The study utilized the questionnaire design after a survey of existing literature managing resident’s views of tourism development in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The survey is comprised of 20 questions carefully, designed to align with the research topic. This comparative study depends on the responses to seven socio-demographic and 20 Likert scale questions. The inclusion variables for the socio-demographic elements include city, residence duration, gender, age, education, employment status, and income status. Endeavors to test the representativeness of the population were unsuccessful because of the absence of authority information for the ranges from which the respondents were drawn. The Likert scale inquiries depended on explanations to which respondents were solicited to react in wording from a 5-point scale that spoke to a continuum from extremely positive to exceptionally negative. Six proclamations utilized as a part of the investigation were intended to survey inhabitants’ states of mind and feelings of tourism advancement. To guarantee the legitimacy of the study instrument, specialists were asked to judge if the instrument secured the range that they would expect, an evaluation of the literature was attempted to recognize diverse parts of the ideas under scrutiny, and a pretest was taken to check an appropriate and expansive stream of questioning.
Tourism Survey Questionnaire
Dear respondent, please fill the survey questionnaire to enable me to assess the level of tourism development in the community. Please tick as appropriate in both sections. Section A and section B.
6500 riyal and below
13001 – 19500
50 and above
6. Length of stay (resident or nonresident)
|7. Tourism encourages business activities|
|8. Tourism facilitates building hotels and parks|
|9. Tourism makes money circulate among the people|
|10. Tourism helps people in the region|
|11. Tourism creates employment|
|12. Tourism affects residents and nonresidents|
|13. Tourism facilitates the distribution of wealth among residents and non-residents|
|14. Prices of goods and services are higher in tourist areas|
|15. Nonresidents should be taxed in tourist areas|
|16. Tourism facilitates the development of wildlife parks|
|17. Tourism influences the preservation of natural sites|
|18. Tourism has destroyed the natural environment in the region|
|19. Tourism development influence business investments like hotels, and recreational centers|
|20. The advantages of tourism development outweigh its disadvantage|
The research applied different investigative strategies using SPSS. In the first place, before whatever other measurable investigations were performed, univariate measurements were computed for all review things. Second, six socio-demographic components (instruction, reliance on tourism work, sex, length of living arrangement, age, and salary) were utilized as autonomous factors and 20 Likert scale articulations as the subordinate factors. One-way ANOVA and t-tests were used to recognize contrasts between the seven autonomous factors regarding the reliant factors. T-tests were connected when the autonomous variable was isolated into two subgroups. At the point when the autonomous variable was separated into at least three subgroups, ANOVA tests were connected. Consequently, we used cluster sampling to categorize the participants into groups.
Twenty Likert questions were categorized based on social impacts, economic influence, and environmental impact. To guarantee the legitimacy of the study instrument, specialists were asked to judge if the instrument secured the range that they would expect, an evaluation of the literature was attempted to recognize diverse parts of the ideas under scrutiny, and a pretest was taken to check an appropriate and expansive stream of questioning.
Table 1 shows the percentage response of 150 respondents. The respondents marked six socio-demographic variables. The results are summarized below.
|50 and above||8||5.35|
|6500 riyal and below||50||33.33|
|13001 – 19500||30||20|
|Length of stay|
The results reveal the proportion of the sample population. By implication, gender proportion was 103 for male respondents and 47 for females. As a result, the percentage of populations of the sample population of male and female are 68.66% and 31.11 % respectively. The age variable showed variations in respondents. Although the sample population was chosen using cluster sampling, the age proportion includes 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and 50. By implication, the percentage proportion for age variable is 28.66 % for (20-29), 46% for (40-49), 20% for (40-49) and 5.35% of (50 and above).
Responses based on tourism development
The responses based on tourism development in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia were categorized into social influence, economic and environmental influence. However, residents and non-residents were selected to examine their attitudes and perceptions towards tourism development in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.
