Types of Quantitative research
This is a type of quantitative research that seeks to explain the status of the selected variable without manipulating them in the study. The study variables are measured as they appear naturally by the researcher. Not interfering with the study items may involve prior manipulation by nature or a lack of possible means to manipulate the items. Thus, no experiments are conducted on the study subjects to attain the purpose of the research.
This type of research tries to determine cause-and-effect relationships among variables. It identifies the independent research variables but doesn’t manipulate them by experiments. The effect of the independent variable caused by the dependent variable is only measured. Randomly assigned groups are not used, but the researcher only uses groups that were formed before or naturally. The selected control bunch is subjected to the experiment, and the variables are compared to those that were not used in the experiments.
This type of quantitative research is also known as experimental research. The research employs the scientific method to determine the cause-effect relationship among various variables within a study. After variables are identified, an effort is made to enhance control over all the variables except one. Experiments are then conducted on the independent variable to establish the effect on the dependent variable. Experiments are conducted on random subjects rather than just identifying them in their naturally occurring groups.
Qualitative research methods are primarily associated with examining social dimensions to provide detailed and rich results and offer concepts and ideas to inform the research. It includes a descriptive or narrative account of practice or a setting, such as case studies and observation. Types of the approach used in phenomenology, inductive thematic analysis, ethnography, case study, and conversation/discourse analysis.
- Phenomenology refers to the study of conscious experience, including life experience, feelings, and individuals’ perceptions, especially those that contribute positively to the current world. It tries to understand the social, emotive, and behavioral meaning of individuals’ lived experiences.
- Ethnography is research whereby the researcher chooses to live within the community or group of people they study for a specific period. It is based on the perspective that human culture and behavior are complicated events and are influenced and composed of multiple factors.
- Inductive thematic analysis is the most common qualitative research method and involves reading textual data, data theme identification, theme coding, and interpreting the contents and structure of the themes.
- The case study examines an event within the context of real life. Data can be collected about or on an individual, event, or group. Its foremost purpose is to understand a phenomenon that is unique/new to the case. It predominantly employs interviews in its data collection methods.
How factors might affect each other or interact in the qualitative article “Discrimination and Substance Use Disorders Among Latinos: The Role of Gender, Nativity, and Ethnicity”
The research design used was non-experimental research since it only sorts to determine the relation of the variables involved without finding the cause. Again, no experiments were conducted on the variables, but only available data was used to determine the relationship. This design method was best suited for the research since the motive of the research was only interested in determining the relationship and not the cause. Other types of quantitative research, such as experimental research and quasi research, would require exercising control over the research variable, which could not be possible. Also, qualitative research design could not be used because the research did not require describing the behavioral or social dimension of society through lived experience but only sort to determine the relationship of the indicated variable (Senreich, 2018).
How the factors would affect the outcome for the quantitative article
- Null hypothesis: discrimination is associated with the increased alcohol/drug abuse turmoil among the Latinos and the interrelation between racism and alcohol/drug abuse turmoil would differ with the nativity, gender, and ethnicity (Verissimo et al., 2014).
- Alternative hypothesis: discrimination is not associated with the increased alcohol/drug abuse turmoil among the Latinos and the interrelation between racism and alcohol/drug abuse turmoil would not differ with gender, nativity, and ethnicity (Verissimo et al., 2014).
In this case, the variable involved included discrimination and substance use disorder. The dependent variable was substance use disorder, while the independent variable was the lifetime discrimination of the Latino community (Verissimo et al., 2014).
The hypothesized relationship was that discrimination and alcohol/drug use disorder would be more powerful among Puerto Ricans and Mexicans than Cubans, strong among non-native Latinos than native Latinos, and strong among men compared with women (Verissimo et al., 2014).
How factors might affect each other or interact in the qualitative article “The Persistent High Rates of Heroin Use Among the Puerto Rican Population in the United States”
The purpose of the research was to evaluate how the lives of Puerto Rican people in their community are affected by a high level of heroin usage through the lived experience (Senreich, 2018).
The researcher thought that social dislocation and societal marginalization were significant contributing factors to heroin consumption in Puerto Rican society (Senreich, 2018).
