The debate will focus on the two interconnected notions – sex and gender. To begin with, my paper will examine historical background of theories dedicated to the study of gender development. Particular emphasis will be placed on the analysis of psycholinguistic, anthropological, cultural, and psychological theories. In addition, the research will also focus on the importance of distinguishing between biological and cultural aspects of the notions in question.
Statement of the Problem
The start of the research will stem from the assumption that little evidence is found concerning the biological differences between males and females. Rather, social and cultural factors prevailed in forming the gender roles taken by men and women in society. I will try to support the argument by introducing different theoretical frameworks as well as history of gender development to underscore of the insufficiency of biological research and greater emphasis of psychological differences.
The section will primarily refer to two terms – sex and gender – provoking much discussion and controversies. I will study different definitions to prove the cultural and social underpinnings of the terms.
I suppose that my research significantly lacks empirical evidence, as much material derives from theoretical conceptions and other researches related to the topic. Yet comparative analysis of existing resources will compensate the deficiency of personal observations.
First, I will look through general analysis of gender development from both biological and cultural point of view to identify the relationship between these two dimensions (Stack, 1986). Second, I will carefully study the existing theoretical approaches and assumptions presented in the research to find controversies and underpinnings supporting my research question. The theories will involve the findings presented by Kohlberg who distinguishes gender in childhood and analyzes the stereotypes and habits children develop (Bussey and Bandura, 1994). Then, the focus will be made on anthropological research and the analysis of genre roles distribution. Finally, social cognitive theory will also be carefully analyzed to answer the research question.
In order to analyze the theoretical material I will resort to qualitative research method to define behaviors, patterns, and clichés supporting social, cultural, and psychological determinants of gender.
Overview of the theme: existing constraints
Historical background (Bussey, K. & Bandura, 1999; Shaffer, 2009)
Understanding gender as a biological sex:
- Sex and gender (Unger and Crawford, 1993);
- Race, culture, and sex (Stack, 1986; Spade and Valentine, 2008):
Understanding psychological and social dimension of gender:
- Existing theories (Bussey and Bandura, 1999; Alsop, 2002);
- Patterns, behaviors, and prism determined by gender (Spade and Valentine, 2008; Stack, 1986; Unger and Crawford, 1993);
In order to support my hypothesis, I will use scholarly articles as well credible books based on empirical observations, case studies and valid research. In the literature review, I will analyze and synthesize the source to deduce necessary conclusions.
Restatement of the Problem;
Overview of the Findings;
Summary of Arguments;
Implications for Further Research
- Alsop, R. (2002). Theorizing gender. MA: Blackwell Publishers Inc.
- Bussey, K. & Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychological Review, 106 (4), 676-713.
- Shaffer, R. D. (2009). Social and Personality Development. CA: Wadsworth
- Spade, J. and Valentine, G. C. (2008). The kaleidoscope of gender: prisms, patterns, and possibilities. CA: Pine Forge Press.
- Stack, C.B. (1986). The culture of gender: Women and Men of color. Signs, 11 (2), 321-324.
- Unger, R.K. & Crawford, M. (1993). Commentary-sex and gender: The troubled relationship between terms and concepts. Psychological science, 4 (2), 122-124.