The response can be summarized in Table 2 below. (Mean values)
Dependence on tourism work was additionally critical as a discriminator of mentalities toward tourism advancement for each response (Zamani-Farahani 8). The results revealed that five autonomous factors (length of living arrangement, sexual orientation, age, and pay) had huge contrasts with discernments (Andereck and Nyaupane 250). The economic cynics will probably concur with the announcement. Tourism gives a motivator to the protection of characteristic assets. (84% concurred), even though for the other two natural explanations their reactions were in between the other two groups. Although the economic cynics were the most negative among the gatherings, managing the general advantages of tourism to the population was significant. 55% concurred and 29% dissented, they were between the two bunches for the general advantages of tourism to Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. 74% concurred, showing they felt that their territory had gotten less advantage from tourism development than the region, and consequently they called for nonresidents to encourage the business.
In synopsis, the findings of the cluster ring method recommend that because of Al-Hassa, people group bunches have distinctive degrees of energy toward different tourism impacts. In particular, the advocates are the best of all the effects of tourism, while the economic cynics are the most negative about the financial effects. Concerning the advantages of tourism, the advocates are again the best (Wang 7).
Discussion of Results
The information gathered from the attitudinal articulations was free of socio-demographic attributes separated from one, the instructive level of respondents. Occupant acknowledgment of tourism improvement is considered imperative for the long haul accomplishment of tourism in a goal, since if visitors are welcomed with antagonistic vibe their number will decrease (Bahaee et al. 10). In this way, the host group ought to be included in the improvement and arranging process. In agreement with the discoveries of the present review (where occupants utilized in tourism were more positive for tourism), the social trade hypothesis, when a trade of assets is high and adjusted for the neighborhood group, tourism effects are encouraged by occupants. The research revealed that the benefits of tourism are focused in the hands of a predetermined number of individuals who have the funding to put resources into tourism to the detriment of others.
Subsequently, to enhance occupants’ discernments toward tourism, Al-Hassa experts ought to endeavor to disperse tourism benefits around the neighborhood, permitting a bigger extent of the nearby populace to profit from tourism extension as opposed to only bearing the weight of its costs (Carmichael 605). If the advantages of tourism are to spread within the host groups, endeavors ought to be made by people in the general division to give motivating forces to residents for work openings. Finally, a general checking of group mentalities could give data to the necessities, perspectives, and yearnings of residents. An arrangement of gathering longitudinal information must be built to screen any adjustments in the observations of the inhabitants and their support of tourism improvement. If engineers and organizers know about the group’s impression of tourism effects, they will have the capacity to take activities for ecological preservation, expanding doors for open inclusion, and control of the tourism industry (Duran and Ozkul 357).
Andereck, Kathleen, and Nyaupane Gyan. “Exploring the Nature of Tourism and Quality of Life Perceptions Among Residents.” Journal of Travel Research, vol. 50, no. 3, 2011, pp. 248-260.
Bahay, Mahmood, et al. “Residents’ Attitudes Toward International Tourism: A Case of Iran.” Journal of Tourism and Recreation, vol. 1, no. 2, 2014, pp. 1-14.
Carmichael, Barbara. “A Matrix Model for Resident Attitudes and Behaviours in a Rapidly Changing Tourist Area.” Tourism Management, vol. 30, no. 11, 2012, pp. 601-611.
Duran, Erol, and Ozkul Emrah. “Residents’ Attitudes Toward Tourism Development: A Structural Model via Akcakoca Sample.” Journal of Human Sciences, vol. 9, no. 2, 2012, pp. 357-358.
Wang, Yasong. Residents’ Attitudes Toward Tourism Development: A Case Study of Washington, NC, 2012. Web.
Zamani-Farahani, Hamira. “Host Attitudes Toward Tourism: A Study of Sareyn Municipality and Local Community Partnerships in Therapeutic Tourism.” Journal of Tourismology, vol. 2, no. 1, 2016, pp. 1-19.