learning has no capacity of reducing per-student costs because it calls on the restructuring of the pedagogical processes. On a different note, Kruse (2004) engaged in a study to establish the drawbacks of e-learning and identified high investment cost as one of the disadvantages. Again, the scholar found out that e-learning is only compatible with IT and this would need retraining of the staff, which is an extra cost to the institution.
The issue quality has also been brought into focus because some believe that the content delivered to students tends to be of low quality as compared to the content offered in conventional learning methods. Social and cultural interaction between people is reduced under e-learning programs, as students are likely to meet in graduation yet they do not know each other. Finally, the hardware and the software have never been compatible in e-learning programs, something that discredits the mode of learning. According to Hayward, DiMarco, Kranz and Evans (2001) although critics point out the issue of costs of setting up e-learning, the benefits are usually extensive, especially when a reliable system of updating online materials is set up (Hew, & Knapczyk, 2007).
E-learning becomes a success story when institutions of higher learning decide to incorporate it into the related syllabus. Mayer (2002) cautioned that strategic planning in universities should entail a systematic and comprehensive evaluation, as this would allow the creation and development of the plans of actions. In other words, setting up a meaningful strategy is not an easy task given the fact that it entails a review of the organisational capacities at the ministry level, as well as at the university level. Each organisation can employ information technology, but leaving interrelated departments to operate independently is not advisable as far as e-learning is concerned (Hayward, Blackmer, & Raelin, 2007).
Creating productive partnerships in the education sector allows structural reorganisation and initiation of change. Planning for e-learning program does not simply entail coming up with wish lists that would guide the future performance of the organisation instead it has to include a strategic plan that can respond to change. Therefore, an institution of learning should aspire to specify the mission, the core principles, the aims, and the objectives before trying to implement e-learning strategies.
Time is not an issue, meaning that an institution should not rush to design a policy towards e-learning without first developing a specific strategy that is inclusive of the evaluation system, because constant review and assessment of e-learning programs is critical to ensure success. In this case, the institutional objectives, tactics, and financial plans should be readjusted accordingly to fit into the requirements of e-learning (Delorenzo, 2000).
Two key methods were used to gather information for the report. The first one was the use of a questionnaire administered online to the staff and students of the university. The second source of information used for the research was literature on various aspects of e-learning. The focus of the literature review was to find information on the application of e-learning techniques and also the determination of the current state of research in the use of e-learning in institutions of higher learning.
The questionnaire had four parts. The first part sought to capture the biodata of the respondents. The second part dealt with the demography and gender of the respondent. This was to ascertain the prevalence of the views in various categories to ensure that if any differences came about then they would be captured in the demographic space. The third part dealt with academic credentials and work experience.
The motivation for this section came from the understanding that different sections of the population respond differently to issues related to technology based on age and academic credentials. The fourth part delved into the specific issues relating to e-learning, starting from the understanding of the concept to the possible effects it would have on the quality of education. The questionnaire also employed a mix of open ended and closed questions to capture different aspects of the issues studied according to the degree of detail required. The interview questionnaire can be viewed in appendix 1.
The literature collected provided information regarding various concepts of e-learning spread across the last four decades. This provides a historical perspective since the field of e-learning started receiving specific attention in last two decades. Secondly, the literature made available several concepts and ideas dealing with the application of e-learning in the field of education and academics in general. The university fits well within this parameter. Finally, the literature provided information on the state of research on the field. Various researchers have conducted studies on various elements of e-learning and its effects on academics (Marczyk, DeMatteo, & Festinger 2010).
This gave the study a sound academic backing and a strong basis for drawing comparisons and conclusions. Utilising the questionaire made it possible to capture issues unique to the university. This became possible since there was no accessible literature with the required degree of relevence to the subject matter about the institution. The targeted staff responded to the questionaire online. The availability of staff influenced the choice of this method because the university operates throughout and therefore it is not possible at any given time to find everyone at one place. An online questionaire reduced the costs of data collection, assured confidentiality, and could be accessed by the staff for a fixed period (Werner & DeSimone, 2008). After collection, the data went through analysis, culminating the observations and conslusions discussed in the subsequent section.
