Modern Trends in Information Technology

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Information technology is a developing area of the use of modern achievements of computer science and technology to implement methods of transformation of signals and their movement using the Internet or in offline mode. IT emerged as a need to match the economic and social development of the world to solve practical problems of applied science and production activities. Technologies allow to use traditional approaches and interpret them differently, creating a new information reality. The need for automated processing of more data while reducing time and labor resources increases the degree of IT implementation in human life. The automation of individual manufacturing and business processes has been transformed into organizing a unified information space. IT has already become an integral part of many structures, not even related to informatics. It has allowed IT became a predominant activity in strategic business campaigns. There will be discussed five modern software applications which enable solving specific tasks; hardware devices and IT products, social and legal relations arising in society.

Software

Software is a system for controlling a computer with many simultaneously working programs for processing and implementing information. The functioning of any computer is possible when the data processing system is organized in such a way that autonomous, independent operation of the PC system is possible. Application software directly utilizes the full capabilities of the computer to solve the tasks at hand. Application software can be used to manage files in text, visual, numeric formats. A particular information system requires certain algorithms to solve its tasks, so the IT market is filled with different types of software (Wang, 2020). There are many different kinds of software which are free software, paid software, shareware. Some software can be classified as a public domain because of high rates of usefulness and overall genius of invention. In what follows, we will look at several software programs used daily by millions of people to organize their computer space.

To begin with, we should mention such types of application software as search engines: for example, Google Chrome. It is a clever system that uses unique algorithms to search the user’s query via the Internet. Inside the software, blocklisting systems are built to prevent users from going to malicious sites and stealing the Pepper API plug-in (PPAPI). Google Chrome uses a high-speed JavaScript language, helps eliminate unfair advertising, and provides stability by isolating processes.

Another essential type is text editors: Microsoft, Liner, Linux, Apple. In my opinion, Microsoft Word is the most convenient system for writing and editing text data due to the variety of functionality and user-friendly interface. In addition, no Internet connection is required, and the company itself is predisposed to improve new versions of the software. Microsoft Word fits all software, has a 3-step identification system (passwords), and allows you to encrypt documents. The latest version for Windows (2019) has dramatically expanded the user experience to collaborative and simultaneous document editing.

Applied software can be presented as systems for transmitting information (messengers) and listening to licensed audio information. Thus, Spotify is a music listening system, and it is a paid software for secure installation on any operating system, including cell phones. The software uses three bitrate levels for different sound levels, and it also switched from C++ to Phyton and Java. Currently, the system uses several servers and subsidiaries (including Google Platform), which increases sound quality.

Among the software for transmitting information is WhatsApp, which is popular in the UAE. It is a system of sharing information through a two-factor system built on the principles of Facebook. WhatsApp uses several encryption keys, and for Apple users, there are other protection systems. The application has conquered the market that operators have lost tens of billions of dollars over the past few years.

Special applicable software can be called Krita – a program for creating illustrations, graphic design, and editing images in many formats (jpeg, png, kra, dng, etc.). It supports non-destructive layers and masks (similar to Adobe Photoshop), so both artists and photographers can use it. Krita is a convenient and functional solution for graphic tasks with the ability to create images in gif format and full-fledged cartoons.

Hardware

Hardware is a system of a standalone machine and its parts: the processor, graphics cards, data storage, motherboard, and other physical devices that make it much easier to use a computer. Software ties all the parts together and makes them work together to give the user the desired results. The market for hardware devices is extensive and consists of products that large companies supply (Wang, 2020). Mobile electronics occupy a special place among these devices: phones, tablets, players, graphics tablets. All these are systems with innovative multilevel software and stitched together hardware. The diversity of manufacturers and information technology creates a vast space of choice.

I like the remote monitoring system and innovative home systems; they can essentially solve several “home” issues. For example, Ecobee Smart Thermostat (2020) is an intelligent system with software to control energy consumption. The system uses the principle of spatially separated sensors and reads information about energy consumption, humidity level, and air temperature. Thanks to the remote mode, it is possible to make plans for the interior environment of an apartment or a house. The device is interfaced with mobile operating systems and much stationary software.

In times of pandemic, we should not forget the benefits of purified air and, in general, the airing of rooms. According to programmable settings, the HealthProtect 7470i (2021) air purifier developed by Blueair is connected to a remote control system and automated operation. In addition, the company has developed a separate app that allows you to adjust the settings without direct contact with the unit.

For increased comfort, many people use video surveillance and home security systems; this helps to reduce theft and burglary and signal to the police in time. The Arlo Pro 3 Wireless Home Security System (2021) is among the new models, an intelligent system with automatic detection of activity in the analyzed space. The program has software paired with a mobile or stationary device, which allows you to monitor the work of the programs. The system has new display systems and efficient, fast signal transmission with user notification.

Many people are already familiar with the principles of intelligent speakers: they are usually installed at home, and with the help of a voice assistant, the speaker performs some functions. For example, Echo Dot 4th Gen (2020) has all the key aspects that usually interest users. Among them, a multi-level security system (turning the microphone on and off, voice recording, password system), pairing via Wi-Fi and Bluetooth with cell phones and PCs, the connection of advanced music portals. Users note the high power of the AZ1 processor and the sound quality with a concentration in one direction.