Sampling, Data Collection, and Interpretation of Findings
Refers to the procedures used to collect, analyze and measure data for research employing validated techniques. Most researchers use the collected data to evaluate their hypotheses. Data collection can be generally classified into primary and secondary data techniques. Primary data collection includes observation, interviews, surveys, and questionnaires.
Sampling refers to the specific method used to choose members of the study population to be represented in the study. The reason for sampling may be due to the large size of the population to be studied, and several methods/techniques can be used to obtain relatively accurate information. Sampling techniques include stratified, random, convenience, systematic, judgment, multistage, quota, cluster, and snowball sampling.
How the sample meets the study’s purpose
Thirteen Puerto Rican psychologists/therapists and thirty-five Puerto Rican clients from a society that offers various types of drug misuse schemes in New York identified themselves to participate in the research. (Senreich, 2018).
The sample meets the study purpose since the identified sample individuals were Puerto Ricans. They were involved in or knew about heroin usage in their community and had a long history of substance usage.
34 652 respondents, including 6358 Latinos, were interviewed by Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), which was conducted between 2004 and 2005 and was a nationwide exercise. (Verissimo et al., 2014).
The sample meets the study purpose since the details of the information required to carry out the research were available in the questionnaire used in the interview. The information required included discrimination of the Latino population, drug use disorder characterized by alcohol use disorder and substance use disorder in the research, and information on ethnicity, nativity, and gender of the Latinos interviewed. Besides, the population of the Latinos interviewed was considerably large, thus giving a good representation of the community (Verissimo et al., 2014).
Data collection technique and the purpose of the study
The research employed interviewing technique to collect information whereby a facilitator asked the sample group three questions. The method of interviewing fit the purpose of the study because the facilitator asked open questions that were to allow the participating individuals to give detailed information about their experiences.
The research used secondary data sources, a survey report by Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.
The survey report was fit for the research because all the required information was available in the survey. Also, the researcher couldn’t interview many such respondents if they had carried out the research themselves. So it was better they used a survey conducted by the national body.
The findings of the study
The research found that (1) heroin usage among the Puerto Rican community is easily available and widely used by the young and the old. (2) Social dislocation and societal migration created heroin dependency. (3) The Puerto Rican community claimed cultural ownership of heroin usage. (4) There were negative effects of the drug on Puerto Rican traditional culture and families. (5) The US government failed the Puerto Communities. (6) There is a change in attitude toward heroin usage (Senreich, 2018).
This is evident in the respondent’s answers such as “hand me down,” “Between a rock and a hard place,” “And we have heroin,” “Throw the dog a bone,” and other confessions made by the interviewed group (Senreich, 2018)
The research found that discrimination was related to increased drug/alcohol use disorder among Latinos and that also alcohol/drug usage. Discrimination and alcohol/drug use disorder differ in various characteristics, including nativity, ethnicity, and gender. Racism was largely related to increased drug use but was not the case in alcohol use among men. The research found that discrimination increases the chances of alcohol/drug use among women in the Latino community (Verissimo et al., 2014).
The researcher conducted data analysis by creating a graph using the data obtained from the survey. The graph contained alcohol use disorders and drug use disorders versus predicted probabilities.
The evidence in the study and social work practice
The US government should intervene to resolve the situation by introducing programs that help the Puerto Rican community to refrain from heroin usage. They should be educated on the harmful effect of heroin use and assisted in doing away with the notion that they own heroin. Those who are already affected should be assisted in stopping the usage.
I would introduce a rehabilitation center in the community to help rehabilitate those who are already affected and educate them about the consequences of heroin usage.
The US should play an important role in ensuring that discrimination against Latinos is ceased. This can be achieved by rehabilitating the already affected members and laying down effective strategies such as campaigns that discourage the vice.
I would introduce a rehabilitation center in the community to help rehabilitate those already affected and educate them about the consequences of alcohol and substance use.
Verissimo, A.D.O, Grella, C., Amaro, H. & Gee, G., (2014). Discrimination and substance use disorders among Latinos: The role of gender, nativity, and ethnicity. American Journal of Public Health, 104(8), 421-1428.
Senreich, E., (2018). The persistent high rates of heroin use among the Puerto Rican population in the United States: A qualitative study. Social Work in Public Health, 33(7-8), 19-438.