The most applicable sampling method for this exercise was random sampling. Considering that the targeted population consisted of staff in various faculties, the risk of having biased data was minimal. If the survey needed to cover the entire staff of the university, then systematic sampling coupled with stratified sampling would be ideal to ensure cross-departmental representation. However, this survey targeted the faculty staff in the college of humanities and social sciences hence random sampling proved sufficient to collect the required data. The development process of the questionnaire took centre stage during this phase, which involved addressing all concerns from an ethical perspective and confidentiality concerns.
In addition, the stage provided the required space to address the issues relating to the mechanics of administration of the questionnaire. The project proposal got approval from institutional authorities enabling the research project to proceed. The third stage involved a literature review exercise conducted to extract relevant information relating to the state of research in the field of study. The literature review facilitated acquisition of information related to theoretical and practical issues concerning e-learning and the effect on academics.
The questionnaires were administered concurrently online. This ensured that all the employees targeted for the exercise had an opportunity to fill in the questionnaire at a convenient time because university operates only twelve hours. This means that there is no single time when all the employees are available. The data collected from primary and secondary sources underwent analysis. This report includes the findings from this analysis. These were the major stages of development for this dissertation.
Secondary data for analysis in this project came from various publications. These included reports, journal articles, and research publications. Most of it related to the work other researchers in the field of e-learning undertook. The other areas that the literature review covered include the major concepts of e-learning and its applications in various places across the world. The material used was of varied nature. Journals dealing with specific aspects of e-learning provide specific information on specific research elements investigated by researchers. Some reports from intergovernmental organisations proved useful in providing information on the application of e-learning (Swanson & Holton, 1997).
From these sources, several findings came to the fore. The online questionnaire provided the means for the collection of primary data for this project. The survey covered 50 respondents, with 20 being students while the staff consisted of 30. This sample is representative of the entire cadre of staff and students targeted by the survey in the college. The choice of respondents was by random sampling based on individuals’ willingness to participate.
The questionnaire had a mixture of open ended and closed ended questions. The design made it possible to provide as much detail as possible while eliminating the risk of high variance in the responses. The administration of the questionnaires took place online because of the varying working hours. In addition, it eased access to the questionnaire. After filing in the soft copy, they sent it to a designated email address. This measure resulted in immense cost reduction, cutting on transport, and accommodation expenses occasioned by physical administration of questionnaires.
Analysis, Findings, and Discussions
The findings of the study concur with the information obtained under the literature review section that an academic debate exists about the relevance of IT methods in disseminating knowledge. In other words, scholars are divided over the benefits of e-learning because some believe that it is an effective method while others are sharply opposed to this view noting that it interferes with the quality of education. In the literature review, the Ramboll study was revisited and it insisted on the partnership between government and other stakeholders in promoting the quality of education through e-learning.
However, the report advised institutions of higher learning to monitor e-learning through the establishment of quality assurance and accreditation, as this would make e-learning superior to other teaching methods. However, quality assurance has always been a challenge to many organisations because an entire sector has to be established. Based on this, the ideas of Bates are valid because it is observed that without the government’s intervention, e-learning will always remain to be a story and not a reality in many societies. An analysis of Bates’ ideas reveals that the government has a critical role to play in facilitating e-learning because it is charged with the responsibility of formulating policies.
Through policy formulation, the government ensures access to appropriate technology is guaranteed and the costs are lowered to the levels where the poor can afford. Without a proper system of control, the e-learning methods might end up being irrelevant and this would have a negative consequence on the economy (Cook, Parker, & Pettijohn, 2004). If any success is to be realised in e-learning, the government must play its role effectively because it is mandated to provide an enabling environment that ensures the fulfilment of policies. For instance, the government has to ensure there is a stable power supply even in rural areas because computers cannot work without electricity.
Again, the costs of the internet connection have to be lowered and the workforce has to be trained sufficiently, as this will help in maintaining e-learning approaches. If the government, through its concerned ministries and agencies, participates fully in facilitating e-learning, chances are high that a country will achieve a competitive advantage in the ever-turbulent world. The academic sector has the potential of offering a model of benefits and services that are available through the internet, which is useful to the entire society (Parks, Onwuegbuzie, & Cash, 2001).