The visual type of hardware is usually provided by TVs, cell phones, and projectors. While almost everyone has the first two pieces of equipment for everyday use, projectors are generally needed for various business presentations, watching movies, broadcasting videos, photos at exhibitions, etc. For example, the XGIMI MoGo Pro portable Projector (2019) is popular among users due to its ergonomic shape and ease of use. The projector has several USBs, and HDMI inputs are interfaced with various operating systems, with such major software as Chrome, YouTube, Microsoft Presentation, etc.

Social Media

Social media is a new space that is steadily evolving and gaining support from society because of its convenience, straightforward interface, and almost ubiquitous accessibility. Social media is used by millions of people every second because it is a convenient way to communicate. However, ethical issues and the relevance of social networking crimes are growing every day because the world is moving toward a harmonious existence. In addition, it is necessary to define the spectrum of moral problems in Internet communication and focus on their solution.

Media space is a platform for starting and finding oneself, but the observance of caution will largely avoid critical moments. The use of social media has changed the medium of communication, leading to changes in ethical norms and behavior (Barrett-Maitland & Lynch, 2020). The unprecedented growth in usage has led to a decrease in the use of other media and changes in areas such as civic and political participation, privacy, and security. Among the giants of social media are Facebook, Twitter, and Google’s Gmail.

Facebook is a global company that has gained credibility because of its easy functionality and accessibility. However, more than once, there are cases of ethical violations that shame the honor and dignity of any person. For example, defamation and dissemination of inaccurate information among business coaches. A person posts information about their company, deliberately singling it out in comparison to competitors. It not only violates the rules for using the network but is also grounds for legal action.

Twitter’s information dissemination system is suitable for short messages with audio and video attachments. The company’s privacy rules stipulate ethical norms, but users keep facing account hacking, lack of due process with direct insults, lack of content authentication. Despite the software extensions introduced, Twitter remains a platform with unreliable content and high risks of user data theft followed by blackmail.

Email is perhaps humanity’s greatest invention for communication, and it has laid down the principles for further development. Google’s Gmail is a split-second messaging service with controls on spam and malicious content. Nevertheless, the transmission of user information to advertising services and third parties upon request remains a relevant problem and contrary to user privacy rules. In addition, it contradicts freedom of speech exceptionally when requesting the transfer of user activity data to the government.

Cyber-Crimes and Cyber Laws

The legal aspects of activity on the Internet worry the public: on the one hand, restricting freedoms is wrong; on the other hand, if information technology allows preventing crime, it is necessary to use these chances. It is believed that creating a safe Internet space is possible if you develop mechanisms to regulate criminal activity on the Internet and preserve the freedom and rights of citizens as much as possible. In the UAE, there are several legal mechanisms to reduce cybercrime, which allows a practical impact on criminals.

A simple explanation of cybercrime is using computer technology to commit criminal or administratively punishable acts of any nature. Cybercrimes can include spreading viruses, data theft, intellectual property theft, illegal distribution of information, deletion, or infiltration into government apparatuses. Several categories of crime can be distinguished: activism, terrorism, espionage, economic crime, and war. In general UAE law is stricter about cybercrime than other countries: for example, illegally changing security protocols (HTTPS) or IP can be punishable by several years in prison. There are several federal laws for computer security in the UAE, including Federal Law 5 of 2012, Government Decree 2013, Federal Decree No. 11 of 2008.

According to independent studies, UAE residents lose more than $700 million annually to cybercrime: fraud, in particular, remains a pressing issue. The UAE has launched a national fraud awareness campaign to educate and protect consumers from financial cybercrime and fraud. It is due to the increased demand for banking services in a pandemic environment (Gibson & Noto, 2021). The UAE Banking Federation notes that the average ransom for stolen data increased by more than 50% in 2020. Although it is lower than the world as a whole, cybercrime is growing along with the development of information technology and easier access to its services.

Among the recent cybercrimes committed against UAE citizens is the case of data theft from the Graff jewelry company. The Conti cyber organization stole the data of more than 10,000 people who used the company’s services, including Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum (Klein, 2021). The data ransom reached a high bar of about 10% of the victim’s annual income. However, a few days later, an anonymous Conti spokesman said that the data of the UAE and Saudi Arabia’s royal families and Qatar would be deleted without being made public.

References

Barrett-Maitland, N. & Lynch, J. (2020). Social media, ethics and the privacy paradox. In C. Kalloniatis & C. Travieso-Gonzalez (Eds.), Security and privacy from a legal, ethical, and technical perspective, IntechOpen. Web.

Gibson, B. & Noto, A. (2021). Data protection and cybersecurity laws in the United Arab Emirates. CMS, Web.

Klein, D. (2021). Hackers steal data from UK jeweler, demand ransom, then apologize. OCCRP, Web.

Wang, M. (2020). Key concepts of computer studies. BCcampus, BC Open Textbook Project.

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