The findings suggest further that the university has a special role to play as well because coordination by universities enables the establishment of an internal online learning strategy that gives learners a chance to access information at any time. Universities go for e-learning strategies because they are aware of its benefits, such as supplementing the conventional methods of learning and improving teacher-student coordination. In the commonwealth countries, the reviewed literature suggests that universities prefer e-learning because it helps in keeping pace with other institutions of higher learning, globally (Calway & Murphy, 2000).
Additionally, universities from the commonwealth countries prefer e-learning because it helps in cutting the costs, as they try to expand the chances for the members of staff. In Australia, the available information shows that continued use of IT methods in teaching helps universities in boosting image and prestige because the ones that are reluctant to offer to learn online are considered old and boring. For some universities, e-learning is initiated to help in the expansion of the semi-autonomous faculties meaning it is one of the marketing techniques that institutions of higher learning employ to capture the attention of students.
The works of Bates propose that university employees will always adopt technology, which is supportive of e-learning strategies. In trying to explain how people respond to new technologies, understanding the various categories of people is critical. For instance, innovators will always welcome the move aimed at using technology in teaching because they are risk-takers. Such individuals are obsessed with new things, including technologies, as they are likely to cope with anything that emanates from innovation.
Individuals who adopt technology at the earliest stage turn out to be role models, but they cannot be compared to innovators hence they are reference points. Adopters are individuals who are forced to accept the reality that things have changed and they do not have an option other than accepting change (Chapin, Roudebush, & Krone, 2003). For individuals to accept the use of technology at the university level, proper leadership has to be offered.
The data collected from the university staff (lecturers, support staff, and administrators) and students were consistent with what existed in the works of various scholars under the literature review section. First, the university has a strategic plan that it popularly refers to as a plan of action, for setting up a global institution of higher learning. The plan relies on at least six components, one being the learning culture, which aims at establishing an effectual e-learning committee. The plan has been in existence for quite some time, but it has not been functional even though some considerable steps have been taken to ensure e-learning is successful.
The university defines e-learning as the utilisation of ICT to improve teaching and learning in a general way (Bulgar, 2006). More universities are integrating e-learning and ICT tools with their curriculum. Despite the lasting association of traditional teaching methods with colleges and universities, the change that partially switches e-learning and ICT based education has been rapid. E-learning and ICT based teaching has experienced tremendous growth in the education industry. Though e-learning and ICT based teaching approaches will offer a more flexible and convenient method of teaching, the speed at which the trend has been embraced across the education industry calls for a deeper investigation of the benefits of integrating e-learning and ICT based teaching with academic curricula.
The university e-learning system allows its members to access course materials, lecture notes, important communication instruments, questions, and upload assignments. Since the university supports e-learning as well as face-to-face interaction, it is said to be a dual-mode according to Bates or blended learning based on the views of Harasim. The results of the study suggest that some staff members of the university, as well as students, support the e-learning strategies while others are highly opposed, but they are forced to follow the university guidelines, which shows technology adopter categorisation is a reality as far as the application of technology is concerned.
Out of the fifty interviewed individuals, 68% were initially reluctant to apply the technology upon its inception, but gradually got used to it. At the university, lecturers cited poor infrastructural development as one of the factors hindering the application of technology in preparing lessons. Some instructors were concerned with the university’s commitment towards adopting e-learning strategies because there were no incentives, such as training. The issue of privacy and secrecy rose as the study went on because the safety of lecturers’ IP addresses could not be guaranteed (Stacey, Smith, & Barty, 2004).
Some tutors, especially the young, hailed the efforts of the university to introduce e-learning; such tutors claimed that the step would improve the academic standards in the institution because learners could easily interact with instructors. This category is considered as being innovative because they praised the institution for bringing something new even though they were also facing challenges, as the institution did little to ensure the success of e-learning. A response from the institution’s administrator confirmed that little had been done to facilitate e-learning.
The author suggested expansion of the ICT centre’s functions as the next stage in the university’s plan because the e-learning materials available were simply plain notes, which were not sufficient for students. Another administrator claimed that the staff would soon be trained to cope with the challenges that come with e-learning. One of the administrators had a negative view towards the entire strategy of switching to e-learning considering the belief that offering training services to employees of the institution would be unethical since it could amount to misappropriation of resources (Scherff & Paulus, 2006).
The existing situation at the university proves that the adoption of IT methods in teaching is a great challenge. In this regard, the university management has to consider offering training incentives, as well as developing the infrastructure to help students and teachers interact freely. The role of staff in facilitating e-learning is well-known and cannot be neglected hence it is upon the university management to come up with a clear reward system (Paulus & Scherff, 2008).
All the twenty interviewed students were supportive of the new system of learning that relied on online materials. For instance, a number of students were excited with the idea of exchanging emails with tutors and administrators, claiming that this had eased up the tiresome process of visiting instructors in offices. Students also hailed the University for providing a service that would facilitate studying at home, as well as interact with fellow students without visiting the campuses. Unfortunately, students were concerned with the issue of quality because e-learning was not believed to be a part of the curriculum and as such, the university website was not checked frequently (Roberts-Gennaro, Brown, Min, & Siegel, 2005).
Chances are high that a few students received the course contents and other relevant materials in time because the online discussion forum and interactions are never monitored. One of the students claimed to monitor what goes on in the university website, but was sceptical about relying on online instructions when it came to learning. This is a challenge that the university should consider addressing because the students’ attitudes and experiences towards e-learning affect the quality of education.
E-learning is the only way of disseminating knowledge to students in contemporary society because of the development of the ICT sector and the complexity of social life. Many people lack time to attend classes and it would be appropriate if universities adopt the new technologies to suit the needs of learners. The writings of various scholars, especially Bates, shed light on the topic even though such writings are not valid in the current learning environment. The literature suggests that e-learning is revolutionising the academic industry, given its flexibility and ease of access. Convenience and portability are cited as one of the benefits of e-learning, as it allows easy access to course materials.
Even though the issue of costs is debatable, e-learning is known to lower the costs of education. The data collected to support the idea that e-learning is convenient to students because all the learners interviewed praised the use of technology in disseminating knowledge. However, a few administrators and lecturers had a different view noting that e-learning has failed because of insufficient incentives and poor infrastructure. Therefore, the government has a role to play in ensuring the success of e-learning, as it is supposed to provide the infrastructure, such as lowering the costs of internet connection and ensuring that power is available.
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Appendix 1 – Interview Questionnaire for students
|Question||Options||Number of respondents||Total|
|What is your gender?||Male||15|
|What is your age group?||18 – 25 years||15|
|26 – 49 years||4|
|50 to 65 years||1|
|More than 65 years||0|
|What is your educational qualification?||High school||3|
|Which religion do you follow?||Islam||5|
|What is your total annual household income||AUD 25,000 – 30,000||18|
|AUD 30,001 – 35000||2|
|More than AUD 35,000||0|
|Where do you work?||Government job||0|
|Have you heard about e-learning?||Yes||16|
|If yes, have you ever participated in any such programme?||Yes||2|
|Please list the title of the e-learning course|
|From where did you access the course?||Home||12|
|What kind of internet connection did you use?||Broadband||5|
|What was your level of satisfaction with the time taken to download the papers||Very dissatisfied||0|
|What was your level of satisfaction pertaining to the course and its content?||Very dissatisfied||1|
|What was your level of satisfaction pertaining to understanding of the course||Very dissatisfied||2|
|What was your level of satisfaction pertaining to the format?||Very dissatisfied||3|
|What was your level of satisfaction pertaining to online interaction with your teacher?||Very dissatisfied||2|
|What was your level of satisfaction pertaining to interaction with other students?||Very dissatisfied||1|
|Was the teacher available to answer your queries?||Strongly disagree||2|
|Was the presentation clear?||Strongly disagree||2|
|Were you able to clearly understand the requirements of course completion?||Strongly disagree||2|
|Was this e-learning course a job requirement?||Yes||15|
|Have you benefitted from the programme||Yes||13|
|Do you intend to participate in any e-learning course in the future?||Yes||12|